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/* Unicorn Emulator Engine */
/* By Nguyen Anh Quynh <aquynh@gmail.com>, 2015-2017 */
/* This file is released under LGPL2.
See COPYING.LGPL2 in root directory for more details
*/
#ifndef UNICORN_ENGINE_H
#define UNICORN_ENGINE_H
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif
#include "platform.h"
#include <stdarg.h>
#if defined(UNICORN_HAS_OSXKERNEL)
#include <libkern/libkern.h>
#else
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#endif
struct uc_struct;
typedef struct uc_struct uc_engine;
typedef size_t uc_hook;
#include "m68k.h"
#include "x86.h"
#include "arm.h"
#include "arm64.h"
#include "mips.h"
#include "sparc.h"
#include "ppc.h"
#include "riscv.h"
#include "s390x.h"
#ifdef __GNUC__
#define DEFAULT_VISIBILITY __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#else
#define DEFAULT_VISIBILITY
#endif
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#pragma warning(disable : 4201)
#pragma warning(disable : 4100)
#ifdef UNICORN_SHARED
#define UNICORN_EXPORT __declspec(dllexport)
#else // defined(UNICORN_STATIC)
#define UNICORN_EXPORT
#endif
#else
#ifdef __GNUC__
#define UNICORN_EXPORT __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#else
#define UNICORN_EXPORT
#endif
#endif
#ifdef __GNUC__
#define UNICORN_DEPRECATED __attribute__((deprecated))
#elif defined(_MSC_VER)
#define UNICORN_DEPRECATED __declspec(deprecated)
#else
#pragma message( \
"WARNING: You need to implement UNICORN_DEPRECATED for this compiler")
#define UNICORN_DEPRECATED
#endif
// Unicorn API version
#define UC_API_MAJOR 2
#define UC_API_MINOR 0
#define UC_API_PATCH 0
#define UC_API_EXTRA 7
// Unicorn package version
#define UC_VERSION_MAJOR UC_API_MAJOR
#define UC_VERSION_MINOR UC_API_MINOR
#define UC_VERSION_PATCH UC_API_PATCH
#define UC_VERSION_EXTRA UC_API_EXTRA
/*
Macro to create combined version which can be compared to
result of uc_version() API.
*/
#define UC_MAKE_VERSION(major, minor) ((major << 8) + minor)
// Scales to calculate timeout on microsecond unit
// 1 second = 1000,000 microseconds
#define UC_SECOND_SCALE 1000000
// 1 milisecond = 1000 nanoseconds
#define UC_MILISECOND_SCALE 1000
// Architecture type
typedef enum uc_arch {
UC_ARCH_ARM = 1, // ARM architecture (including Thumb, Thumb-2)
UC_ARCH_ARM64, // ARM-64, also called AArch64
UC_ARCH_MIPS, // Mips architecture
UC_ARCH_X86, // X86 architecture (including x86 & x86-64)
UC_ARCH_PPC, // PowerPC architecture
UC_ARCH_SPARC, // Sparc architecture
UC_ARCH_M68K, // M68K architecture
UC_ARCH_RISCV, // RISCV architecture
UC_ARCH_S390X, // S390X architecture
UC_ARCH_MAX,
} uc_arch;
// Mode type
typedef enum uc_mode {
UC_MODE_LITTLE_ENDIAN = 0, // little-endian mode (default mode)
UC_MODE_BIG_ENDIAN = 1 << 30, // big-endian mode
// arm / arm64
UC_MODE_ARM = 0, // ARM mode
UC_MODE_THUMB = 1 << 4, // THUMB mode (including Thumb-2)
// Depreciated, use UC_ARM_CPU_* with uc_ctl instead.
UC_MODE_MCLASS = 1 << 5, // ARM's Cortex-M series.
UC_MODE_V8 = 1 << 6, // ARMv8 A32 encodings for ARM
UC_MODE_ARMBE8 = 1 << 7, // Big-endian data and Little-endian code.
// Legacy support for UC1 only.
// arm (32bit) cpu types
// Depreciated, use UC_ARM_CPU_* with uc_ctl instead.
