Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
branch: master
README.markdown

About

lfgalign is a program for aligning corresponding f-structures and c-structures of LFG analysed parallel sentences. The analyses should be in the XLE format, and preferably manually disambiguated from grammars that have been written using common analysis principles (see the Xpar project description). One may optionally supply word-translations (e.g. from word alignments or translational dictionaries) in order to improve the predicate alignment.

There is an article about lfgalign that describes the method; see also the master's thesis (in Norwegian).

Usage

Prerequisites:

  • asdf, this is bundled with SBCL as well as the less common Common Lisps.

  • lisp-unit (optional, for regression tests)

Make a symlink from your systems directory to lfgalign.asd in this directory (you can do the same for lisp-unit); since I installed SBCL using clbuild this directory was at /path/to/clbuild/systems, but you can find the path by evaluating asdf:*central-registry* in your interpreter after requiring 'asdf.

Running in the interpreter

Load the package in your interpreter with

(asdf:operate 'asdf:load-op 'lfgalign)

Switch to the lfgalign package:

(in-package :lfgalign)

(If you're using through Emacs with Slime, you can load from the REPL with , load RET lfgalign RET and switch with , in RET lfgalign RET.)

You can then run the regression tests with

(lisp-unit:run-tests)

The function evaluate in the file eval.lisp shows how you load two Prolog files into analysis tables, create an empty LPT table, run f-alignment, ranking and c-alignment, finally give some not-very-formatted output.

Running from the command-line

A very preliminary command-line interface using SBCL is available. You should be able to align two Prolog files by simply saying

./align.sh source.pl target.pl

although it assumes SBCL is installed in usr; you can set the correct paths to SBCL and your asdf systems directory (where you symlinked to lfgalign.asd) first by doing e.g.:

export LISP=/l/c/clbuild/target/bin/sbcl
export LISPCORE=/l/c/clbuild/target/lib/sbcl/sbcl.core
export ASDFSYSTEMS=/l/c/clbuild/systems/

Common Lisp command-line interfaces are unfortunately not very standardised.

Alternative c-structure alignment

The global variable *pro-affects-c-linking* controls whether unlinked pro-elements may hinder linking c-structure nodes of two predicates. Setting this to t or nil toggles two alternative ways of linking c-structures in the cases where one language has pro-elements and the other does not, and the pro-element is linked on the f-structure level.

Central functions

lfgalign

lfgalign.lisp currently does the following:

  • collect c-structure trees: maketree

  • find the topmost c-node in an f-domain: topnode

  • find a c-node referenced by f-structure variable: treefind

  • find f-structure predicate from variable, traversing equivalent f-vars: get-pred and unravel

  • find arguments, adjuncts, lemma and lexical expression of a predicate/f-var: get-args, get-adjs, lemma, L

  • keep tables of LPT correspondences (lookup with LPT? ensures a "pro" is an LPT of a noun as defined by noun?)

  • find all set-unique combinations of links of source arguments with target args/adjuncts, and target arguments with source args/adjuncts (excluding adj-adj links): argalign (if given LPT tables, this removes combinations where at least one link is non-LPT)

  • outer-pred creates a fake "sentence pred" with id -1, that has 0 as an argument and, as adjuncts: any unreferenced preds in the f-structure (preds that are not arguments/adjuncts reachable through 0)

  • f-align combines the above and recursively tries to align all arguments in all permutations of argument-argument/adjunct pairs, creating a decision tree of sorts; flatten spreads this out into several simple lists.

  • rank uses rank-helper and rank-branch to turn the output from f-align into a single flat, ranked list of links for input into c-align.

  • add-links takes a flat f-alignment and a tree, and creates a table of type LL-splits. Each node n is added to a list in the table, where the index of the list is the set of alignments of pre-terminal nodes dominated by node n (so several nodes may have the same index).

