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No Longer Supported

This project is no longer supported or upkept by Unchained Capital. Please use this project at your own risk.

Ethereum Multisig

This repository implements an Ethereum smart contract (Multisig2of3) which requires signed messages from 2/3 members of a multisig cold wallet with individual keys stored on Trezor or Ledger hardware wallets.

This repository also contains a simple dApp which lets you create and spend from an instance of the smart contract using your own quorum of Trezors. You can run the dApp locally or via our hosted copy at

Command-line scripts are also provided (see the scripts directory) for developers who want to create and spend from the smart contract programatically.

The smart contract is fully unit tested.

Why did we write this contract?

For complete details on why we wrote this contract, please read our blog post.

In short, we needed an Ethereum multisig smart contract with the following properties:

  • allows anyone to deposit Ether
  • can only be spent by passing signed messages from M out of N private keys
  • compatible with signing semantics of hardware devices (such as Trezors)
  • can be initially broadcast from a hot wallet not in the M/N-quorum
  • can be spent by this same hot wallet relaying messages from the M/N-quorum
  • remains secure if the hot wallet broadcasting the contract is compromised
  • as simple as possible with no dependence on library code
  • fully unit-tested and integration-tested on testnets (Kovan) as well as the Ethereum mainnet
  • well-documented and easy to use

In Bitcoin, all these requirements are trivially met by the standard implementation of a 2/3 P2SH address. Ethereum suffers from an embarassment of riches and we could not find a single smart contract implementation that we were happy with. So we wrote this.


The MultiSig2of3 contract was audited by Hosho.
We have included the full audit report.

The audit was of the contract at commit f40143e00a378addfc5559ff743f1c8a7ca7fae3 with a fingerprint of 4F436F84AB192BB664AEE206EB7ED80138481B46C9BBA7EC5C70C2774752CEDF.


The simplest way to interact with the smart contract is through the dApp bundled with this repository. The dApp assumes you have a locally running Ethereum client (Parity, MetaMask, Geth, &c.)

Using Hosted dApp

You can access a hosted version of the dApp at Depending on which Ethereum node you are using, you may have to do some additional configuration before the dApp can communicate:

  • MetaMask -- No additional configuration is required
  • Parity
    • if you are using Chrome, you can install the [Parity Chrome Extension]
    • otherwise you'll need to make sure you set --jsonrpc-cors when starting Parity
  • Geth
    • you'll need to set --rpccorsdomain when starting geth.
  • Mist -- Mist does not support Trezor so the dApp will not work.

Running Local dApp

To access the dApp locally, download or clone this repository.

Once downloaded you can use access the dApp in two ways:

  1. Navigate with your browser to the file public/index.html inside this repository. This option is easier but somewhat less secure.
  2. Launch a local webserver and point your browser to https://localhost:8435. This option is more secure but requires a local NPM installation and using the command-line -- see the section below for instructions.

Which you choose will depend on which Ethereum node you are using and how you've configured it:

  • MetaMask -- For security reasons, option (1) is not allowed by MetaMask -- you must use option (2) and launch a local webserver.
  • Parity
    • To use option (1) and navigate with your browser to the file public/index.html you will need to set --jsonrpc-cors null (this is why this option is less secure).
    • To use option (2) and point your browser to https://localhost:8435 you will need to set --jsonrpc-cors https://localhost:8435.
  • Geth
    • To use option (1) and navigate with your browser to the file public/index.html you will need to set --rpccorsdomain null (this is why this option is less secure).
    • To use option (2) and point your browser to https://localhost:8435 you will need to set --rpccorsdomain https://localhost:8435.
  • Mist -- Mist does not support Trezor so the dApp will not work.

Launching a Local Webserver

This repository also comes with a simple webserver which provides a more secure alternative to directly browsing to the public/index.html file. (This is required for MetaMask and Ledger).

To launch the local webserver you will need NPM to be installed locally as well as the make program.

To install dependencies and launch the server, open a shell in this repository's directory and run:

$ make dependencies
$ make server

Now browse to https://localhost:8435 to see the dApp. You will have to accept an insecure connection warning.


If you want to develop against the smart contract or the DAPP you'll need:

You may also have to install some system dependencies:

  • OS X -- run brew install libusb leveldb
  • Ubuntu/Debian -- run apt install python3-dev libusb-dev

To install all development dependencies, open a shell in this repository's directory and run:

$ make dependencies-all

If you aren't using the python scripts or mythril, you can skip the python dependencies by running:

$ make js-dependencies-all

Compiling & Testing the Contract

Once dependencies are installed, you can compile the contract.