UC_MODE_ARM926 = 1 << 7, // ARM926 CPU type
UC_MODE_ARM946 = 1 << 8, // ARM946 CPU type
UC_MODE_ARM1176 = 1 << 9, // ARM1176 CPU type
// mips
UC_MODE_MICRO = 1 << 4, // MicroMips mode (currently unsupported)
UC_MODE_MIPS3 = 1 << 5, // Mips III ISA (currently unsupported)
UC_MODE_MIPS32R6 = 1 << 6, // Mips32r6 ISA (currently unsupported)
UC_MODE_MIPS32 = 1 << 2, // Mips32 ISA
UC_MODE_MIPS64 = 1 << 3, // Mips64 ISA
// x86 / x64
UC_MODE_16 = 1 << 1, // 16-bit mode
UC_MODE_32 = 1 << 2, // 32-bit mode
UC_MODE_64 = 1 << 3, // 64-bit mode
// ppc
UC_MODE_PPC32 = 1 << 2, // 32-bit mode
UC_MODE_PPC64 = 1 << 3, // 64-bit mode (currently unsupported)
UC_MODE_QPX =
1 << 4, // Quad Processing eXtensions mode (currently unsupported)
// sparc
UC_MODE_SPARC32 = 1 << 2, // 32-bit mode
UC_MODE_SPARC64 = 1 << 3, // 64-bit mode
UC_MODE_V9 = 1 << 4, // SparcV9 mode (currently unsupported)
// riscv
UC_MODE_RISCV32 = 1 << 2, // 32-bit mode
UC_MODE_RISCV64 = 1 << 3, // 64-bit mode
// m68k
} uc_mode;
// All type of errors encountered by Unicorn API.
// These are values returned by uc_errno()
typedef enum uc_err {
UC_ERR_OK = 0, // No error: everything was fine
UC_ERR_NOMEM, // Out-Of-Memory error: uc_open(), uc_emulate()
UC_ERR_ARCH, // Unsupported architecture: uc_open()
UC_ERR_HANDLE, // Invalid handle
UC_ERR_MODE, // Invalid/unsupported mode: uc_open()
UC_ERR_VERSION, // Unsupported version (bindings)
UC_ERR_READ_UNMAPPED, // Quit emulation due to READ on unmapped memory:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_WRITE_UNMAPPED, // Quit emulation due to WRITE on unmapped memory:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_FETCH_UNMAPPED, // Quit emulation due to FETCH on unmapped memory:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_HOOK, // Invalid hook type: uc_hook_add()
UC_ERR_INSN_INVALID, // Quit emulation due to invalid instruction:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_MAP, // Invalid memory mapping: uc_mem_map()
UC_ERR_WRITE_PROT, // Quit emulation due to UC_MEM_WRITE_PROT violation:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_READ_PROT, // Quit emulation due to UC_MEM_READ_PROT violation:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_FETCH_PROT, // Quit emulation due to UC_MEM_FETCH_PROT violation:
// uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_ARG, // Inavalid argument provided to uc_xxx function (See specific
// function API)
UC_ERR_READ_UNALIGNED, // Unaligned read
UC_ERR_WRITE_UNALIGNED, // Unaligned write
UC_ERR_FETCH_UNALIGNED, // Unaligned fetch
UC_ERR_HOOK_EXIST, // hook for this event already existed
UC_ERR_RESOURCE, // Insufficient resource: uc_emu_start()
UC_ERR_EXCEPTION, // Unhandled CPU exception
} uc_err;
/*
Callback function for tracing code (UC_HOOK_CODE & UC_HOOK_BLOCK)
@address: address where the code is being executed
@size: size of machine instruction(s) being executed, or 0 when size is
unknown
@user_data: user data passed to tracing APIs.
*/
typedef void (*uc_cb_hookcode_t)(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, uint32_t size,
void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for tracing interrupts (for uc_hook_intr())
@intno: interrupt number
@user_data: user data passed to tracing APIs.
*/
typedef void (*uc_cb_hookintr_t)(uc_engine *uc, uint32_t intno,
void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for tracing invalid instructions
@user_data: user data passed to tracing APIs.
@return: return true to continue, or false to stop program (due to invalid
instruction).
*/
typedef bool (*uc_cb_hookinsn_invalid_t)(uc_engine *uc, void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for tracing IN instruction of X86
@port: port number
@size: data size (1/2/4) to be read from this port
@user_data: user data passed to tracing APIs.
*/
typedef uint32_t (*uc_cb_insn_in_t)(uc_engine *uc, uint32_t port, int size,
void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for OUT instruction of X86
@port: port number
@size: data size (1/2/4) to be written to this port
@value: data value to be written to this port
*/
typedef void (*uc_cb_insn_out_t)(uc_engine *uc, uint32_t port, int size,
uint32_t value, void *user_data);
// Represent a TranslationBlock.
typedef struct uc_tb {
uint64_t pc;
uint16_t icount;
uint16_t size;
} uc_tb;
/*
Callback function for new edges between translation blocks.
