A Django app that allows you to send email asynchronously in Django. Supports HTML email, database backed templates and logging.
Latest commit 865a047 Jan 5, 2017 @selwin selwin committed on GitHub Merge pull request #179 from chris-griffin/patch-1
Update README for Django > 1.9 support


Django Post Office

Django Post Office is a simple app to send and manage your emails in Django. Some awesome features are:

  • Allows you to send email asynchronously
  • Multi backend support
  • Supports HTML email
  • Supports database based email templates
  • Built in scheduling support
  • Works well with task queues like RQ or Celery
  • Uses multiprocessing to send a large number of emails in parallel
  • Supports multilingual email templates (i18n)



Build Status

  • Install from PyPI (or you manually download from PyPI):

    pip install django-post_office
  • Add post_office to your INSTALLED_APPS in django's settings.py:

    # other apps
  • Run syncdb for Django <= 1.8:

    python manage.py syncdb
  • Run makemigrations and migrate for Django > 1.8:

    python manage.py makemigrations
    python manage.py migrate
  • Set post_office.EmailBackend as your EMAIL_BACKEND in django's settings.py:

    EMAIL_BACKEND = 'post_office.EmailBackend'

If you're still on Django <= 1.6 and use South to manage your migrations, you'll need to put the following in settings.py:

    "post_office": "post_office.south_migrations",


Send a simple email is really easy:

from post_office import mail

    'recipient@example.com', # List of email addresses also accepted
    subject='My email',
    message='Hi there!',
    html_message='Hi <strong>there</strong>!',

If you want to use templates, ensure that Django's admin interface is enabled. Create an EmailTemplate instance via admin and do the following:

from post_office import mail

    'recipient@example.com', # List of email addresses also accepted
    template='welcome_email', # Could be an EmailTemplate instance or name
    context={'foo': 'bar'},

The above command will put your email on the queue so you can use the command in your webapp without slowing down the request/response cycle too much. To actually send them out, run python manage.py send_queued_mail. You can schedule this management command to run regularly via cron:

* * * * * (/usr/bin/python manage.py send_queued_mail >> send_mail.log 2>&1)

or, if you use uWSGI as application server, add this short snipped to the project's wsgi.py file:

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application

application = get_wsgi_application()

# add this block of code
    import uwsgidecorators
    from django.core.management import call_command

    def send_queued_mail(num):
        """Send queued mail every 10 seconds"""
        call_command('send_queued_mail', processes=1)

except ImportError:
    print("uwsgidecorators not found. Cron and timers are disabled")

Alternatively you can also use the decorator @uwsgidecorators.cron(minute, hour, day, month, weekday). This will schedule a task at specific times. Use -1 to signal any time, it corresponds to the * in cron.

Please note that uwsgidecorators are available only, if the application has been started with uWSGI. However, Django's internal ./manange.py runserver also access this file, therefore wrap the block into an exception handler as shown above.

This configuration is very useful in environments, such as Docker containers, where you don't have a running cron-daemon.



mail.send is the most important function in this library, it takes these arguments:

Argument Required Description
recipients Yes list of recipient email addresses
sender No Defaults to settings.DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL, display name is allowed (John <john@a.com>)
subject No Email subject (if template is not specified)
message No Email content (if template is not specified)
html_message No HTML content (if template is not specified)
template No EmailTemplate instance or name
language No Language in which you want to send the email in (if you have multilingual email templates.)
cc No list emails, will appear in cc field
bcc No list of emails, will appear in bcc field
attachments No

Email attachments - A dictionary where the keys are the filenames and the values are either:

  • files
  • file-like objects
  • full path of the file
context No A dictionary, used to render templated email
headers No A dictionary of extra headers on the message
scheduled_time No A date/datetime object indicating when the email should be sent
priority No high, medium, low or now (send_immediately)
backend No Alias of the backend you want to use. default will be used if not specified.
render_on_delivery No Setting this to True causes email to be lazily rendered during delivery. template is required when render_on_delivery is True. This way content is never stored in the DB. May result in significant space savings.

Here are a few examples.

