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=============================
User authentication in Django
=============================
.. module:: django.contrib.auth
:synopsis: Django's authentication framework.
Django comes with a user authentication system. It handles user accounts,
groups, permissions and cookie-based user sessions. This document explains how
things work.
Overview
========
The auth system consists of:
* Users
* Permissions: Binary (yes/no) flags designating whether a user may perform
a certain task.
* Groups: A generic way of applying labels and permissions to more than one
user.
Installation
============
Authentication support is bundled as a Django application in
``django.contrib.auth``. To install it, do the following:
1. Put ``'django.contrib.auth'`` and ``'django.contrib.contenttypes'`` in
your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` setting.
(The :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.Permission` model in
:mod:`django.contrib.auth` depends on :mod:`django.contrib.contenttypes`.)
2. Run the command ``manage.py syncdb``.
Note that the default :file:`settings.py` file created by
:djadmin:`django-admin.py startproject <startproject>` includes
``'django.contrib.auth'`` and ``'django.contrib.contenttypes'`` in
:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` for convenience. If your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
already contains these apps, feel free to run :djadmin:`manage.py syncdb
<syncdb>` again; you can run that command as many times as you'd like, and each
time it'll only install what's needed.
The :djadmin:`syncdb` command creates the necessary database tables, creates
permission objects for all installed apps that need 'em, and prompts you to
create a superuser account the first time you run it.
Once you've taken those steps, that's it.
Users
=====
.. class:: models.User
API reference
-------------
Fields
~~~~~~
.. class:: models.User
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` objects have the following
fields:
.. attribute:: models.User.username
Required. 30 characters or fewer. Usernames may contain alphanumeric,
``_``, ``@``, ``+``, ``.`` and ``-`` characters.
.. attribute:: models.User.first_name
Optional. 30 characters or fewer.
.. attribute:: models.User.last_name
Optional. 30 characters or fewer.
.. attribute:: models.User.email
Optional. Email address.
.. attribute:: models.User.password
Required. A hash of, and metadata about, the password. (Django doesn't
store the raw password.) Raw passwords can be arbitrarily long and can
contain any character. See the "Passwords" section below.
.. attribute:: models.User.is_staff
Boolean. Designates whether this user can access the admin site.
.. attribute:: models.User.is_active
Boolean. Designates whether this user account should be considered
active. We recommend that you set this flag to ``False`` instead of
deleting accounts; that way, if your applications have any foreign keys
to users, the foreign keys won't break.
This doesn't necessarily control whether or not the user can log in.
Authentication backends aren't required to check for the ``is_active``
flag, and the default backends do not. If you want to reject a login
based on ``is_active`` being ``False``, it's up to you to check that in
your own login view or a custom authentication backend. However, the
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.AuthenticationForm` used by the
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.views.login` view (which is the default)
*does* perform this check, as do the permission-checking methods such
as :meth:`~models.User.has_perm` and the authentication in the Django
admin. All of those functions/methods will return ``False`` for
inactive users.
.. attribute:: models.User.is_superuser
Boolean. Designates that this user has all permissions without
explicitly assigning them.
.. attribute:: models.User.last_login
A datetime of the user's last login. Is set to the current date/time by
default.
.. attribute:: models.User.date_joined
A datetime designating when the account was created. Is set to the
current date/time by default when the account is created.
Methods
~~~~~~~
.. class:: models.User
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` objects have two many-to-many
fields: ``groups`` and ``user_permissions``.
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` objects can access their related
objects in the same way as any other :doc:`Django model
</topics/db/models>`:
.. code-block:: python
myuser.groups = [group_list]
myuser.groups.add(group, group, ...)
myuser.groups.remove(group, group, ...)
myuser.groups.clear()
myuser.user_permissions = [permission_list]
myuser.user_permissions.add(permission, permission, ...)
myuser.user_permissions.remove(permission, permission, ...)
myuser.user_permissions.clear()
In addition to those automatic API methods,
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` objects have the following custom
methods:
.. method:: models.User.get_username()
Returns the username for the user. Since the User model can be swapped
out, you should use this method instead of referencing the username
attribute directly.
.. method:: models.User.is_anonymous()
Always returns ``False``. This is a way of differentiating
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` and
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` objects.
Generally, you should prefer using
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_authenticated()` to this
method.
.. method:: models.User.is_authenticated()
Always returns ``True``. This is a way to tell if the user has been
authenticated. This does not imply any permissions, and doesn't check
if the user is active - it only indicates that the user has provided a
valid username and password.
.. method:: models.User.get_full_name()
Returns the :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.first_name` plus
the :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.last_name`, with a space in
between.
.. method:: models.User.set_password(raw_password)
Sets the user's password to the given raw string, taking care of the
password hashing. Doesn't save the
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object.
.. method:: models.User.check_password(raw_password)
Returns ``True`` if the given raw string is the correct password for
the user. (This takes care of the password hashing in making the
comparison.)
.. method:: models.User.set_unusable_password()
Marks the user as having no password set. This isn't the same as
having a blank string for a password.
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.check_password()` for this user
will never return ``True``. Doesn't save the
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object.
You may need this if authentication for your application takes place
against an existing external source such as an LDAP directory.
.. method:: models.User.has_usable_password()
Returns ``False`` if
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_unusable_password()` has
been called for this user.
.. method:: models.User.get_group_permissions(obj=None)
Returns a set of permission strings that the user has, through his/her
groups.
If ``obj`` is passed in, only returns the group permissions for
this specific object.
.. method:: models.User.get_all_permissions(obj=None)
Returns a set of permission strings that the user has, both through
group and user permissions.
If ``obj`` is passed in, only returns the permissions for this
specific object.
.. method:: models.User.has_perm(perm, obj=None)
Returns ``True`` if the user has the specified permission, where perm is
in the format ``"<app label>.<permission codename>"``. (see
`permissions`_ section below). If the user is inactive, this method will
always return ``False``.
If ``obj`` is passed in, this method won't check for a permission for
the model, but for this specific object.
.. method:: models.User.has_perms(perm_list, obj=None)
Returns ``True`` if the user has each of the specified permissions,
where each perm is in the format
``"<app label>.<permission codename>"``. If the user is inactive,
this method will always return ``False``.
If ``obj`` is passed in, this method won't check for permissions for
the model, but for the specific object.
.. method:: models.User.has_module_perms(package_name)
Returns ``True`` if the user has any permissions in the given package
(the Django app label). If the user is inactive, this method will
always return ``False``.
.. method:: models.User.email_user(subject, message, from_email=None)
Sends an email to the user. If
:attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.from_email` is ``None``, Django
uses the :setting:`DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL`.
.. method:: models.User.get_profile()
.. deprecated:: 1.5
With the introduction of :ref:`custom User models <auth-custom-user>`,
the use of :setting:`AUTH_PROFILE_MODULE` to define a single profile
model is no longer supported. See the
:doc:`Django 1.5 release notes</releases/1.5>` for more information.
Returns a site-specific profile for this user. Raises
:exc:`django.contrib.auth.models.SiteProfileNotAvailable` if the
current site doesn't allow profiles, or
:exc:`django.core.exceptions.ObjectDoesNotExist` if the user does not
have a profile. For information on how to define a site-specific user
profile, see the section on `storing additional user information`_ below.
.. _storing additional user information: #storing-additional-information-about-users
Manager functions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. class:: models.UserManager
The :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` model has a custom manager
that has the following helper functions:
.. method:: models.UserManager.create_user(username, email=None, password=None)
.. versionchanged:: 1.4
The ``email`` parameter was made optional. The username
parameter is now checked for emptiness and raises a
:exc:`ValueError` in case of a negative result.
Creates, saves and returns a :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`.
The :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.username` and
:attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.password` are set as given. The
domain portion of :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.email` is
automatically converted to lowercase, and the returned
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object will have
:attr:`~models.User.is_active` set to ``True``.
If no password is provided,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_unusable_password()` will
be called.
See `Creating users`_ for example usage.
.. method:: models.UserManager.make_random_password(length=10, allowed_chars='abcdefghjkmnpqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZ23456789')
Returns a random password with the given length and given string of
allowed characters. (Note that the default value of ``allowed_chars``
doesn't contain letters that can cause user confusion, including:
* ``i``, ``l``, ``I``, and ``1`` (lowercase letter i, lowercase
letter L, uppercase letter i, and the number one)
* ``o``, ``O``, and ``0`` (uppercase letter o, lowercase letter o,
and zero)
Basic usage
-----------
.. _topics-auth-creating-users:
Creating users
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The most basic way to create users is to use the
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.UserManager.create_user` helper function
that comes with Django::
>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
>>> user = User.objects.create_user('john', 'lennon@thebeatles.com', 'johnpassword')
# At this point, user is a User object that has already been saved
# to the database. You can continue to change its attributes
# if you want to change other fields.
>>> user.is_staff = True
>>> user.save()
You can also create users using the Django admin site. Assuming you've enabled
the admin site and hooked it to the URL ``/admin/``, the "Add user" page is at
``/admin/auth/user/add/``. You should also see a link to "Users" in the "Auth"
section of the main admin index page. The "Add user" admin page is different
than standard admin pages in that it requires you to choose a username and
password before allowing you to edit the rest of the user's fields.