@cur_tb: Current TB which is to be generated.
@prev_tb: The previous TB.
*/
typedef void (*uc_hook_edge_gen_t)(uc_engine *uc, uc_tb *cur_tb, uc_tb *prev_tb,
void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for tcg opcodes that fits in two arguments.
@address: Current pc.
@arg1: The first argument.
@arg2: The second argument.
*/
typedef void (*uc_hook_tcg_op_2)(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, uint64_t arg1,
uint64_t arg2, uint32_t size, void *user_data);
typedef uc_hook_tcg_op_2 uc_hook_tcg_sub_t;
/*
Callback function for MMIO read
@offset: offset to the base address of the IO memory.
@size: data size to read
@user_data: user data passed to uc_mmio_map()
*/
typedef uint64_t (*uc_cb_mmio_read_t)(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t offset,
unsigned size, void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for MMIO write
@offset: offset to the base address of the IO memory.
@size: data size to write
@value: data value to be written
@user_data: user data passed to uc_mmio_map()
*/
typedef void (*uc_cb_mmio_write_t)(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t offset,
unsigned size, uint64_t value,
void *user_data);
// All type of memory accesses for UC_HOOK_MEM_*
typedef enum uc_mem_type {
UC_MEM_READ = 16, // Memory is read from
UC_MEM_WRITE, // Memory is written to
UC_MEM_FETCH, // Memory is fetched
UC_MEM_READ_UNMAPPED, // Unmapped memory is read from
UC_MEM_WRITE_UNMAPPED, // Unmapped memory is written to
UC_MEM_FETCH_UNMAPPED, // Unmapped memory is fetched
UC_MEM_WRITE_PROT, // Write to write protected, but mapped, memory
UC_MEM_READ_PROT, // Read from read protected, but mapped, memory
UC_MEM_FETCH_PROT, // Fetch from non-executable, but mapped, memory
UC_MEM_READ_AFTER, // Memory is read from (successful access)
} uc_mem_type;
// These are all op codes we support to hook for UC_HOOK_TCG_OP_CODE.
// Be cautious since it may bring much more overhead than UC_HOOK_CODE without
// proper flags.
// TODO: Tracing UC_TCG_OP_CALL should be interesting.
typedef enum uc_tcg_op_code {
UC_TCG_OP_SUB = 0, // Both sub_i32 and sub_i64
} uc_tcg_op_code;
// These are extra flags to be paired with uc_tcg_op_code which is helpful to
// instrument in some certain cases.
typedef enum uc_tcg_op_flag {
// Only instrument opcode if it would set cc_dst, i.e. cmp instruction.
UC_TCG_OP_FLAG_CMP = 1 << 0,
// Only instrument opcode which is directly translated.
// i.e. x86 sub/subc -> tcg sub_i32/64
UC_TCG_OP_FLAG_DIRECT = 1 << 1
} uc_tcg_op_flag;
// All type of hooks for uc_hook_add() API.
typedef enum uc_hook_type {
// Hook all interrupt/syscall events
UC_HOOK_INTR = 1 << 0,
// Hook a particular instruction - only a very small subset of instructions
// supported here
UC_HOOK_INSN = 1 << 1,
// Hook a range of code
UC_HOOK_CODE = 1 << 2,
// Hook basic blocks
UC_HOOK_BLOCK = 1 << 3,
// Hook for memory read on unmapped memory
UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_UNMAPPED = 1 << 4,
// Hook for invalid memory write events
UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_UNMAPPED = 1 << 5,
// Hook for invalid memory fetch for execution events
UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_UNMAPPED = 1 << 6,
// Hook for memory read on read-protected memory
UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_PROT = 1 << 7,
// Hook for memory write on write-protected memory
UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_PROT = 1 << 8,
// Hook for memory fetch on non-executable memory
UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_PROT = 1 << 9,
// Hook memory read events.
UC_HOOK_MEM_READ = 1 << 10,
// Hook memory write events.
UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE = 1 << 11,
// Hook memory fetch for execution events
UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH = 1 << 12,
// Hook memory read events, but only successful access.
// The callback will be triggered after successful read.
UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_AFTER = 1 << 13,
// Hook invalid instructions exceptions.
UC_HOOK_INSN_INVALID = 1 << 14,
// Hook on new edge generation. Could be useful in program analysis.
