Elegant minimalistic implementation of OOP with mixins + AOP in JavaScript for node.js and browsers.
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A minimalistic yet complete JavaScript package for node.js and modern browsers that implements OOP with mixins + AOP at both "class" and object level. Implements C3 MRO to support a Python-like multiple inheritance, efficient supercalls, chaining, full set of advices, and provides some useful generic building blocks. The whole package comes with an extensive test set, and it is fully compatible with the strict mode.

The package was written with debuggability of your code in mind. It comes with a special debug module that explains mistakes, verifies created objects, and helps to keep track of AOP advices. Because the package uses direct static calls to super methods, you don't need to step over unnecessary stubs. In places where stubs are unavoidable (chains or advices) they are small, and intuitive.

If you migrate your code from a legacy framework that implements dynamic (rather than static) supercalls, take a look at the module "inherited" that dispatches supercalls dynamically trading off the simplicity of the code for some run-time CPU use, and a little bit less convenient debugging of such calls due to an extra stub between your methods.

The main hub of everything dcl-related is dcljs.org, which hosts extensive documentation.

How to install

If you plan to use it in your node.js project, install it like this:

npm install dcl

For your browser-based projects I suggest to use volo.js:

volo install uhop/dcl

How to use

// if you run node.js, or CommonJS-compliant system
var dcl = require("dcl");

// if you use dcl in a browser with AMD (like RequireJS):
require(["dcl"], function(dcl){
    // the same code that uses dcl

// or when you define your own module:
define(["dcl"], function(dcl){
	// your dcl-using code goes here

Inheritance, constructors, super calls

Let's continue with our coding example:

// declare a class derived from Object:
var Person = dcl(null, {
	// (optional, but recommended) name your class:
	declaredClass: "Person",
    // let's specify a default name as a class-level constant
    name: "Anonymous",
    // constructor is a method named ... 'constructor'
    constructor: function(name){
            this.name = name;
        console.log("Person " + this.name + " is constructed");

// we can derive more classes from it using single inheritance
var Bureaucrat = dcl(Person, {
	declaredClass: "Bureaucrat",
    constructor: function(name){
        console.log("Bureaucrat " + this.name + " is constructed");
    approve: function(document){
        // NEVER!
        console.log("Rejected by " + this.name);
        return false;

var clerk = new Bureaucrat();
// Person Anonymous is constructed
// Bureaucrat Anonymous is constructed
// Rejected by Anonymous

As you can see it is trivial to define "classes" and derive them using single inheritance. Constructors are automatically chained and called from the farthest to the closest with the same arguments. Our Bureaucrat constructor ignores name, because it knows that Person will take care of it.

Now let's do a mixin.

// let's declare one more class that will be used as a mixin
// any normal class would do
var Speaker = dcl(null, {
    speak: function(msg){
        // a method --- just a simple function
        console.log(this.name + ": " + msg);

// now we are ready to create Talker from Person + Speaker
var Talker = dcl([Person, Speaker], {
    // no own methods for simplicity

var alice = new Talker("Alice");
// Person Alice is constructed
// Alice: hello!

Now let's call a method of our super class.

// let's declare another mixin, this time using a super call
var Shouter = dcl(Speaker, {
    speak: dcl.superCall(function(sup){
        // we use the double function technique to inject
        // "sup" --- a method from a super class
        return function(msg){
                // theoretically it is possible that
                // there is no super method --- we can be last in line;
                // not in this case, though --- we are based
                // on Speaker meaning it will be always pulled in
                sup.call(this, msg.toUpperCase());

var Sarge = dcl([Talker, Shouter], {
    // no own methods for simplicity

var bob = new Sarge("Bob");
// Person Bob is constructed
bob.speak("give me twenty!");

The double function technique for a super call allows you to work directly with a next method in chain --- no intermediaries means that this call is as fast as it can be, no run-time penalties are involved during method calls, and it greatly simplifies debugging.

And, of course, our "classes" can be absolutely anonymous, like in this one-off "class":

var loudBob = new (dcl([Talker, Shouter], {}))("Loud Bob");
// Person Loud Bob is constructed
loudBob.speak("Anybody home?");
// Loud Bob: ANYBODY HOME?


We can use aspect-oriented advices to create our "classes":

// one more mixin
var Sick = dcl(Person, {
    speak: dcl.advise({
        before: function(msg){
            console.log(this.name + ": *hiccup* *hiccup* *hiccup*");
        after: function(args, result){
            console.log(this.name + ": *sniffle* I am so-o-o sick!");

var SickTalker = dcl([Talker, Sick], {
    // no own methods for simplicity

var clara = new SickTalker("Clara");
// Person Clara is constructed
clara.speak("I want a glass of water!");
// Clara: *hiccup* *hiccup* *hiccup*
// Clara: I want a glass of water!
// Clara: *sniffle* I am so-o-o sick!

Hmm, both Talker and Sick require the same "class" Person. How is it going to work? Don't worry, all duplicates are going to be eliminated by the underlying C3 MRO algorithm. Read all about it in the documentation.

Of course we can use an "around" advice as well, and it will behave just like a super call above. It will require the same double function technique to inject a method from a super class.

// One more mixin
var Martian = dcl(Speaker, {
    speak: dcl.around(function(sup){
        return function(msg){
                sup.call(this, "beep-beep-beep");

// now we are ready for...
var SickMartianSarge = dcl([Sarge, Sick, Martian], {
    // no own methods for simplicity

var don = new SickMartianSarge("Don");
// Person Don is constructed
don.speak("Doctor? Nurse? Anybody?");
// Don: *hiccup* *hiccup* *hiccup*
// Don: *sniffle* I am so-o-o sick!