Also note: if you want your own user account to be able to create users using
the Django admin site, you'll need to give yourself permission to add users
*and* change users (i.e., the "Add user" and "Change user" permissions). If
your account has permission to add users but not to change them, you won't be
able to add users. Why? Because if you have permission to add users, you have
the power to create superusers, which can then, in turn, change other users. So
Django requires add *and* change permissions as a slight security measure.
Changing passwords
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
:djadmin:`manage.py changepassword *username* <changepassword>` offers a method
of changing a User's password from the command line. It prompts you to
change the password of a given user which you must enter twice. If
they both match, the new password will be changed immediately. If you
do not supply a user, the command will attempt to change the password
whose username matches the current user.
You can also change a password programmatically, using
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_password()`:
.. code-block:: python
>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
>>> u = User.objects.get(username__exact='john')
>>> u.set_password('new password')
>>> u.save()
Don't set the :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.password` attribute
directly unless you know what you're doing. This is explained in the next
section.
.. _auth_password_storage:
How Django stores passwords
---------------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.4
Django 1.4 introduces a new flexible password storage system and uses
PBKDF2 by default. Previous versions of Django used SHA1, and other
algorithms couldn't be chosen.
The :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.password` attribute of a
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object is a string in this format::
algorithm$hash
That's a storage algorithm, and hash, separated by the dollar-sign
character. The algorithm is one of a number of one way hashing or password
storage algorithms Django can use; see below. The hash is the result of the one-
way function.
By default, Django uses the PBKDF2_ algorithm with a SHA256 hash, a
password stretching mechanism recommended by NIST_. This should be
sufficient for most users: it's quite secure, requiring massive
amounts of computing time to break.
However, depending on your requirements, you may choose a different
algorithm, or even use a custom algorithm to match your specific
security situation. Again, most users shouldn't need to do this -- if
you're not sure, you probably don't. If you do, please read on:
Django chooses the an algorithm by consulting the :setting:`PASSWORD_HASHERS`
setting. This is a list of hashing algorithm classes that this Django
installation supports. The first entry in this list (that is,
``settings.PASSWORD_HASHERS[0]``) will be used to store passwords, and all the
other entries are valid hashers that can be used to check existing passwords.
This means that if you want to use a different algorithm, you'll need to modify
:setting:`PASSWORD_HASHERS` to list your preferred algorithm first in the list.
The default for :setting:`PASSWORD_HASHERS` is::
PASSWORD_HASHERS = (
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptPasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.MD5PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.CryptPasswordHasher',
)
This means that Django will use PBKDF2_ to store all passwords, but will support
checking passwords stored with PBKDF2SHA1, bcrypt_, SHA1_, etc. The next few
sections describe a couple of common ways advanced users may want to modify this
setting.
.. _bcrypt_usage:
Using bcrypt with Django
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Bcrypt_ is a popular password storage algorithm that's specifically designed
for long-term password storage. It's not the default used by Django since it
requires the use of third-party libraries, but since many people may want to
use it Django supports bcrypt with minimal effort.
To use Bcrypt as your default storage algorithm, do the following:
1. Install the `py-bcrypt`_ library (probably by running ``sudo pip install
py-bcrypt``, or downloading the library and installing it with ``python
setup.py install``).
2. Modify :setting:`PASSWORD_HASHERS` to list ``BCryptPasswordHasher``
first. That is, in your settings file, you'd put::
PASSWORD_HASHERS = (
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptPasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.MD5PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.CryptPasswordHasher',
)
(You need to keep the other entries in this list, or else Django won't
be able to upgrade passwords; see below).
That's it -- now your Django install will use Bcrypt as the default storage
algorithm.
.. admonition:: Other bcrypt implementations
There are several other implementations that allow bcrypt to be
used with Django. Django's bcrypt support is NOT directly
compatible with these. To upgrade, you will need to modify the
hashes in your database to be in the form `bcrypt$(raw bcrypt
output)`. For example:
`bcrypt$$2a$12$NT0I31Sa7ihGEWpka9ASYrEFkhuTNeBQ2xfZskIiiJeyFXhRgS.Sy`.
Increasing the work factor
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The PBKDF2 and bcrypt algorithms use a number of iterations or rounds of
hashing. This deliberately slows down attackers, making attacks against hashed
passwords harder. However, as computing power increases, the number of
iterations needs to be increased. We've chosen a reasonable default (and will
increase it with each release of Django), but you may wish to tune it up or
down, depending on your security needs and available processing power. To do so,
you'll subclass the appropriate algorithm and override the ``iterations``
parameters. For example, to increase the number of iterations used by the
default PBKDF2 algorithm:
1. Create a subclass of ``django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher``::
from django.contrib.auth.hashers import PBKDF2PasswordHasher
class MyPBKDF2PasswordHasher(PBKDF2PasswordHasher):
"""
A subclass of PBKDF2PasswordHasher that uses 100 times more iterations.
"""
iterations = PBKDF2PasswordHasher.iterations * 100
Save this somewhere in your project. For example, you might put this in
a file like ``myproject/hashers.py``.
2. Add your new hasher as the first entry in :setting:`PASSWORD_HASHERS`::
PASSWORD_HASHERS = (
'myproject.hashers.MyPBKDF2PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptPasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.MD5PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.CryptPasswordHasher',
)
That's it -- now your Django install will use more iterations when it
stores passwords using PBKDF2.
Password upgrading
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When users log in, if their passwords are stored with anything other than
the preferred algorithm, Django will automatically upgrade the algorithm
to the preferred one. This means that old installs of Django will get
automatically more secure as users log in, and it also means that you
can switch to new (and better) storage algorithms as they get invented.
However, Django can only upgrade passwords that use algorithms mentioned in
:setting:`PASSWORD_HASHERS`, so as you upgrade to new systems you should make
sure never to *remove* entries from this list. If you do, users using un-
mentioned algorithms won't be able to upgrade.
.. _sha1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA1
.. _pbkdf2: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBKDF2
.. _nist: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-132/nist-sp800-132.pdf
.. _bcrypt: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bcrypt
.. _py-bcrypt: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/py-bcrypt/
Anonymous users
---------------
.. class:: models.AnonymousUser
:class:`django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` is a class that
implements the :class:`django.contrib.auth.models.User` interface, with
these differences:
* :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.id` is always ``None``.
* :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_staff` and
:attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_superuser` are always
``False``.
* :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_active` is always ``False``.
* :attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.groups` and
:attr:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.user_permissions` are always
empty.
* :meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_anonymous()` returns ``True``
instead of ``False``.
* :meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_authenticated()` returns
``False`` instead of ``True``.
* :meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_password()`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.check_password()`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.save()`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.delete()`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_groups()` and
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_permissions()` raise
:exc:`NotImplementedError`.
In practice, you probably won't need to use
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` objects on your own, but
they're used by Web requests, as explained in the next section.
.. _topics-auth-creating-superusers:
Creating superusers
-------------------
:djadmin:`manage.py syncdb <syncdb>` prompts you to create a superuser the
first time you run it after adding ``'django.contrib.auth'`` to your
:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`. If you need to create a superuser at a later date,
you can use a command line utility::
manage.py createsuperuser --username=joe --email=joe@example.com
You will be prompted for a password. After you enter one, the user will be
created immediately. If you leave off the :djadminopt:`--username` or the
:djadminopt:`--email` options, it will prompt you for those values.
If you're using an older release of Django, the old way of creating a superuser
on the command line still works::
python /path/to/django/contrib/auth/create_superuser.py
...where :file:`/path/to` is the path to the Django codebase on your
filesystem. The ``manage.py`` command is preferred because it figures out the
correct path and environment for you.
.. _auth-profiles:
Storing additional information about users
------------------------------------------
.. deprecated:: 1.5
With the introduction of :ref:`custom User models <auth-custom-user>`,
the use of :setting:`AUTH_PROFILE_MODULE` to define a single profile
model is no longer supported. See the
:doc:`Django 1.5 release notes</releases/1.5>` for more information.
If you'd like to store additional information related to your users, Django
provides a method to specify a site-specific related model -- termed a "user
profile" -- for this purpose.
To make use of this feature, define a model with fields for the
additional information you'd like to store, or additional methods
you'd like to have available, and also add a
:class:`~django.db.models.Field.OneToOneField` named ``user`` from your model
to the :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` model. This will ensure only
one instance of your model can be created for each
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`. For example::
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
class UserProfile(models.Model):
# This field is required.
user = models.OneToOneField(User)
# Other fields here
accepted_eula = models.BooleanField()
favorite_animal = models.CharField(max_length=20, default="Dragons.")