//
// NOTE: This is different from UC_HOOK_BLOCK in 2 ways:
// 1. The hook is called before executing code.
// 2. The hook is only called when generation is triggered.
UC_HOOK_EDGE_GENERATED = 1 << 15,
// Hook on specific tcg op code. The usage of this hook is similar to
// UC_HOOK_INSN.
UC_HOOK_TCG_OPCODE = 1 << 16,
} uc_hook_type;
// Hook type for all events of unmapped memory access
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_UNMAPPED \
(UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_UNMAPPED + UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_UNMAPPED + \
UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_UNMAPPED)
// Hook type for all events of illegal protected memory access
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_PROT \
(UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_PROT + UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_PROT + UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_PROT)
// Hook type for all events of illegal read memory access
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_INVALID \
(UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_PROT + UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_UNMAPPED)
// Hook type for all events of illegal write memory access
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_INVALID \
(UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_PROT + UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE_UNMAPPED)
// Hook type for all events of illegal fetch memory access
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_INVALID \
(UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_PROT + UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH_UNMAPPED)
// Hook type for all events of illegal memory access
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_INVALID (UC_HOOK_MEM_UNMAPPED + UC_HOOK_MEM_PROT)
// Hook type for all events of valid memory access
// NOTE: UC_HOOK_MEM_READ is triggered before UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_PROT and
// UC_HOOK_MEM_READ_UNMAPPED, so
// this hook may technically trigger on some invalid reads.
#define UC_HOOK_MEM_VALID \
(UC_HOOK_MEM_READ + UC_HOOK_MEM_WRITE + UC_HOOK_MEM_FETCH)
/*
Callback function for hooking memory (READ, WRITE & FETCH)
@type: this memory is being READ, or WRITE
@address: address where the code is being executed
@size: size of data being read or written
@value: value of data being written to memory, or irrelevant if type = READ.
@user_data: user data passed to tracing APIs
*/
typedef void (*uc_cb_hookmem_t)(uc_engine *uc, uc_mem_type type,
uint64_t address, int size, int64_t value,
void *user_data);
/*
Callback function for handling invalid memory access events (UNMAPPED and
PROT events)
@type: this memory is being READ, or WRITE
@address: address where the code is being executed
@size: size of data being read or written
@value: value of data being written to memory, or irrelevant if type = READ.
@user_data: user data passed to tracing APIs
@return: return true to continue, or false to stop program (due to invalid
memory). NOTE: returning true to continue execution will only work if the
accessed memory is made accessible with the correct permissions during the
hook.
In the event of a UC_MEM_READ_UNMAPPED or UC_MEM_WRITE_UNMAPPED
callback, the memory should be uc_mem_map()-ed with the correct permissions,
and the instruction will then read or write to the address as it was supposed
to.
In the event of a UC_MEM_FETCH_UNMAPPED callback, the memory can be
mapped in as executable, in which case execution will resume from the fetched
address. The instruction pointer may be written to in order to change where
execution resumes, but the fetch must succeed if execution is to resume.
*/
typedef bool (*uc_cb_eventmem_t)(uc_engine *uc, uc_mem_type type,
uint64_t address, int size, int64_t value,
void *user_data);
/*
Memory region mapped by uc_mem_map() and uc_mem_map_ptr()
Retrieve the list of memory regions with uc_mem_regions()
*/
typedef struct uc_mem_region {
uint64_t begin; // begin address of the region (inclusive)
uint64_t end; // end address of the region (inclusive)
uint32_t perms; // memory permissions of the region
} uc_mem_region;
// All type of queries for uc_query() API.
typedef enum uc_query_type {
// Dynamically query current hardware mode.
UC_QUERY_MODE = 1,
UC_QUERY_PAGE_SIZE, // query pagesize of engine
UC_QUERY_ARCH, // query architecture of engine (for ARM to query Thumb mode)
UC_QUERY_TIMEOUT, // query if emulation stops due to timeout (indicated if
// result = True)
} uc_query_type;
// The implementation of uc_ctl is like what Linux ioctl does but slightly
// different.
//
// A uc_control_type passed to uc_ctl is constructed as:
//
// R/W NR Reserved Type
// [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
// 31 30 29 26 25 16 15 0
//
// @R/W: Whether the operation is a read or write access.
// @NR: Number of arguments.
// @Reserved: Should be zero, reserved for future extension.
// @Type: Taken from uc_control_type enum.
//
// See the helper macros below.
// No input and output arguments.