For convenience, dcl provides shortcuts for singular advices:

// pseudo code
dcl.before(f) == dcl.advise({before: f})
dcl.around(f) == dcl.advise({around: f})
dcl.after (f) == dcl.advise({after:  f})


While constructors are chained by default you can chain any methods you like. Usually it works well for lifecycle methods, and event-like methods.

// waker-upper and sleeper
var BioOrganism = dcl(null, {
    // no methods for simplicity
dcl.chainAfter(BioOrganism, "wakeUp");
dcl.chainBefore(BioOrganism, "sleep");
// now wakeUp() and sleep() are automatically chained

// our mixins
var SwitchOperator = dcl(null, {
    wakeUp: function(){ console.log("turn on lights"); },
    sleep:  function(){ console.log("turn off lights"); }
var TeethBrusher = dcl(null, {
    wakeUp: function(){ console.log("brush my teeth"); },
    sleep:  function(){ console.log("brush my teeth again"); }
var SmartDresser = dcl(null, {
    wakeUp: function(){ console.log("dress up for work"); },
    sleep:  function(){ console.log("switch to pajamas"); }

// all together now
var OfficeWorker = dcl([BioOrganism, SwitchOperator, TeethBrusher, SmartDresser], {
    // no methods for simplicity
var ethel = OfficeWorker();
// turn on lights
// brush my teeth
// dress up for work
// switch to pajamas
// brush my teeth again
// turn off lights

Advising objects

While class-level AOP is static, we can always advise any method dynamically, and unadvise it at will:

// let's implement previous example with object-level AOP

// for that we need to use a new module:
var advise = require("dcl/advise");

// let's use one-off class
var ethel = new (dcl(null, {
    wakeUp: function(){ /* nothing */ },
    sleep:  function(){ /* nothing */ }

var wakeAd1 = advise(ethel, "wakeUp", {
    before: function(){ console.log("turn on lights"); }
var wakeAd2 = advise(ethel, "wakeUp", {
    before: function(){ console.log("brush my teeth"); }
var wakeAd3 = advise(ethel, "wakeUp", {
    before: function(){ console.log("dress up for work"); }

// notice that after advices attached in the reverse order
var sleepAd1 = advise(ethel, "sleep", {
    after: function(){ console.log("switch to pajamas"); }
var sleepAd2 = advise(ethel, "sleep", {
    after: function(){ console.log("brush my teeth again"); }
var sleepAd3 = advise(ethel, "sleep", {
    after: function(){ console.log("turn off lights"); }

// turn on lights
// brush my teeth
// dress up for work
// switch to pajamas
// brush my teeth again
// turn off lights

// let's save on electricity
// brushing teeth more than once a day is overrated, right?
// no need to dress up for work either --- Ethel is CEO!

// brush my teeth
// switch to pajamas
// turn off lights

Again, for convenience, dcl/advise provides shortcuts for singular advices:

// pseudo code
advise.before(obj, methodName, f) == advise(obj, methodName, {before: f})
advise.around(obj, methodName, f) == advise(obj, methodName, {around: f})
advise.after (obj, methodName, f) == advise(obj, methodName, {after:  f})

Naturally "around" advices use the same double function technique to be super light-weight.

Debugging helpers

There is a special module dcl/debug that adds better error checking and reporting for your "classes" and objects. All you need is to require it, and it will plug right in:

var dclDebug = require("dcl/debug");

In order to use it to its fullest, we should include a static class id in our "class" definitions like so:

var OurClass = dcl(null, {
    declaredClass: "OurClass",
    // ... the rest of definitions

It is strongly suggested to specify declaredClass for every declaration in every real project.

This declaredClass can be any unique string, but by convention it should be a human-readable name of your "class", which possibly indicate where this class can be found. For example, if you follow the convention "one class per file it can be something like "myProject/aSubDir/aFileName". If you define several "classes" per file you can use a following schema: "myProject/SubDirs/FileName/ClassName". Remember that this name is for you, it will be reported in error messages and logs.

Yes, logs. The debug module can log constructors and objects created by those constructors:

var A = dcl(null, {
    declaredClass: "A",
    sleep: dcl.after(function(){

var B = dcl(A, {
    declaredClass: "B",
    sleep: function(){
        console.log("Time to hit the pillow!");

var fred = new B();
advise.after(fred, "sleep", function(){
// Time to hit the pillow!
// *zzzzzzzzzzzzz*
// *ZzZzZzZzZzZzZ*

// now we can inspect all our objects:

// *** class A depends on 0 classes
//     class method constructor is CHAINED AFTER (length: 0)
//     class method sleep is UNCHAINED BUT CONTAINS ADVICE(S),
//       and has an AOP stub (before: 0, around: 0, after: 1)

// *** class B depends on 1 classes
//     dependencies: A
//     class method constructor is CHAINED AFTER (length: 0)
//     class method sleep is UNCHAINED BUT CONTAINS ADVICE(S),
//       and has an AOP stub (before: 0, around: 1, after: 1)

// *** object of class B
// *** class B depends on 1 classes
//     dependencies: A
//     class method constructor is CHAINED AFTER (length: 0)
//     class method sleep is UNCHAINED BUT CONTAINS ADVICE(S),
//       and has an AOP stub (before: 0, around: 1, after: 1)
//     object method sleep has an AOP stub (before: 0, around: 1, after: 2)

This way we can always know that we generated correct classes, inspect static chaining and advices, and even can monitor dynamically attached/removed advices.


Obviously this is a simple readme that was supposed to give an overview of dcl. For more details, please read the docs.

Additionally dcl provides a small library of predefined base classes, mixins, and useful advices. Check them out too.

Happy hacking!