To indicate that this model is the user profile model for a given site, fill in
the setting :setting:`AUTH_PROFILE_MODULE` with a string consisting of the
following items, separated by a dot:
1. The name of the application (case sensitive) in which the user
profile model is defined (in other words, the
name which was passed to :djadmin:`manage.py startapp <startapp>` to create
the application).
2. The name of the model (not case sensitive) class.
For example, if the profile model was a class named ``UserProfile`` and was
defined inside an application named ``accounts``, the appropriate setting would
be::
AUTH_PROFILE_MODULE = 'accounts.UserProfile'
When a user profile model has been defined and specified in this manner, each
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object will have a method --
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.get_profile()` -- which returns the
instance of the user profile model associated with that
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`.
The method :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.get_profile()`
does not create a profile if one does not exist. You need to register a handler
for the User model's :attr:`django.db.models.signals.post_save` signal and, in
the handler, if ``created`` is ``True``, create the associated user profile::
# in models.py
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
from django.db.models.signals import post_save
# definition of UserProfile from above
# ...
def create_user_profile(sender, instance, created, **kwargs):
if created:
UserProfile.objects.create(user=instance)
post_save.connect(create_user_profile, sender=User)
.. seealso:: :doc:`/topics/signals` for more information on Django's signal
dispatcher.
Adding UserProfile fields to the admin
--------------------------------------
To add the UserProfile fields to the user page in the admin, define an
:class:`~django.contrib.admin.InlineModelAdmin` (for this example, we'll use a
:class:`~django.contrib.admin.StackedInline`) in your app's ``admin.py`` and
add it to a ``UserAdmin`` class which is registered with the
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` class::
from django.contrib import admin
from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
from my_user_profile_app.models import UserProfile
# Define an inline admin descriptor for UserProfile model
# which acts a bit like a singleton
class UserProfileInline(admin.StackedInline):
model = UserProfile
can_delete = False
verbose_name_plural = 'profile'
# Define a new User admin
class UserAdmin(UserAdmin):
inlines = (UserProfileInline, )
# Re-register UserAdmin
admin.site.unregister(User)
admin.site.register(User, UserAdmin)
Authentication in Web requests
==============================
Until now, this document has dealt with the low-level APIs for manipulating
authentication-related objects. On a higher level, Django can hook this
authentication framework into its system of
:class:`request objects <django.http.HttpRequest>`.
First, install the
:class:`~django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware` and
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware`
middlewares by adding them to your :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES` setting. See
the :doc:`session documentation </topics/http/sessions>` for more information.
Once you have those middlewares installed, you'll be able to access
:attr:`request.user <django.http.HttpRequest.user>` in views.
:attr:`request.user <django.http.HttpRequest.user>` will give you a
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object representing the currently
logged-in user. If a user isn't currently logged in,
:attr:`request.user <django.http.HttpRequest.user>` will be set to an instance
of :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` (see the previous
section). You can tell them apart with
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_authenticated()`, like so::
if request.user.is_authenticated():
# Do something for authenticated users.
else:
# Do something for anonymous users.
.. _how-to-log-a-user-in:
How to log a user in
--------------------
Django provides two functions in :mod:`django.contrib.auth`:
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()` and
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.login()`.
.. function:: authenticate()
To authenticate a given username and password, use
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()`. It takes two keyword
arguments, ``username`` and ``password``, and it returns a
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object if the password is valid
for the given username. If the password is invalid,
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()` returns ``None``. Example::
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate
user = authenticate(username='john', password='secret')
if user is not None:
if user.is_active:
print("You provided a correct username and password!")
else:
print("Your account has been disabled!")
else:
print("Your username and password were incorrect.")
.. function:: login()
To log a user in, in a view, use :func:`~django.contrib.auth.login()`. It
takes an :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` object and a
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object.
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.login()` saves the user's ID in the session,
using Django's session framework, so, as mentioned above, you'll need to
make sure to have the session middleware installed.
Note that data set during the anonymous session is retained when the user
logs in.
This example shows how you might use both
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()` and
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.login()`::
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login
def my_view(request):
username = request.POST['username']
password = request.POST['password']
user = authenticate(username=username, password=password)
if user is not None:
if user.is_active:
login(request, user)
# Redirect to a success page.
else:
# Return a 'disabled account' error message
else:
# Return an 'invalid login' error message.
.. admonition:: Calling ``authenticate()`` first
When you're manually logging a user in, you *must* call
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()` before you call
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.login()`.
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()`
sets an attribute on the :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` noting
which authentication backend successfully authenticated that user (see the
`backends documentation`_ for details), and this information is needed
later during the login process.
.. _backends documentation: #other-authentication-sources
Manually managing a user's password
-----------------------------------
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth.hashers
.. versionadded:: 1.4
The :mod:`django.contrib.auth.hashers` module provides a set of functions
to create and validate hashed password. You can use them independently
from the ``User`` model.
.. function:: check_password(password, encoded)
.. versionadded:: 1.4
If you'd like to manually authenticate a user by comparing a plain-text
password to the hashed password in the database, use the convenience
function :func:`django.contrib.auth.hashers.check_password`. It takes two
arguments: the plain-text password to check, and the full value of a
user's ``password`` field in the database to check against, and returns
``True`` if they match, ``False`` otherwise.
.. function:: make_password(password[, salt, hashers])
.. versionadded:: 1.4
Creates a hashed password in the format used by this application. It takes
one mandatory argument: the password in plain-text. Optionally, you can
provide a salt and a hashing algorithm to use, if you don't want to use the
defaults (first entry of ``PASSWORD_HASHERS`` setting).
Currently supported algorithms are: ``'pbkdf2_sha256'``, ``'pbkdf2_sha1'``,
``'bcrypt'`` (see :ref:`bcrypt_usage`), ``'sha1'``, ``'md5'``,
``'unsalted_md5'`` (only for backward compatibility) and ``'crypt'``
if you have the ``crypt`` library installed. If the password argument is
``None``, an unusable password is returned (a one that will be never
accepted by :func:`django.contrib.auth.hashers.check_password`).
.. function:: is_password_usable(encoded_password)
.. versionadded:: 1.4
Checks if the given string is a hashed password that has a chance
of being verified against :func:`django.contrib.auth.hashers.check_password`.
How to log a user out
---------------------
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth
.. function:: logout()
To log out a user who has been logged in via
:func:`django.contrib.auth.login()`, use
:func:`django.contrib.auth.logout()` within your view. It takes an
:class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` object and has no return value.
Example::
from django.contrib.auth import logout
def logout_view(request):
logout(request)
# Redirect to a success page.
Note that :func:`~django.contrib.auth.logout()` doesn't throw any errors if
the user wasn't logged in.
When you call :func:`~django.contrib.auth.logout()`, the session data for
the current request is completely cleaned out. All existing data is
removed. This is to prevent another person from using the same Web browser
to log in and have access to the previous user's session data. If you want
to put anything into the session that will be available to the user
immediately after logging out, do that *after* calling
:func:`django.contrib.auth.logout()`.
.. _topics-auth-signals:
Login and logout signals
------------------------
The auth framework uses two :doc:`signals </topics/signals>` that can be used
for notification when a user logs in or out.
.. data:: django.contrib.auth.signals.user_logged_in
:module:
Sent when a user logs in successfully.
Arguments sent with this signal:
``sender``
The class of the user that just logged in.
``request``
The current :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` instance.
``user``
The user instance that just logged in.
.. data:: django.contrib.auth.signals.user_logged_out
:module:
Sent when the logout method is called.
``sender``
As above: the class of the user that just logged out or ``None``
if the user was not authenticated.
``request``
The current :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` instance.
``user``
The user instance that just logged out or ``None`` if the
user was not authenticated.
.. data:: django.contrib.auth.signals.user_login_failed
:module:
.. versionadded:: 1.5
Sent when the user failed to login successfully
``sender``
The name of the module used for authentication.
``credentials``
A dictonary of keyword arguments containing the user credentials that were
passed to :func:`~django.contrib.auth.authenticate()` or your own custom
authentication backend. Credentials matching a set of 'sensitive' patterns,
(including password) will not be sent in the clear as part of the signal.
Limiting access to logged-in users
----------------------------------
The raw way
~~~~~~~~~~~
The simple, raw way to limit access to pages is to check
:meth:`request.user.is_authenticated()
<django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_authenticated()>` and either redirect to a
login page::
from django.http import HttpResponseRedirect
def my_view(request):
if not request.user.is_authenticated():
return HttpResponseRedirect('/login/?next=%s' % request.path)
# ...
...or display an error message::
def my_view(request):
if not request.user.is_authenticated():
return render_to_response('myapp/login_error.html')
# ...
The login_required decorator
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. function:: decorators.login_required([redirect_field_name=REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME, login_url=None])
As a shortcut, you can use the convenient
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.login_required` decorator::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import login_required
@login_required
def my_view(request):
...
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.login_required` does the following:
* If the user isn't logged in, redirect to
:setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>`, passing the current absolute
path in the query string. Example: ``/accounts/login/?next=/polls/3/``.