#define UC_CTL_IO_NONE (0)
// Only input arguments for a write operation.
#define UC_CTL_IO_WRITE (1)
// Only output arguments for a read operation.
#define UC_CTL_IO_READ (2)
// The arguments include both input and output arugments.
#define UC_CTL_IO_READ_WRITE (UC_CTL_IO_WRITE | UC_CTL_IO_READ)
#define UC_CTL(type, nr, rw) \
(uc_control_type)((type) | ((nr) << 26) | ((rw) << 30))
#define UC_CTL_NONE(type, nr) UC_CTL(type, nr, UC_CTL_IO_NONE)
#define UC_CTL_READ(type, nr) UC_CTL(type, nr, UC_CTL_IO_READ)
#define UC_CTL_WRITE(type, nr) UC_CTL(type, nr, UC_CTL_IO_WRITE)
#define UC_CTL_READ_WRITE(type, nr) UC_CTL(type, nr, UC_CTL_IO_READ_WRITE)
// All type of controls for uc_ctl API.
// The controls are organized in a tree level.
// If a control don't have `Set` or `Get` for @args, it means it's r/o or w/o.
typedef enum uc_control_type {
// Current mode.
// Read: @args = (int*)
UC_CTL_UC_MODE = 0,
// Curent page size.
// Write: @args = (uint32_t)
// Read: @args = (uint32_t*)
UC_CTL_UC_PAGE_SIZE,
// Current arch.
// Read: @args = (int*)
UC_CTL_UC_ARCH,
// Current timeout.
// Read: @args = (uint64_t*)
UC_CTL_UC_TIMEOUT,
// Enable multiple exits.
// Without this control, reading/setting exits won't work.
// This is for API backward compatibility.
// Write: @args = (int)
UC_CTL_UC_USE_EXITS,
// The number of current exits.
// Read: @args = (size_t*)
UC_CTL_UC_EXITS_CNT,
// Current exits.
// Write: @args = (uint64_t* exits, size_t len)
// @len = UC_CTL_UC_EXITS_CNT
// Read: @args = (uint64_t* exits, size_t len)
// @len = UC_CTL_UC_EXITS_CNT
UC_CTL_UC_EXITS,
// Set the cpu model of uc.
// Note this option can only be set before any Unicorn
// API is called except for uc_open.
// Write: @args = (int)
// Read: @args = (int*)
UC_CTL_CPU_MODEL,
// Request a tb cache at a specific address
// Read: @args = (uint64_t, uc_tb*)
UC_CTL_TB_REQUEST_CACHE,
// Invalidate a tb cache at a specific address
// Write: @args = (uint64_t, uint64_t)
UC_CTL_TB_REMOVE_CACHE
} uc_control_type;
/*
Exits Mechanism
In some cases, users may have multiple exits and the @until parameter of
uc_emu_start is not sufficient to control the emulation. The exits mechanism is
designed to solve this problem. Note that using hooks is aslo feasible, but the
exits could be slightly more efficient and easy to implement.
By default, the exits mechanism is disabled to keep backward compatibility. That
is to say, calling uc_ctl_set/get_exits would return an error. Thus, to enable
the exits firstly, call:
uc_ctl_exits_enable(uc)
After this call, the @until parameter of uc_emu_start would have no effect on
the emulation, so:
uc_emu_start(uc, 0x1000, 0 ...)
uc_emu_start(uc, 0x1000, 0x1000 ...)
uc_emu_start(uc, 0x1000, -1 ...)
The three calls are totally equavelent since the @until is ignored.
To setup the exits, users may call:
uc_ctl_set/get_exits(uc, exits, len)
For example, with an exits array [0x1000, 0x2000], uc_emu_start would stop at
either 0x1000 and 0x2000. With an exits array [], uc_emu_start won't stop unless
some hooks request a stop.
If users would like to restore the default behavior of @until parameter, users
may call:
uc_ctl_exits_disable(uc)
After that, all exits setup previously would be cleared and @until parameter
would take effect again.
See sample_ctl.c for a detailed example.