  • c-align takes a flat f-alignment and finds the LL-splits of source and target trees, intersecting that on the keys to find which nodes can be aligned.

prolog-import

prolog-import.lisp parses an XLE Prolog file and puts everything into a hash table. Keys are f-structure variable numbers for the f-structure, while the c-structure parts are referenced on the names of the parts (subtree, terminal, phi, cproj, fspan, semform_data, surfaceform), the values being alists with unique id keys. If we turn it all back into an assoc-list, we get e.g.:

((0 ("VFORM" . "fin") ("CLAUSE-TYPE" . "decl") ("TNS-ASP" . 10)
  ("POLARITY" . 5) ("CHECK" . 1) ("SUBJ" . 3) ("PRED" "qePa" 2 (3) NIL))
 (3 ("PERS" . "3") ("NUM" . "sg") ("CASE" . "erg") ("ANIM" . "+") ("NTYPE" . 6)
  ("CHECK" . 4) ("PRED" "Abrams" 0 NIL NIL))
 (4 ("_AGR-POS" . "left") ("_POLARITY" . 5)) (6 ("NSYN" . "proper"))
 (1 ("_TENSEGROUP" . "aor") ("_TENSE" . "aor") ("_PERIOD" . "+")
  ("_MAIN-CL" . "+") ("_AGR" . "both") ("_MORPH-SYNT" . 7) ("_IN-SITU" . 2))
 (|in_set| ("NO-PV" . 22) (3 . 2))
 (7 ("_SYNTAX" . "unerg") ("_PERF-PV" . "-") ("_LEXID" . "V2746-3")
  ("_CLASS" . "MV") ("_AGR" . 8))
 (8 ("_OBJ" . 9)) (9 ("PERS" . "3") ("NUM" . "sg"))
 (10 ("TENSE" . "past") ("MOOD" . "indicative") ("ASPECT" . "perf"))
 (21 ("o::" . 22))
 (|subtree| (2 "PROP" NIL 1) (4 "V_SUFF_BASE" NIL 5) (6 "V_SUFF_BASE" NIL 7)
  (8 "V_SUFF_BASE" NIL 9) (10 "V_SUFF_BASE" NIL 11) (12 "V_SUFF_BASE" NIL 13)
  (14 "V_SUFF_BASE" NIL 15) (18 "V_BASE" NIL 17) (28 "PERIOD" NIL 22)
  (118 "PROPP" NIL 2) (141 "IPfoc[main,-]" NIL 118) (281 "V" NIL 18)
  (283 "V" 281 14) (284 "V" 283 12) (285 "V" 284 10) (286 "V" 285 8)
  (287 "V" 286 6) (288 "V" 287 4) (293 "I[main,-]" NIL 288)
  (398 "Ibar[main,-]" NIL 293) (401 "IPfoc[main,-]" 141 398)
  (454 "ROOT" NIL 401) (457 "ROOT" 454 28))
 (|phi| (1 . 3) (2 . 3) (4 . 0) (5 . 0) (6 . 0) (7 . 0) (8 . 0) (9 . 0)
  (10 . 0) (11 . 0) (12 . 0) (13 . 0) (14 . 0) (15 . 0) (17 . 23) (18 . 0)
  (22 . 0) (28 . 0) (118 . 3) (141 . 0) (281 . 0) (283 . 0) (284 . 0) (285 . 0)
  (286 . 0) (287 . 0) (288 . 0) (293 . 0) (398 . 0) (401 . 0) (454 . 0)
  (457 . 0))
 (|terminal| (1 "abramsma" (1)) (5 "+Obj3" (3)) (7 "+Subj3Sg" (3))
  (9 "+Aor" (3)) (11 "+Base" (3)) (13 "+Unerg" (3)) (15 "+V" (3))
  (17 "qePa-2746-3" (3)) (22 "." (22)))
 (|cproj| (17 . 21)) (|semform_data| (2 18 10 14) (0 2 1 9))
 (|fspan| (3 1 9) (0 1 16))
 (|surfaceform| (22 "." 15 16) (3 "iqePa" 10 15) (1 "abramsma" 1 9)))

We collect the eq-vars (equivalent variables) into a doubly-linked circular list (so we can easily look up a member and get all equivalents).

We signal an error if the file is not disambiguated (as indicated by the select and choice fields in the Prolog file). Otherwise, we filter out non-selected parses from the file, keeping only the ones equivalent to the selected parse (see filter-equiv, in-disjunction and disambiguated?).

TODO

  • Use LPT-check as a k-best ranking criterion rather than a binary cut-off.

  • SPEC and POSS features may lead to PRED's that are not arguments or adjuncts of anything else (e.g. determiners, possessors) -- need some principled method of aligning these.

  • The program just uses dset3 of the dsets, rename it (make a class?) and deprecate the others.

  • Could perhaps make argument calls a bit more concise by making a class alignment, containing constants tab_s, tab_t, creating constants tree_s and tree_t on init, and storing LPT and f-alignments.

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.