$ make contract

and run its unit tests

$ make test

We are using the Truffle framework so truffle commands are available. To make them easier to run, you should update your PATH variable or set a shell alias. You can also just run

$ source

to do all of this for you. Now you can run the truffle commands, e.g. -

$ truffle compile


We are using the Mythril tool for static analysis. Once dependencies are installed, you can run:

$ make myth

to run a check. You can also run the myth program directly (assuming you have run source


We use Solium for linting and more security checks. Run with:

$ make solium


The contract emits the following events:

  • Funded (uint256 newBalance) -- whenever the contract receives a new deposit (topic: 0xc4c14883ae9fd8e26d5d59e3485ed29fd126d781d7e498a4ca5c54c8268e4936)
  • Spent (address to, uint256 transfer) -- whenever the contract is spent from (topic: 0xd3eec71143c45f28685b24760ea218d476917aa0ac0392a55e5304cef40bd2b6)

Command-Line Scripts

This repository also comes with the command-line Python and Node scripts for interacting with the smart contract:

  • scripts/export_ethereum_address -- exports an Ethereum address from a local Trezor.
  • scripts/ledger/ledger-address.js -- exports an Ethereum address from a local Ledger.
  • scripts/create_ethereum_multisig -- creates a new instance of the smart contract.
  • scripts/ethereum_multisig_spend_unsigned_data -- return the unsigned data used for a spend
  • scripts/export_ethereum_multisig_spend_signature -- export a signed spend from a local Trezor.
  • scripts/ledger/ledger-sign-message.js -- export a signed spend from a local Ledger.
  • scripts/spend_ethereum_multisig -- broadcast a spend transaction

Once dependencies are installed, you will be able to run these scripts.

The following example illustrates how to collectively use these scripts and a single Trezor or Ledger to create an instance of the smart contract and spend from it. Using a single wallet is convenient for testing, but for real usage you would obviously use distinct wallets.

  1. The first step is to set the shell's environment to enter the Python virtualenv. You can do this by running .virtualenv/bin/activate directly or just source the environment setup script:
$ source
  1. Now extract three separate addresses which can act as signers for the smart contract:
$ owner_path_1="m/44'/60'/600'/0/0"
$ owner_path_2="m/44'/60'/600'/0/1"
$ owner_path_3="m/44'/60'/600'/0/2"

For Trezor:

$ owner_address_1=$(./scripts/export_ethereum_address $owner_path_1)
$ owner_address_2=$(./scripts/export_ethereum_address $owner_path_2)
$ owner_address_3=$(./scripts/export_ethereum_address $owner_path_3)

For Ledger:

To use ledger with node scripts (assuming you are using the standard ethereum app) you will need to set 'Browser Support' to 'No' in the 'Settings' menu in the Ethereum app on the Ledger device.

$ owner_address_1=$(node scripts/ledger/ledger-address.js $owner_path_1)
$ owner_address_2=$(node scripts/ledger/ledger-address.js $owner_path_2)
$ owner_address_3=$(node scripts/ledger/ledger-address.js $owner_path_3)
  1. Now use these addresses to create a new instance of the smart contract.
$ contract_address=$(./scripts/create_ethereum_multisig $owner_address_1 $owner_address_2 $owner_address_3)
  1. Now you can fund the address using any Ethereum wallet.

  2. To spend from the address, first compute the unsigned message required for the spend (sending 0.1 ETH to address 0xaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa in this example):

$ destination_address=0xaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
$ amount=0.1
$ unsigned_data=$(./scripts/ethereum_multisig_spend_unsigned_data $contract_address $destination_address $amount)
  1. Now export two signatures:

For Trezor:

$ signature_1=$(./scripts/export_ethereum_multisig_spend_signature $unsigned_data $owner_path_1)
$ signature_2=$(./scripts/export_ethereum_multisig_spend_signature $unsigned_data $owner_path_2)

For Ledger:

You can/should preview the message that will displayed:

$ node scripts/ledger/preview-ledger-display.js $unsigned_data

And then sign:

$ signature_1=$(node scripts/ledger/ledger-sign-message.js $owner_path_1 $unsigned_data)
$ signature_2=$(node scripts/ledger/ledger-sign-message.js $owner_path_2 $unsigned_data)

Note: The Ledger signature produced by this script has been altered to match the same format as the Trezor signature. If using the 'manual input' fields in the dapp with this signature, select 'Trezor' from the wallet drop-down.

  1. Now broadcast the spend transaction:
$ ./scripts/spend_ethereum_multisig $contract_address $destination_address $amount $signature_1 $signature_2


We welcome contributions to this repository either in form of GitHub issues or pull requests.

When filing an issue, please include the context under which you encountered the issue, e.g. -

  • "using the hosted dApp with Parity v1.8.0 using the Parity Chrome Extension on Windows 10 with Ledger firmware 1.4.2 and ethereum app version 1.0.20"
  • "using the scripts on an Ubuntu 16.04 installation with Python version 3.6.0 and Trezor firmware 1.6.0"

When contemplating a pull request, please consider fixing just a single bug or implement just a single feature. Before you submit the pull request, ensure you have run the unit tests and run an "integration test" using the dApp locally with a Trezor and/or Ledger.


This application is in “alpha” state and is presented for evaluation and testing only. It is provided “as is,” and any express or implied warranties, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are disclaimed. By using this application, you accept all risks of such use, including full responsibility for any direct or indirect loss of any kind resulting from the use of this application, which may involve complete loss of any ETH or other coins associated with addresses used with this application. In no event shall Unchained Capital, Inc., its employees and affiliates, or developers of this application be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this application, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.


Ethereum 2/3-multisig smart contract & dApp for cold storage, hardware wallets.




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