* If the user is logged in, execute the view normally. The view code is
free to assume the user is logged in.
By default, the path that the user should be redirected to upon
successful authentication is stored in a query string parameter called
``"next"``. If you would prefer to use a different name for this parameter,
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.login_required` takes an
optional ``redirect_field_name`` parameter::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import login_required
@login_required(redirect_field_name='my_redirect_field')
def my_view(request):
...
Note that if you provide a value to ``redirect_field_name``, you will most
likely need to customize your login template as well, since the template
context variable which stores the redirect path will use the value of
``redirect_field_name`` as its key rather than ``"next"`` (the default).
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.login_required` also takes an
optional ``login_url`` parameter. Example::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import login_required
@login_required(login_url='/accounts/login/')
def my_view(request):
...
Note that if you don't specify the ``login_url`` parameter, you'll need to map
the appropriate Django view to :setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>`. For
example, using the defaults, add the following line to your URLconf::
(r'^accounts/login/$', 'django.contrib.auth.views.login'),
.. versionchanged:: 1.5
As of version 1.5 :setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>` now also accepts
view function names and :ref:`named URL patterns <naming-url-patterns>`.
This allows you to freely remap your login view within your URLconf
without having to update the setting.
.. function:: views.login(request, [template_name, redirect_field_name, authentication_form])
**URL name:** ``login``
See :doc:`the URL documentation </topics/http/urls>` for details on using
named URL patterns.
Here's what ``django.contrib.auth.views.login`` does:
* If called via ``GET``, it displays a login form that POSTs to the
same URL. More on this in a bit.
* If called via ``POST``, it tries to log the user in. If login is
successful, the view redirects to the URL specified in ``next``. If
``next`` isn't provided, it redirects to
:setting:`settings.LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL <LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL>` (which
defaults to ``/accounts/profile/``). If login isn't successful, it
redisplays the login form.
It's your responsibility to provide the login form in a template called
``registration/login.html`` by default. This template gets passed four
template context variables:
* ``form``: A :class:`~django.forms.Form` object representing the login
form. See the :doc:`forms documentation </topics/forms/index>` for
more on ``Form`` objects.
* ``next``: The URL to redirect to after successful login. This may
contain a query string, too.
* ``site``: The current :class:`~django.contrib.sites.models.Site`,
according to the :setting:`SITE_ID` setting. If you don't have the
site framework installed, this will be set to an instance of
:class:`~django.contrib.sites.models.RequestSite`, which derives the
site name and domain from the current
:class:`~django.http.HttpRequest`.
* ``site_name``: An alias for ``site.name``. If you don't have the site
framework installed, this will be set to the value of
:attr:`request.META['SERVER_NAME'] <django.http.HttpRequest.META>`.
For more on sites, see :doc:`/ref/contrib/sites`.
If you'd prefer not to call the template :file:`registration/login.html`,
you can pass the ``template_name`` parameter via the extra arguments to
the view in your URLconf. For example, this URLconf line would use
:file:`myapp/login.html` instead::
(r'^accounts/login/$', 'django.contrib.auth.views.login', {'template_name': 'myapp/login.html'}),
You can also specify the name of the ``GET`` field which contains the URL
to redirect to after login by passing ``redirect_field_name`` to the view.
By default, the field is called ``next``.
Here's a sample :file:`registration/login.html` template you can use as a
starting point. It assumes you have a :file:`base.html` template that
defines a ``content`` block:
.. code-block:: html+django
{% extends "base.html" %}
{% block content %}
{% if form.errors %}
<p>Your username and password didn't match. Please try again.</p>
{% endif %}
<form method="post" action="{% url 'django.contrib.auth.views.login' %}">
{% csrf_token %}
<table>
<tr>
<td>{{ form.username.label_tag }}</td>
<td>{{ form.username }}</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>{{ form.password.label_tag }}</td>
<td>{{ form.password }}</td>
</tr>
</table>
<input type="submit" value="login" />
<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}" />
</form>
{% endblock %}
If you are using alternate authentication (see
:ref:`authentication-backends`) you can pass a custom authentication form
to the login view via the ``authentication_form`` parameter. This form must
accept a ``request`` keyword argument in its ``__init__`` method, and
provide a ``get_user`` method which returns the authenticated user object
(this method is only ever called after successful form validation).
.. _forms documentation: ../forms/
.. _site framework docs: ../sites/
.. versionadded:: 1.4
The :func:`~views.login` view and the :ref:`other-built-in-views` now all
return a :class:`~django.template.response.TemplateResponse` instance,
which allows you to easily customize the response data before rendering.
For more details, see the
:doc:`TemplateResponse documentation </ref/template-response>`.
.. _other-built-in-views:
Other built-in views
--------------------
.. module:: django.contrib.auth.views
In addition to the :func:`~views.login` view, the authentication system
includes a few other useful built-in views located in
:mod:`django.contrib.auth.views`:
.. function:: logout(request, [next_page, template_name, redirect_field_name])
Logs a user out.
**URL name:** ``logout``
See :doc:`the URL documentation </topics/http/urls>` for details on using
named URL patterns.
**Optional arguments:**
* ``next_page``: The URL to redirect to after logout.
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to display after
logging the user out. Defaults to
:file:`registration/logged_out.html` if no argument is supplied.
* ``redirect_field_name``: The name of a ``GET`` field containing the
URL to redirect to after log out. Overrides ``next_page`` if the given
``GET`` parameter is passed.
**Template context:**
* ``title``: The string "Logged out", localized.
* ``site``: The current :class:`~django.contrib.sites.models.Site`,
according to the :setting:`SITE_ID` setting. If you don't have the
site framework installed, this will be set to an instance of
:class:`~django.contrib.sites.models.RequestSite`, which derives the
site name and domain from the current
:class:`~django.http.HttpRequest`.
* ``site_name``: An alias for ``site.name``. If you don't have the site
framework installed, this will be set to the value of
:attr:`request.META['SERVER_NAME'] <django.http.HttpRequest.META>`.
For more on sites, see :doc:`/ref/contrib/sites`.
.. function:: logout_then_login(request[, login_url])
Logs a user out, then redirects to the login page.
**URL name:** No default URL provided
**Optional arguments:**
* ``login_url``: The URL of the login page to redirect to.
Defaults to :setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>` if not supplied.
.. function:: password_change(request[, template_name, post_change_redirect, password_change_form])
Allows a user to change their password.
**URL name:** ``password_change``
**Optional arguments:**
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to use for
displaying the password change form. Defaults to
:file:`registration/password_change_form.html` if not supplied.
* ``post_change_redirect``: The URL to redirect to after a successful
password change.
* ``password_change_form``: A custom "change password" form which must
accept a ``user`` keyword argument. The form is responsible for
actually changing the user's password. Defaults to
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.PasswordChangeForm`.
**Template context:**
* ``form``: The password change form (see ``password_change_form`` above).
.. function:: password_change_done(request[, template_name])
The page shown after a user has changed their password.
**URL name:** ``password_change_done``
**Optional arguments:**
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to use.
Defaults to :file:`registration/password_change_done.html` if not
supplied.
.. function:: password_reset(request[, is_admin_site, template_name, email_template_name, password_reset_form, token_generator, post_reset_redirect, from_email])
Allows a user to reset their password by generating a one-time use link
that can be used to reset the password, and sending that link to the
user's registered email address.
.. versionchanged:: 1.4
Users flagged with an unusable password (see
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.set_unusable_password()`
will not be able to request a password reset to prevent misuse
when using an external authentication source like LDAP.
**URL name:** ``password_reset``
**Optional arguments:**
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to use for
displaying the password reset form. Defaults to
:file:`registration/password_reset_form.html` if not supplied.
* ``email_template_name``: The full name of a template to use for
generating the email with the reset password link. Defaults to
:file:`registration/password_reset_email.html` if not supplied.
* ``subject_template_name``: The full name of a template to use for
the subject of the email with the reset password link. Defaults
to :file:`registration/password_reset_subject.txt` if not supplied.
.. versionadded:: 1.4
* ``password_reset_form``: Form that will be used to get the email of
the user to reset the password for. Defaults to
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.PasswordResetForm`.
* ``token_generator``: Instance of the class to check the one time link.
This will default to ``default_token_generator``, it's an instance of
``django.contrib.auth.tokens.PasswordResetTokenGenerator``.
* ``post_reset_redirect``: The URL to redirect to after a successful
password reset request.
* ``from_email``: A valid email address. By default Django uses
the :setting:`DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL`.
**Template context:**
* ``form``: The form (see ``password_reset_form`` above) for resetting
the user's password.
**Email template context:**
* ``email``: An alias for ``user.email``
* ``user``: The current :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`,
according to the ``email`` form field. Only active users are able to
reset their passwords (``User.is_active is True``).
* ``site_name``: An alias for ``site.name``. If you don't have the site
framework installed, this will be set to the value of
:attr:`request.META['SERVER_NAME'] <django.http.HttpRequest.META>`.