If you just want to send out emails without using database templates. You can call the send command without the template argument.

from post_office import mail

    message='Welcome home, {{ name }}!',
    html_message='Welcome home, <b>{{ name }}</b>!',
    headers={'Reply-to': 'reply@example.com'},
    scheduled_time=date(2014, 1, 1),
    context={'name': 'Alice'},

post_office is also task queue friendly. Passing now as priority into send_mail will deliver the email right away (instead of queuing it), regardless of how many emails you have in your queue:

from post_office import mail

    context={'foo': 'bar'},

This is useful if you already use something like django-rq to send emails asynchronously and only need to store email related activities and logs.

If you want to send an email with attachments:

from django.core.files.base import ContentFile
from post_office import mail

    context={'foo': 'bar'},
        'attachment1.doc': '/path/to/file/file1.doc',
        'attachment2.txt': ContentFile('file content'),

Template Tags and Variables

post-office supports Django's template tags and variables. For example, if you put "Hello, {{ name }}" in the subject line and pass in {'name': 'Alice'} as context, you will get "Hello, Alice" as subject:

from post_office.models import EmailTemplate
from post_office import mail

    subject='Morning, {{ name|capfirst }}',
    content='Hi {{ name }}, how are you feeling today?',
    html_content='Hi <strong>{{ name }}</strong>, how are you feeling today?',

    context={'name': 'alice'},

# This will create an email with the following content:
subject = 'Morning, Alice',
content = 'Hi alice, how are you feeling today?'
content = 'Hi <strong>alice</strong>, how are you feeling today?'

Multilingual Email Templates

You can easily create email templates in various different languanges. For example:

template = EmailTemplate.objects.create(
    subject='Hello world!',

# Add an Indonesian version of this template:
indonesian_template = template.translated_templates.create(
    subject='Halo Dunia!'

Sending an email using template in a non default languange is also similarly easy:

    template=template, # Sends using the default template

    language='id', # Sends using Indonesian template

Custom Email Backends

By default, post_office uses django's smtp.EmailBackend. If you want to use a different backend, you can do so by configuring BACKENDS.

For example if you want to use django-ses:

    'BACKENDS': {
        'default': 'smtp.EmailBackend',
        'ses': 'django_ses.SESBackend',

You can then choose what backend you want to use when sending mail:

# If you omit `backend_alias` argument, `default` will be used

# If you want to send using `ses` backend

Management Commands

  • send_queued_mail - send queued emails, those aren't successfully sent will be marked as failed. Accepts the following arguments:

+---------------------------+--------------------------------------------------++ | Argument | Description || +---------------------------+--------------------------------------------------++ | --processes or -p | Number of parallel processes to send email. || | | Defaults to 1 || +---------------------------+--------------------------------------------------++ | --lockfile or -L | Full path to file used as lock file. Defaults to || | | /tmp/post_office.lock || +---------------------------+--------------------------------------------------++

  • cleanup_mail - delete all emails created before an X number of days (defaults to 90).

You may want to set these up via cron to run regularly:

* * * * * (cd $PROJECT; python manage.py send_queued_mail --processes=1 >> $PROJECT/cron_mail.log 2>&1)
0 1 * * * (cd $PROJECT; python manage.py cleanup_mail --days=30 >> $PROJECT/cron_mail_cleanup.log 2>&1)


This section outlines all the settings and configurations that you can put in Django's settings.py to fine tune post-office's behavior.

Batch Size

If you may want to limit the number of emails sent in a batch (sometimes useful in a low memory environment), use the BATCH_SIZE argument to limit the number of queued emails fetched in one batch.

# Put this in settings.py
    'BATCH_SIZE': 5000

Default Priority

The default priority for emails is medium, but this can be altered by setting DEFAULT_PRIORITY. Integration with asynchronous email backends (e.g. based on Celery) becomes trivial when set to now.

# Put this in settings.py

Log Level

The default log level is 2 (logs both successful and failed deliveries) This behavior can be changed by setting LOG_LEVEL.