*/
#define uc_ctl_get_mode(uc, mode) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_UC_MODE, 1), (mode))
#define uc_ctl_get_page_size(uc, ptr) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_UC_PAGE_SIZE, 1), (ptr))
#define uc_ctl_set_page_size(uc, page_size) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_WRITE(UC_CTL_UC_PAGE_SIZE, 1), (page_size))
#define uc_ctl_get_arch(uc, arch) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_UC_ARCH, 1), (arch))
#define uc_ctl_get_timeout(uc, ptr) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_UC_TIMEOUT, 1), (ptr))
#define uc_ctl_exits_enable(uc) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_WRITE(UC_CTL_UC_USE_EXITS, 1), 1)
#define uc_ctl_exits_disable(uc) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_WRITE(UC_CTL_UC_USE_EXITS, 1), 0)
#define uc_ctl_get_exits_cnt(uc, ptr) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_UC_EXITS_CNT, 1), (ptr))
#define uc_ctl_get_exits(uc, buffer, len) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_UC_EXITS, 2), (buffer), (len))
#define uc_ctl_set_exits(uc, buffer, len) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_WRITE(UC_CTL_UC_EXITS, 2), (buffer), (len))
#define uc_ctl_get_cpu_model(uc, model) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ(UC_CTL_CPU_MODEL, 1), (model))
#define uc_ctl_set_cpu_model(uc, model) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_WRITE(UC_CTL_CPU_MODEL, 1), (model))
#define uc_ctl_remove_cache(uc, address, end) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_WRITE(UC_CTL_TB_REMOVE_CACHE, 2), (address), (end))
#define uc_ctl_request_cache(uc, address, tb) \
uc_ctl(uc, UC_CTL_READ_WRITE(UC_CTL_TB_REQUEST_CACHE, 2), (address), (tb))
// Opaque storage for CPU context, used with uc_context_*()
struct uc_context;
typedef struct uc_context uc_context;
/*
Return combined API version & major and minor version numbers.
@major: major number of API version
@minor: minor number of API version
@return hexical number as (major << 8 | minor), which encodes both
major & minor versions.
NOTE: This returned value can be compared with version number made
with macro UC_MAKE_VERSION
For example, second API version would return 1 in @major, and 1 in @minor
The return value would be 0x0101
NOTE: if you only care about returned value, but not major and minor values,
set both @major & @minor arguments to NULL.
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
unsigned int uc_version(unsigned int *major, unsigned int *minor);
/*
Determine if the given architecture is supported by this library.
@arch: architecture type (UC_ARCH_*)
@return True if this library supports the given arch.
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
bool uc_arch_supported(uc_arch arch);
/*
Create new instance of unicorn engine.
@arch: architecture type (UC_ARCH_*)
@mode: hardware mode. This is combined of UC_MODE_*
@uc: pointer to uc_engine, which will be updated at return time
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_open(uc_arch arch, uc_mode mode, uc_engine **uc);
/*
Close a Unicorn engine instance.
NOTE: this must be called only when there is no longer any
usage of @uc. This API releases some of @uc's cached memory, thus
any use of the Unicorn API with @uc after it has been closed may
crash your application. After this, @uc is invalid, and is no
longer usable.
@uc: pointer to a handle returned by uc_open()
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_close(uc_engine *uc);
/*
Query internal status of engine.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@type: query type. See uc_query_type
@result: save the internal status queried
@return: error code of uc_err enum type (UC_ERR_*, see above)
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_query(uc_engine *uc, uc_query_type type, size_t *result);
/*
Control internal states of engine.
Also see uc_ctl_* macro helpers for easy use.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@control: the control type.
@args: See uc_control_type for details about variadic arguments.
@return: error code of uc_err enum type (UC_ERR_*, see above)
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_ctl(uc_engine *uc, uc_control_type control, ...);
/*
Report the last error number when some API function fails.
Like glibc's errno, uc_errno might not retain its old value once accessed.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@return: error code of uc_err enum type (UC_ERR_*, see above)
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_errno(uc_engine *uc);
/*
Return a string describing given error code.
@code: error code (see UC_ERR_* above)
@return: returns a pointer to a string that describes the error code
passed in the argument @code
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
const char *uc_strerror(uc_err code);
/*
Write to register.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@regid: register ID that is to be modified.
@value: pointer to the value that will set to register @regid
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_reg_write(uc_engine *uc, int regid, const void *value);
/*
Read register value.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@regid: register ID that is to be retrieved.
@value: pointer to a variable storing the register value.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_reg_read(uc_engine *uc, int regid, void *value);
/*
Write multiple register values.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@rges: array of register IDs to store
@value: pointer to array of register values
@count: length of both *regs and *vals
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_reg_write_batch(uc_engine *uc, int *regs, void *const *vals,
int count);
/*
Read multiple register values.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@rges: array of register IDs to retrieve
@value: pointer to array of values to hold registers
@count: length of both *regs and *vals
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_reg_read_batch(uc_engine *uc, int *regs, void **vals, int count);
/*
Write to a range of bytes in memory.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting memory address of bytes to set.