For more on sites, see :doc:`/ref/contrib/sites`.
* ``domain``: An alias for ``site.domain``. If you don't have the site
framework installed, this will be set to the value of
``request.get_host()``.
* ``protocol``: http or https
* ``uid``: The user's id encoded in base 36.
* ``token``: Token to check that the reset link is valid.
Sample ``registration/password_reset_email.html`` (email body template):
.. code-block:: html+django
Someone asked for password reset for email {{ email }}. Follow the link below:
{{ protocol}}://{{ domain }}{% url 'password_reset_confirm' uidb36=uid token=token %}
The same template context is used for subject template. Subject must be
single line plain text string.
.. function:: password_reset_done(request[, template_name])
The page shown after a user has been emailed a link to reset their
password. This view is called by default if the :func:`password_reset` view
doesn't have an explicit ``post_reset_redirect`` URL set.
**URL name:** ``password_reset_done``
**Optional arguments:**
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to use.
Defaults to :file:`registration/password_reset_done.html` if not
supplied.
.. function:: password_reset_confirm(request[, uidb36, token, template_name, token_generator, set_password_form, post_reset_redirect])
Presents a form for entering a new password.
**URL name:** ``password_reset_confirm``
**Optional arguments:**
* ``uidb36``: The user's id encoded in base 36. Defaults to ``None``.
* ``token``: Token to check that the password is valid. Defaults to
``None``.
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to display the confirm
password view. Default value is :file:`registration/password_reset_confirm.html`.
* ``token_generator``: Instance of the class to check the password. This
will default to ``default_token_generator``, it's an instance of
``django.contrib.auth.tokens.PasswordResetTokenGenerator``.
* ``set_password_form``: Form that will be used to set the password.
Defaults to :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.SetPasswordForm`
* ``post_reset_redirect``: URL to redirect after the password reset
done. Defaults to ``None``.
**Template context:**
* ``form``: The form (see ``set_password_form`` above) for setting the
new user's password.
* ``validlink``: Boolean, True if the link (combination of uidb36 and
token) is valid or unused yet.
.. function:: password_reset_complete(request[,template_name])
Presents a view which informs the user that the password has been
successfully changed.
**URL name:** ``password_reset_complete``
**Optional arguments:**
* ``template_name``: The full name of a template to display the view.
Defaults to :file:`registration/password_reset_complete.html`.
Helper functions
----------------
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth.views
.. function:: redirect_to_login(next[, login_url, redirect_field_name])
Redirects to the login page, and then back to another URL after a
successful login.
**Required arguments:**
* ``next``: The URL to redirect to after a successful login.
**Optional arguments:**
* ``login_url``: The URL of the login page to redirect to.
Defaults to :setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>` if not supplied.
* ``redirect_field_name``: The name of a ``GET`` field containing the
URL to redirect to after log out. Overrides ``next`` if the given
``GET`` parameter is passed.
.. _built-in-auth-forms:
Built-in forms
--------------
.. module:: django.contrib.auth.forms
If you don't want to use the built-in views, but want the convenience of not
having to write forms for this functionality, the authentication system
provides several built-in forms located in :mod:`django.contrib.auth.forms`:
.. class:: AdminPasswordChangeForm
A form used in the admin interface to change a user's password.
.. class:: AuthenticationForm
A form for logging a user in.
.. class:: PasswordChangeForm
A form for allowing a user to change their password.
.. class:: PasswordResetForm
A form for generating and emailing a one-time use link to reset a
user's password.
.. class:: SetPasswordForm
A form that lets a user change his/her password without entering the old
password.
.. class:: UserChangeForm
A form used in the admin interface to change a user's information and
permissions.
.. class:: UserCreationForm
A form for creating a new user.
Limiting access to logged-in users that pass a test
---------------------------------------------------
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth.decorators
To limit access based on certain permissions or some other test, you'd do
essentially the same thing as described in the previous section.
The simple way is to run your test on :attr:`request.user
<django.http.HttpRequest.user>` in the view directly. For example, this view
checks to make sure the user is logged in and has the permission
``polls.can_vote``::
def my_view(request):
if not request.user.has_perm('polls.can_vote'):
return HttpResponse("You can't vote in this poll.")
# ...
.. function:: user_passes_test(func, [login_url=None])
As a shortcut, you can use the convenient ``user_passes_test`` decorator::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import user_passes_test
@user_passes_test(lambda u: u.has_perm('polls.can_vote'))
def my_view(request):
...
We're using this particular test as a relatively simple example. However,
if you just want to test whether a permission is available to a user, you
can use the :func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.permission_required()`
decorator, described later in this document.
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.user_passes_test` takes a required
argument: a callable that takes a
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` object and returns ``True`` if
the user is allowed to view the page. Note that
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.user_passes_test` does not
automatically check that the :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` is
not anonymous.
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.user_passes_test()` takes an
optional ``login_url`` argument, which lets you specify the URL for your
login page (:setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>` by default).
For example::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import user_passes_test
@user_passes_test(lambda u: u.has_perm('polls.can_vote'), login_url='/login/')
def my_view(request):
...
The permission_required decorator
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. function:: permission_required([login_url=None, raise_exception=False])
It's a relatively common task to check whether a user has a particular
permission. For that reason, Django provides a shortcut for that case: the
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.permission_required()` decorator.
Using this decorator, the earlier example can be written as::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import permission_required
@permission_required('polls.can_vote')
def my_view(request):
...
As for the :meth:`User.has_perm` method, permission names take the form
``"<app label>.<permission codename>"`` (i.e. ``polls.can_vote`` for a
permission on a model in the ``polls`` application).
Note that :func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.permission_required()`
also takes an optional ``login_url`` parameter. Example::
from django.contrib.auth.decorators import permission_required
@permission_required('polls.can_vote', login_url='/loginpage/')
def my_view(request):
...
As in the :func:`~decorators.login_required` decorator, ``login_url``
defaults to :setting:`settings.LOGIN_URL <LOGIN_URL>`.
.. versionchanged:: 1.4
Added ``raise_exception`` parameter. If given, the decorator will raise
:exc:`~django.core.exceptions.PermissionDenied`, prompting
:ref:`the 403 (HTTP Forbidden) view<http_forbidden_view>` instead of
redirecting to the login page.
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth
Applying permissions to generic views
-------------------------------------
To apply a permission to a :doc:`class-based generic view
</ref/class-based-views/index>`, decorate the :meth:`View.dispatch
<django.views.generic.base.View.dispatch>` method on the class. See
:ref:`decorating-class-based-views` for details.
.. _permissions:
Permissions
===========
Django comes with a simple permissions system. It provides a way to assign
permissions to specific users and groups of users.
It's used by the Django admin site, but you're welcome to use it in your own
code.
The Django admin site uses permissions as follows:
* Access to view the "add" form and add an object is limited to users with
the "add" permission for that type of object.
* Access to view the change list, view the "change" form and change an
object is limited to users with the "change" permission for that type of
object.
* Access to delete an object is limited to users with the "delete"
permission for that type of object.
Permissions can be set not only per type of object, but also per specific
object instance. By using the
:meth:`~django.contrib.admin.ModelAdmin.has_add_permission`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.admin.ModelAdmin.has_change_permission` and
:meth:`~django.contrib.admin.ModelAdmin.has_delete_permission` methods provided
by the :class:`~django.contrib.admin.ModelAdmin` class, it is possible to
customize permissions for different object instances of the same type.
Default permissions
-------------------
When ``django.contrib.auth`` is listed in your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
setting, it will ensure that three default permissions -- add, change and
delete -- are created for each Django model defined in one of your installed
applications.
These permissions will be created when you run :djadmin:`manage.py syncdb
<syncdb>`; the first time you run ``syncdb`` after adding
``django.contrib.auth`` to :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`, the default permissions
will be created for all previously-installed models, as well as for any new
models being installed at that time. Afterward, it will create default
permissions for new models each time you run :djadmin:`manage.py syncdb
<syncdb>`.
Assuming you have an application with an
:attr:`~django.db.models.Options.app_label` ``foo`` and a model named ``Bar``,
to test for basic permissions you should use:
* add: ``user.has_perm('foo.add_bar')``
* change: ``user.has_perm('foo.change_bar')``
* delete: ``user.has_perm('foo.delete_bar')``
.. _custom-permissions:
Custom permissions
------------------
To create custom permissions for a given model object, use the ``permissions``
:ref:`model Meta attribute <meta-options>`.
This example Task model creates three custom permissions, i.e., actions users
can or cannot do with Task instances, specific to your application::
class Task(models.Model):
...
class Meta:
permissions = (
("view_task", "Can see available tasks"),
("change_task_status", "Can change the status of tasks"),
("close_task", "Can remove a task by setting its status as closed"),
)
The only thing this does is create those extra permissions when you run
:djadmin:`manage.py syncdb <syncdb>`. Your code is in charge of checking the
value of these permissions when an user is trying to access the functionality
provided by the application (viewing tasks, changing the status of tasks,
closing tasks.) Continuing the above example, the following checks if a user may
view tasks::
user.has_perm('app.view_task')
API reference
-------------
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth.models
.. class:: models.Permission
Fields
~~~~~~
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.Permission` objects have the following
fields:
.. attribute:: Permission.name
Required. 50 characters or fewer. Example: ``'Can vote'``.