# Put this in settings.py
    'LOG_LEVEL': 1 # Log only failed deliveries

The different options are:

  • 0 logs nothing
  • 1 logs only failed deliveries
  • 2 logs everything (both successful and failed delivery attempts)

Sending Order

The default sending order for emails is -priority, but this can be altered by setting SENDING_ORDER. For example, if you want to send queued emails in FIFO order :

# Put this in settings.py
    'SENDING_ORDER': ['created']

Context Field Serializer

If you need to store complex Python objects for deferred rendering (i.e. setting render_on_delivery=True), you can specify your own context field class to store context variables. For example if you want to use django-picklefield:

# Put this in settings.py
    'CONTEXT_FIELD_CLASS': 'picklefield.fields.PickledObjectField'

CONTEXT_FIELD_CLASS defaults to jsonfield.JSONField.


You can configure post-office's logging from Django's settings.py. For example:

    "version": 1,
    "disable_existing_loggers": False,
    "formatters": {
        "post_office": {
            "format": "[%(levelname)s]%(asctime)s PID %(process)d: %(message)s",
            "datefmt": "%d-%m-%Y %H:%M:%S",
    "handlers": {
        "post_office": {
            "level": "DEBUG",
            "class": "logging.StreamHandler",
            "formatter": "post_office"
        # If you use sentry for logging
        'sentry': {
            'level': 'ERROR',
            'class': 'raven.contrib.django.handlers.SentryHandler',
    'loggers': {
        "post_office": {
            "handlers": ["post_office", "sentry"],
            "level": "INFO"



if Django's caching mechanism is configured, post_office will cache EmailTemplate instances . If for some reason you want to disable caching, set POST_OFFICE_CACHE to False in settings.py:

## All cache key will be prefixed by post_office:template:
## To turn OFF caching, you need to explicitly set POST_OFFICE_CACHE to False in settings

## Optional: to use a non default cache backend, add a "post_office" entry in CACHES
    'post_office': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache',
        'LOCATION': '',


send_many() is much more performant (generates less database queries) when sending a large number of emails. send_many() is almost identical to mail.send(), with the exception that it accepts a list of keyword arguments that you'd usually pass into mail.send():

from post_office import mail

first_email = {
    'sender': 'from@example.com',
    'recipients': ['alice@example.com'],
    'subject': 'Hi!',
    'message': 'Hi Alice!'
second_email = {
    'sender': 'from@example.com',
    'recipients': ['bob@example.com'],
    'subject': 'Hi!',
    'message': 'Hi Bob!'
kwargs_list = [first_email, second_email]


Attachments are not supported with mail.send_many().

Running Tests

To run the test suite:

`which django-admin.py` test post_office --settings=post_office.test_settings --pythonpath=.

You can run the full test suite with:



python setup.py test


Version 2.0.7

  • Fixed an issue with sending email to recipients with display name. Thanks @yprez!

Version 2.0.6

  • Fixes Django 1.10 deprecation warnings and other minor improvements. Thanks @yprez!
  • Email.subject can now accept up to 989 characters. This should also fix minor migration issues. Thanks @yprez!

Version 2.0.5

  • Fixes more Django 1.8 deprecation warnings.
  • Email.dispatch() now closes backend connection by default. Thanks @zwack
  • Compatibility fixes for Django 1.9. Thanks @yprez!

Version 2.0.1

  • Fixes migration related packaging issues.
  • Fixes deprecation warning in Django 1.8.

Version 2.0

  • Added multi backend support. Now you can use multiple email backends with post-office!
  • Added multi language support. Thanks @jrief!

Version 1.1.2

  • Adds Django 1.8 compatibility.

Version 1.1.1

  • Fixes a migration error. Thanks @garry-cairns!

Version 1.1.0

  • Support for Django 1.7 migrations. If you're still on Django < 1.7, South migration files are stored in south_migrations directory.

Version 1.0.0

  • IMPORTANT: in older versions, passing multiple recipients into mail.send() will create multiple emails, each addressed to one recipient. Starting from 1.0.0, only one email with multiple recipients will be created.
  • Added LOG_LEVEL setting.
  • mail.send() now supports cc and bcc. Thanks Ștefan Daniel Mihăilă (@stefan-mihaila)!
  • Improvements to admin interface; you can now easily requeue multiple emails.
  • Log model now stores the type of exception caught during sending.
  • send_templated_mail command is now deprecated.
  • Added EMAIL_BACKEND setting to the new dictionary-styled settings.

Full changelog can be found here.

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