@bytes: pointer to a variable containing data to be written to memory.
@size: size of memory to write to.
NOTE: @bytes must be big enough to contain @size bytes.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_write(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, const void *bytes,
size_t size);
/*
Read a range of bytes in memory.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting memory address of bytes to get.
@bytes: pointer to a variable containing data copied from memory.
@size: size of memory to read.
NOTE: @bytes must be big enough to contain @size bytes.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_read(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, void *bytes, size_t size);
/*
Emulate machine code in a specific duration of time.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@begin: address where emulation starts
@until: address where emulation stops (i.e. when this address is hit)
@timeout: duration to emulate the code (in microseconds). When this value is 0,
we will emulate the code in infinite time, until the code is finished.
@count: the number of instructions to be emulated. When this value is 0,
we will emulate all the code available, until the code is finished.
NOTE: The internal states of the engine is guranteed to be correct if and only
if uc_emu_start returns without any errors or errors have been handled in
the callbacks.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_emu_start(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t begin, uint64_t until,
uint64_t timeout, size_t count);
/*
Stop emulation (which was started by uc_emu_start() API.
This is typically called from callback functions registered via tracing APIs.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_emu_stop(uc_engine *uc);
/*
Register callback for a hook event.
The callback will be run when the hook event is hit.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@hh: hook handle returned from this registration. To be used in uc_hook_del()
API
@type: hook type, refer to uc_hook_type enum
@callback: callback to be run when instruction is hit
@user_data: user-defined data. This will be passed to callback function in its
last argument @user_data
@begin: start address of the area where the callback is in effect (inclusive)
@end: end address of the area where the callback is in effect (inclusive)
NOTE 1: the callback is called only if related address is in range [@begin,
@end] NOTE 2: if @begin > @end, callback is called whenever this hook type is
triggered
@...: variable arguments (depending on @type)
NOTE: if @type = UC_HOOK_INSN, this is the instruction ID.
currently, only x86 in, out, syscall, sysenter, cpuid are supported.
NOTE: if @type = UC_HOOK_TCG_OPCODE, arguments are @opcode and @flags. See
@uc_tcg_op_code and @uc_tcg_op_flag for details.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_hook_add(uc_engine *uc, uc_hook *hh, int type, void *callback,
void *user_data, uint64_t begin, uint64_t end, ...);
/*
Unregister (remove) a hook callback.
This API removes the hook callback registered by uc_hook_add().
NOTE: this should be called only when you no longer want to trace.
After this, @hh is invalid, and no longer usable.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@hh: handle returned by uc_hook_add()
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_hook_del(uc_engine *uc, uc_hook hh);
typedef enum uc_prot {
UC_PROT_NONE = 0,
UC_PROT_READ = 1,
UC_PROT_WRITE = 2,
UC_PROT_EXEC = 4,
UC_PROT_ALL = 7,
} uc_prot;
/*
Map memory in for emulation.
This API adds a memory region that can be used by emulation.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting address of the new memory region to be mapped in.
This address must be aligned to 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@size: size of the new memory region to be mapped in.
This size must be a multiple of 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@perms: Permissions for the newly mapped region.
This must be some combination of UC_PROT_READ | UC_PROT_WRITE |
UC_PROT_EXEC, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG error.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_map(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, size_t size, uint32_t perms);
/*
Map existing host memory in for emulation.
This API adds a memory region that can be used by emulation.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting address of the new memory region to be mapped in.
This address must be aligned to 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@size: size of the new memory region to be mapped in.
This size must be a multiple of 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@perms: Permissions for the newly mapped region.
This must be some combination of UC_PROT_READ | UC_PROT_WRITE |
UC_PROT_EXEC, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG error.
@ptr: pointer to host memory backing the newly mapped memory. This host memory
is expected to be an equal or larger size than provided, and be mapped with at
least PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE. If it is not, the resulting behavior is
undefined.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_map_ptr(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, size_t size,
uint32_t perms, void *ptr);
/*
Map MMIO in for emulation.
This API adds a MMIO region that can be used by emulation.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting address of the new MMIO region to be mapped in.
This address must be aligned to 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@size: size of the new MMIO region to be mapped in.
This size must be multiple of 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG error.
@read_cb: function for handling reads from this MMIO region.