.. attribute:: Permission.content_type
Required. A reference to the ``django_content_type`` database table, which
contains a record for each installed Django model.
.. attribute:: Permission.codename
Required. 100 characters or fewer. Example: ``'can_vote'``.
Methods
~~~~~~~
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.Permission` objects have the standard
data-access methods like any other :doc:`Django model </ref/models/instances>`.
.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.auth
Programmatically creating permissions
-------------------------------------
While custom permissions can be defined within a model's ``Meta`` class, you
can also create permissions directly. For example, you can create the
``can_publish`` permission for a ``BlogPost`` model in ``myapp``::
from django.contrib.auth.models import Group, Permission
from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType
content_type = ContentType.objects.get(app_label='myapp', model='BlogPost')
permission = Permission.objects.create(codename='can_publish',
name='Can Publish Posts',
content_type=content_type)
The permission can then be assigned to a
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` via its ``user_permissions``
attribute or to a :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.Group` via its
``permissions`` attribute.
Authentication data in templates
================================
The currently logged-in user and his/her permissions are made available in the
:doc:`template context </ref/templates/api>` when you use
:class:`~django.template.context.RequestContext`.
.. admonition:: Technicality
Technically, these variables are only made available in the template context
if you use :class:`~django.template.context.RequestContext` *and* your
:setting:`TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS` setting contains
``"django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth"``, which is default. For
more, see the :ref:`RequestContext docs <subclassing-context-requestcontext>`.
Users
-----
When rendering a template :class:`~django.template.context.RequestContext`, the
currently logged-in user, either a :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`
instance or an :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` instance, is
stored in the template variable ``{{ user }}``:
.. code-block:: html+django
{% if user.is_authenticated %}
<p>Welcome, {{ user.username }}. Thanks for logging in.</p>
{% else %}
<p>Welcome, new user. Please log in.</p>
{% endif %}
This template context variable is not available if a ``RequestContext`` is not
being used.
Permissions
-----------
The currently logged-in user's permissions are stored in the template variable
``{{ perms }}``. This is an instance of
:class:`django.contrib.auth.context_processors.PermWrapper`, which is a
template-friendly proxy of permissions.
In the ``{{ perms }}`` object, single-attribute lookup is a proxy to
:meth:`User.has_module_perms <django.contrib.auth.models.User.has_module_perms>`.
This example would display ``True`` if the logged-in user had any permissions
in the ``foo`` app::
{{ perms.foo }}
Two-level-attribute lookup is a proxy to
:meth:`User.has_perm <django.contrib.auth.models.User.has_perm>`. This example
would display ``True`` if the logged-in user had the permission
``foo.can_vote``::
{{ perms.foo.can_vote }}
Thus, you can check permissions in template ``{% if %}`` statements:
.. code-block:: html+django
{% if perms.foo %}
<p>You have permission to do something in the foo app.</p>
{% if perms.foo.can_vote %}
<p>You can vote!</p>
{% endif %}
{% if perms.foo.can_drive %}
<p>You can drive!</p>
{% endif %}
{% else %}
<p>You don't have permission to do anything in the foo app.</p>
{% endif %}
.. versionadded:: 1.5
Permission lookup by "if in".
It is possible to also look permissions up by ``{% if in %}`` statements.
For example:
.. code-block:: html+django
{% if 'foo' in perms %}
{% if 'foo.can_vote' in perms %}
<p>In lookup works, too.</p>
{% endif %}
{% endif %}
Groups
======
Groups are a generic way of categorizing users so you can apply permissions, or
some other label, to those users. A user can belong to any number of groups.
A user in a group automatically has the permissions granted to that group. For
example, if the group ``Site editors`` has the permission
``can_edit_home_page``, any user in that group will have that permission.
Beyond permissions, groups are a convenient way to categorize users to give
them some label, or extended functionality. For example, you could create a
group ``'Special users'``, and you could write code that could, say, give them
access to a members-only portion of your site, or send them members-only email
messages.
API reference
-------------
.. class:: models.Group
Fields
~~~~~~
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.Group` objects have the following fields:
.. attribute:: Group.name
Required. 80 characters or fewer. Any characters are permitted. Example:
``'Awesome Users'``.
.. attribute:: Group.permissions
Many-to-many field to :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.Permissions`::
group.permissions = [permission_list]
group.permissions.add(permission, permission, ...)
group.permissions.remove(permission, permission, ...)
group.permissions.clear()
.. _auth-custom-user:
Customizing the User model
==========================
.. versionadded:: 1.5
Some kinds of projects may have authentication requirements for which Django's
built-in :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` model is not always
appropriate. For instance, on some sites it makes more sense to use an email
address as your identification token instead of a username.
Django allows you to override the default User model by providing a value for
the :setting:`AUTH_USER_MODEL` setting that references a custom model::
AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'myapp.MyUser'
This dotted pair describes the name of the Django app, and the name of the Django
model that you wish to use as your User model.
.. admonition:: Warning
Changing :setting:`AUTH_USER_MODEL` has a big effect on your database
structure. It changes the tables that are available, and it will affect the
construction of foreign keys and many-to-many relationships. If you intend
to set :setting:`AUTH_USER_MODEL`, you should set it before running
``manage.py syncdb`` for the first time.
If you have an existing project and you want to migrate to using a custom
User model, you may need to look into using a migration tool like South_
to ease the transition.
.. _South: http://south.aeracode.org
Referencing the User model
--------------------------
If you reference :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` directly (for
example, by referring to it in a foreign key), your code will not work in
projects where the :setting:`AUTH_USER_MODEL` setting has been changed to a
different User model.
Instead of referring to :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` directly,
you should reference the user model using
:func:`django.contrib.auth.get_user_model()`. This method will return the
currently active User model -- the custom User model if one is specified, or
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.User` otherwise.
When you define a foreign key or many-to-many relations to the User model,
you should specify the custom model using the :setting:`AUTH_USER_MODEL`
setting. For example::
from django.conf import settings
from django.db import models
class Article(models.Model)
author = models.ForeignKey(settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL)
Specifying a custom User model
------------------------------
.. admonition:: Model design considerations
Think carefully before handling information not directly related to
authentication in your custom User Model.
It may be better to store app-specific user information in a model
that has a relation with the User model. That allows each app to specify
its own user data requirements without risking conflicts with other
apps. On the other hand, queries to retrieve this related information
will involve a database join, which may have an effect on performance.
Django expects your custom User model to meet some minimum requirements.
1. Your model must have a single unique field that can be used for
identification purposes. This can be a username, an email address,
or any other unique attribute.
2. Your model must provide a way to address the user in a "short" and
"long" form. The most common interpretation of this would be to use
the user's given name as the "short" identifier, and the user's full
name as the "long" identifier. However, there are no constraints on
what these two methods return - if you want, they can return exactly
the same value.
The easiest way to construct a compliant custom User model is to inherit from
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`.
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser` provides the core
implementation of a `User` model, including hashed passwords and tokenized
password resets. You must then provide some key implementation details:
.. class:: models.CustomUser
.. attribute:: User.USERNAME_FIELD
A string describing the name of the field on the User model that is
used as the unique identifier. This will usually be a username of
some kind, but it can also be an email address, or any other unique
identifier. In the following example, the field `identifier` is used
as the identifying field::
class MyUser(AbstractBaseUser):
identifier = models.CharField(max_length=40, unique=True, db_index=True)
...
USERNAME_FIELD = 'identifier'
.. attribute:: User.REQUIRED_FIELDS
A list of the field names that *must* be provided when creating
a user. For example, here is the partial definition for a User model
that defines two required fields - a date of birth and height::
class MyUser(AbstractBaseUser):
...
date_of_birth = models.DateField()
height = models.FloatField()
...
REQUIRED_FIELDS = ['date_of_birth', 'height']
.. note::
``REQUIRED_FIELDS`` must contain all required fields on your User
model, but should *not* contain the ``USERNAME_FIELD``.
.. attribute:: User.is_active
A boolean attribute that indicates whether the user is considered
"active". This attribute is provided as an attribute on
``AbstractBaseUser`` defaulting to ``True``. How you choose to
implement it will depend on the details of your chosen auth backends.
See the documentation of the :attr:`attribute on the builtin user model
<django.contrib.auth.models.User.is_active>` for details.
.. method:: User.get_full_name():
A longer formal identifier for the user. A common interpretation
would be the full name name of the user, but it can be any string that
identifies the user.
.. method:: User.get_short_name():
A short, informal identifier for the user. A common interpretation
would be the first name of the user, but it can be any string that
identifies the user in an informal way. It may also return the same
value as :meth:`django.contrib.auth.User.get_full_name()`.
The following methods are available on any subclass of
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`:
.. class:: models.AbstractBaseUser
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.get_username()
Returns the value of the field nominated by ``USERNAME_FIELD``.
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.is_anonymous()
Always returns ``False``. This is a way of differentiating
from :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` objects.
Generally, you should prefer using
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser.is_authenticated()` to this
method.
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.is_authenticated()
Always returns ``True``. This is a way to tell if the user has been
authenticated. This does not imply any permissions, and doesn't check
if the user is active - it only indicates that the user has provided a
valid username and password.
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.set_password(raw_password)
Sets the user's password to the given raw string, taking care of the
password hashing. Doesn't save the
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser` object.
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.check_password(raw_password)
Returns ``True`` if the given raw string is the correct password for
the user. (This takes care of the password hashing in making the
comparison.)
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.set_unusable_password()
Marks the user as having no password set. This isn't the same as
having a blank string for a password.
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser.check_password()` for this user
will never return ``True``. Doesn't save the
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser` object.
You may need this if authentication for your application takes place
against an existing external source such as an LDAP directory.
.. method:: models.AbstractBaseUser.has_usable_password()
Returns ``False`` if
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser.set_unusable_password()` has
been called for this user.
You should also define a custom manager for your User model. If your User
model defines `username` and `email` fields the same as Django's default User,
you can just install Django's
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.UserManager`; however, if your User model
defines different fields, you will need to define a custom manager that
extends :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.BaseUserManager` providing two
additional methods:
.. class:: models.CustomUserManager
.. method:: models.CustomUserManager.create_user(*username_field*, password=None, **other_fields)
The prototype of `create_user()` should accept the username field,
plus all required fields as arguments. For example, if your user model
uses `email` as the username field, and has `date_of_birth` as a required
fields, then create_user should be defined as::
def create_user(self, email, date_of_birth, password=None):
# create user here
.. method:: models.CustomUserManager.create_superuser(*username_field*, password, **other_fields)
The prototype of `create_superuser()` should accept the username field,
plus all required fields as arguments. For example, if your user model
uses `email` as the username field, and has `date_of_birth` as a required
fields, then create_superuser should be defined as::
def create_superuser(self, email, date_of_birth, password):
# create superuser here
Unlike `create_user()`, `create_superuser()` *must* require the caller
to provider a password.
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.BaseUserManager` provides the following
utility methods:
.. class:: models.BaseUserManager
.. method:: models.BaseUserManager.normalize_email(email)
A classmethod that normalizes email addresses by lowercasing
the domain portion of the email address.
.. method:: models.BaseUserManager.get_by_natural_key(username)
Retrieves a user instance using the contents of the field
nominated by ``USERNAME_FIELD``.
.. method:: models.BaseUserManager.make_random_password(length=10, allowed_chars='abcdefghjkmnpqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZ23456789')
Returns a random password with the given length and given string of
allowed characters. (Note that the default value of ``allowed_chars``
doesn't contain letters that can cause user confusion, including:
* ``i``, ``l``, ``I``, and ``1`` (lowercase letter i, lowercase
letter L, uppercase letter i, and the number one)
* ``o``, ``O``, and ``0`` (uppercase letter o, lowercase letter o,
and zero)
Extending Django's default User
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If you're entirely happy with Django's :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`
model and you just want to add some additional profile information, you can
simply subclass :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractUser` and add your
custom profile fields.
Custom users and the built-in auth forms
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
As you may expect, built-in Django's :ref:`forms <built-in-auth-forms>`
and :ref:`views <other-built-in-views>` make certain assumptions about
the user model that they are working with.
If your user model doesn't follow the same assumptions, it may be necessary to define
a replacement form, and pass that form in as part of the configuration of the
auth views.
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.UserCreationForm`
Depends on the :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` model.
Must be re-written for any custom user model.
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.UserChangeForm`
Depends on the :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User` model.
Must be re-written for any custom user model.
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.AuthenticationForm`
Works with any subclass of :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`,
and will adapt to use the field defined in `USERNAME_FIELD`.
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.PasswordResetForm`
Assumes that the user model has an integer primary key, has a field named
`email` that can be used to identify the user, and a boolean field
named `is_active` to prevent password resets for inactive users.
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.SetPasswordForm`
Works with any subclass of :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.PasswordChangeForm`
Works with any subclass of :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`
* :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.AdminPasswordChangeForm`
Works with any subclass of :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`
Custom users and django.contrib.admin
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If you want your custom User model to also work with Admin, your User model must
define some additional attributes and methods. These methods allow the admin to
control access of the User to admin content:
.. attribute:: User.is_staff
Returns True if the user is allowed to have access to the admin site.
.. attribute:: User.is_active
Returns True if the user account is currently active.
.. method:: User.has_perm(perm, obj=None):
Returns True if the user has the named permission. If `obj` is
provided, the permission needs to be checked against a specific object
instance.
.. method:: User.has_module_perms(app_label):
Returns True if the user has permission to access models in
the given app.
You will also need to register your custom User model with the admin. If
your custom User model extends :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractUser`,
you can use Django's existing :class:`~django.contrib.auth.admin.UserAdmin`
class. However, if your User model extends
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser`, you'll need to define
a custom ModelAdmin class. It may be possible to subclass the default
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.admin.UserAdmin`; however, you'll need to
override any of the definitions that refer to fields on
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractUser` that aren't on your
custom User class.
Custom users and Proxy models
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
One limitation of custom User models is that installing a custom User model
will break any proxy model extending :class:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User`.
Proxy models must be based on a concrete base class; by defining a custom User
model, you remove the ability of Django to reliably identify the base class.
If your project uses proxy models, you must either modify the proxy to extend
the User model that is currently in use in your project, or merge your proxy's
behavior into your User subclass.
Custom users and signals
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Another limitation of custom User models is that you can't use
:func:`django.contrib.auth.get_user_model()` as the sender or target of a signal
handler. Instead, you must register the handler with the actual User model.
A full example
--------------
Here is an example of an admin-compliant custom user app. This user model uses
an email address as the username, and has a required date of birth; it
provides no permission checking, beyond a simple `admin` flag on the user
account. This model would be compatible with all the built-in auth forms and
views, except for the User creation forms.
This code would all live in a ``models.py`` file for a custom
authentication app::
from django.db import models
from django.contrib.auth.models import (
BaseUserManager, AbstractBaseUser
)
class MyUserManager(BaseUserManager):
def create_user(self, email, date_of_birth, password=None):
"""
Creates and saves a User with the given email, date of
birth and password.
"""
if not email:
raise ValueError('Users must have an email address')
user = self.model(
email=MyUserManager.normalize_email(email),
date_of_birth=date_of_birth,
)
user.set_password(password)
user.save(using=self._db)
return user
def create_superuser(self, email, date_of_birth, password):
"""
Creates and saves a superuser with the given email, date of
birth and password.
"""
user = self.create_user(email,
password=password,
date_of_birth=date_of_birth
)
user.is_admin = True
user.save(using=self._db)
return user
class MyUser(AbstractBaseUser):
email = models.EmailField(
verbose_name='email address',
max_length=255,
unique=True,
db_index=True,
)
date_of_birth = models.DateField()
is_active = models.BooleanField(default=True)
is_admin = models.BooleanField(default=False)
objects = MyUserManager()
USERNAME_FIELD = 'email'
REQUIRED_FIELDS = ['date_of_birth']
def get_full_name(self):
# The user is identified by their email address
return self.email
def get_short_name(self):
# The user is identified by their email address
return self.email
def __unicode__(self):
return self.email
def has_perm(self, perm, obj=None):
"Does the user have a specific permission?"
# Simplest possible answer: Yes, always
return True
def has_module_perms(self, app_label):
"Does the user have permissions to view the app `app_label`?"
# Simplest possible answer: Yes, always
return True
@property
def is_staff(self):
"Is the user a member of staff?"
# Simplest possible answer: All admins are staff
return self.is_admin
Then, to register this custom User model with Django's admin, the following
code would be required in the app's ``admin.py`` file::
from django import forms
from django.contrib import admin
from django.contrib.auth.models import Group
from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin
from django.contrib.auth.forms import ReadOnlyPasswordHashField
from customauth.models import MyUser
class UserCreationForm(forms.ModelForm):
"""A form for creating new users. Includes all the required
fields, plus a repeated password."""
password1 = forms.CharField(label='Password', widget=forms.PasswordInput)
password2 = forms.CharField(label='Password confirmation', widget=forms.PasswordInput)
class Meta:
model = MyUser
fields = ('email', 'date_of_birth')
def clean_password2(self):
# Check that the two password entries match
password1 = self.cleaned_data.get("password1")
password2 = self.cleaned_data.get("password2")
if password1 and password2 and password1 != password2:
raise forms.ValidationError("Passwords don't match")
return password2
def save(self, commit=True):
# Save the provided password in hashed format
user = super(UserCreationForm, self).save(commit=False)
user.set_password(self.cleaned_data["password1"])
if commit:
user.save()
return user
class UserChangeForm(forms.ModelForm):
"""A form for updating users. Includes all the fields on
the user, but replaces the password field with admin's
password hash display field.
"""
password = ReadOnlyPasswordHashField()
class Meta:
model = MyUser
def clean_password(self):
# Regardless of what the user provides, return the initial value.
# This is done here, rather than on the field, because the
# field does not have access to the initial value
return self.initial["password"]
class MyUserAdmin(UserAdmin):
# The forms to add and change user instances
form = UserChangeForm
add_form = UserCreationForm
# The fields to be used in displaying the User model.
# These override the definitions on the base UserAdmin
# that reference specific fields on auth.User.
list_display = ('email', 'date_of_birth', 'is_admin')
list_filter = ('is_admin',)
fieldsets = (
(None, {'fields': ('email', 'password')}),
('Personal info', {'fields': ('date_of_birth',)}),
('Permissions', {'fields': ('is_admin',)}),
('Important dates', {'fields': ('last_login',)}),
)
add_fieldsets = (
(None, {
'classes': ('wide',),
'fields': ('email', 'date_of_birth', 'password1', 'password2')}
),
)
search_fields = ('email',)
ordering = ('email',)
filter_horizontal = ()
# Now register the new UserAdmin...
admin.site.register(MyUser, MyUserAdmin)
# ... and, since we're not using Django's builtin permissions,
# unregister the Group model from admin.
admin.site.unregister(Group)
.. _authentication-backends:
Other authentication sources
============================
The authentication that comes with Django is good enough for most common cases,
but you may have the need to hook into another authentication source -- that
is, another source of usernames and passwords or authentication methods.
For example, your company may already have an LDAP setup that stores a username
and password for every employee. It'd be a hassle for both the network
administrator and the users themselves if users had separate accounts in LDAP
and the Django-based applications.
So, to handle situations like this, the Django authentication system lets you
plug in other authentication sources. You can override Django's default
database-based scheme, or you can use the default system in tandem with other
systems.
See the :doc:`authentication backend reference </ref/authbackends>`
for information on the authentication backends included with Django.
Specifying authentication backends
----------------------------------
Behind the scenes, Django maintains a list of "authentication backends" that it
checks for authentication. When somebody calls
:func:`django.contrib.auth.authenticate()` -- as described in :ref:`How to log
a user in <how-to-log-a-user-in>` above -- Django tries authenticating across
all of its authentication backends. If the first authentication method fails,
Django tries the second one, and so on, until all backends have been attempted.
The list of authentication backends to use is specified in the
:setting:`AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS` setting. This should be a tuple of Python
path names that point to Python classes that know how to authenticate. These
classes can be anywhere on your Python path.
By default, :setting:`AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS` is set to::
('django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend',)
That's the basic authentication backend that checks the Django users database
and queries the builtin permissions. It does not provide protection against
brute force attacks via any rate limiting mechanism. You may either implement
your own rate limiting mechanism in a custom auth backend, or use the
mechanisms provided by most Web servers.
The order of :setting:`AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS` matters, so if the same
username and password is valid in multiple backends, Django will stop
processing at the first positive match.
.. note::
Once a user has authenticated, Django stores which backend was used to
authenticate the user in the user's session, and re-uses the same backend
for the duration of that session whenever access to the currently
authenticated user is needed. This effectively means that authentication
sources are cached on a per-session basis, so if you change
:setting:`AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS`, you'll need to clear out session data if
you need to force users to re-authenticate using different methods. A simple
way to do that is simply to execute ``Session.objects.all().delete()``.
.. versionadded:: 1.6
If a backend raises a :class:`~django.core.exceptions.PermissionDenied`
exception, authentication will immediately fail. Django won't check the
backends that follow.
Writing an authentication backend
---------------------------------
An authentication backend is a class that implements two required methods:
``get_user(user_id)`` and ``authenticate(**credentials)``, as well as a set of
optional permission related :ref:`authorization methods <authorization_methods>`.
The ``get_user`` method takes a ``user_id`` -- which could be a username,
database ID or whatever -- and returns a ``User`` object.
The ``authenticate`` method takes credentials as keyword arguments. Most of
the time, it'll just look like this::
class MyBackend(object):
def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
# Check the username/password and return a User.
But it could also authenticate a token, like so::
class MyBackend(object):
def authenticate(self, token=None):
# Check the token and return a User.
Either way, ``authenticate`` should check the credentials it gets, and it
should return a ``User`` object that matches those credentials, if the
credentials are valid. If they're not valid, it should return ``None``.
The Django admin system is tightly coupled to the Django ``User`` object
described at the beginning of this document. For now, the best way to deal with
this is to create a Django ``User`` object for each user that exists for your
backend (e.g., in your LDAP directory, your external SQL database, etc.) You
can either write a script to do this in advance, or your ``authenticate``
method can do it the first time a user logs in.
Here's an example backend that authenticates against a username and password
variable defined in your ``settings.py`` file and creates a Django ``User``
object the first time a user authenticates::
from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth.models import User, check_password
class SettingsBackend(object):
"""
Authenticate against the settings ADMIN_LOGIN and ADMIN_PASSWORD.
Use the login name, and a hash of the password. For example:
ADMIN_LOGIN = 'admin'
ADMIN_PASSWORD = 'sha1$4e987$afbcf42e21bd417fb71db8c66b321e9fc33051de'
"""
def authenticate(self, username=None, password=None):
login_valid = (settings.ADMIN_LOGIN == username)
pwd_valid = check_password(password, settings.ADMIN_PASSWORD)
if login_valid and pwd_valid:
try:
user = User.objects.get(username=username)
except User.DoesNotExist:
# Create a new user. Note that we can set password
# to anything, because it won't be checked; the password
# from settings.py will.
user = User(username=username, password='get from settings.py')
user.is_staff = True
user.is_superuser = True
user.save()
return user
return None
def get_user(self, user_id):
try:
return User.objects.get(pk=user_id)
except User.DoesNotExist:
return None
.. _authorization_methods:
Handling authorization in custom backends
-----------------------------------------
Custom auth backends can provide their own permissions.
The user model will delegate permission lookup functions
(:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.get_group_permissions()`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.get_all_permissions()`,
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.has_perm()`, and
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.User.has_module_perms()`) to any
authentication backend that implements these functions.
The permissions given to the user will be the superset of all permissions
returned by all backends. That is, Django grants a permission to a user that
any one backend grants.
The simple backend above could implement permissions for the magic admin
fairly simply::
class SettingsBackend(object):
# ...
def has_perm(self, user_obj, perm, obj=None):
if user_obj.username == settings.ADMIN_LOGIN:
return True
else:
return False
This gives full permissions to the user granted access in the above example.
Notice that in addition to the same arguments given to the associated
:class:`django.contrib.auth.models.User` functions, the backend auth functions
all take the user object, which may be an anonymous user, as an argument.
A full authorization implementation can be found in the ``ModelBackend`` class
in `django/contrib/auth/backends.py`_, which is the default backend and queries
the ``auth_permission`` table most of the time. If you wish to provide
custom behavior for only part of the backend API, you can take advantage of
Python inheritence and subclass ``ModelBackend`` instead of implementing the
complete API in a custom backend.
.. _django/contrib/auth/backends.py: https://github.com/django/django/blob/master/django/contrib/auth/backends.py
.. _anonymous_auth:
Authorization for anonymous users
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
An anonymous user is one that is not authenticated i.e. they have provided no
valid authentication details. However, that does not necessarily mean they are
not authorized to do anything. At the most basic level, most Web sites
authorize anonymous users to browse most of the site, and many allow anonymous
posting of comments etc.
Django's permission framework does not have a place to store permissions for
anonymous users. However, the user object passed to an authentication backend
may be an :class:`django.contrib.auth.models.AnonymousUser` object, allowing
the backend to specify custom authorization behavior for anonymous users. This
is especially useful for the authors of re-usable apps, who can delegate all
questions of authorization to the auth backend, rather than needing settings,
for example, to control anonymous access.
.. _inactive_auth:
Authorization for inactive users
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
An inactive user is a one that is authenticated but has its attribute
``is_active`` set to ``False``. However this does not mean they are not
authorized to do anything. For example they are allowed to activate their
account.
The support for anonymous users in the permission system allows for a scenario
where anonymous users have permissions to do something while inactive
authenticated users do not.
Do not forget to test for the ``is_active`` attribute of the user in your own
backend permission methods.
Handling object permissions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Django's permission framework has a foundation for object permissions, though
there is no implementation for it in the core. That means that checking for
object permissions will always return ``False`` or an empty list (depending on
the check performed). An authentication backend will receive the keyword
parameters ``obj`` and ``user_obj`` for each object related authorization
method and can return the object level permission as appropriate.
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