@user_data_read: user-defined data. This will be passed to @read_cb function in
its last argument @user_data
@write_cb: function for handling writes to this MMIO region.
@user_data_write: user-defined data. This will be passed to @write_cb function
in its last argument @user_data
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mmio_map(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, size_t size,
uc_cb_mmio_read_t read_cb, void *user_data_read,
uc_cb_mmio_write_t write_cb, void *user_data_write);
/*
Unmap a region of emulation memory.
This API deletes a memory mapping from the emulation memory space.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting address of the memory region to be unmapped.
This address must be aligned to 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@size: size of the memory region to be modified.
This size must be a multiple of 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_unmap(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, size_t size);
/*
Set memory permissions for emulation memory.
This API changes permissions on an existing memory region.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@address: starting address of the memory region to be modified.
This address must be aligned to 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@size: size of the memory region to be modified.
This size must be a multiple of 4KB, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG
error.
@perms: New permissions for the mapped region.
This must be some combination of UC_PROT_READ | UC_PROT_WRITE |
UC_PROT_EXEC, or this will return with UC_ERR_ARG error.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_protect(uc_engine *uc, uint64_t address, size_t size,
uint32_t perms);
/*
Retrieve all memory regions mapped by uc_mem_map() and uc_mem_map_ptr()
This API allocates memory for @regions, and user must free this memory later
by uc_free() to avoid leaking memory.
NOTE: memory regions may be split by uc_mem_unmap()
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@regions: pointer to an array of uc_mem_region struct. This is allocated by
Unicorn, and must be freed by user later with uc_free()
@count: pointer to number of struct uc_mem_region contained in @regions
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_mem_regions(uc_engine *uc, uc_mem_region **regions, uint32_t *count);
/*
Allocate a region that can be used with uc_context_{save,restore} to perform
quick save/rollback of the CPU context, which includes registers and some
internal metadata. Contexts may not be shared across engine instances with
differing arches or modes.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@context: pointer to a uc_context*. This will be updated with the pointer to
the new context on successful return of this function.
Later, this allocated memory must be freed with uc_context_free().
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_alloc(uc_engine *uc, uc_context **context);
/*
Free the memory allocated by uc_mem_regions.
WARNING: After Unicorn 1.0.1rc5, the memory allocated by uc_context_alloc
should be freed by uc_context_free(). Calling uc_free() may still work, but
the result is **undefined**.
@mem: memory allocated by uc_mem_regions (returned in *regions).
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_free(void *mem);
/*
Save a copy of the internal CPU context.
This API should be used to efficiently make or update a saved copy of the
internal CPU state.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@context: handle returned by uc_context_alloc()
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_save(uc_engine *uc, uc_context *context);
/*
Write value to a register of a context.
@ctx: handle returned by uc_context_alloc()
@regid: register ID that is to be modified.
@value: pointer to the value that will set to register @regid
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_reg_write(uc_context *ctx, int regid, const void *value);
/*
Read register value from a context.
@ctx: handle returned by uc_context_alloc()
@regid: register ID that is to be retrieved.
@value: pointer to a variable storing the register value.
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_reg_read(uc_context *ctx, int regid, void *value);
/*
Write multiple register values to registers of a context.
@ctx: handle returned by uc_context_alloc()
@regs: array of register IDs to store
@value: pointer to array of register values
@count: length of both *regs and *vals
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_reg_write_batch(uc_context *ctx, int *regs, void *const *vals,
int count);
/*
Read multiple register values from a context.
@ctx: handle returned by uc_context_alloc()
@regs: array of register IDs to retrieve
@value: pointer to array of values to hold registers
@count: length of both *regs and *vals
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_reg_read_batch(uc_context *ctx, int *regs, void **vals,
int count);
/*
Restore the current CPU context from a saved copy.
This API should be used to roll the CPU context back to a previous
state saved by uc_context_save().
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@context: handle returned by uc_context_alloc that has been used with
uc_context_save
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_restore(uc_engine *uc, uc_context *context);
/*
Return the size needed to store the cpu context. Can be used to allocate a
buffer to contain the cpu context and directly call uc_context_save.
@uc: handle returned by uc_open()
@return the size for needed to store the cpu context as as size_t.
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
size_t uc_context_size(uc_engine *uc);
/*
Free the context allocated by uc_context_alloc().
@context: handle returned by uc_context_alloc()
@return UC_ERR_OK on success, or other value on failure (refer to uc_err enum
for detailed error).
*/
UNICORN_EXPORT
uc_err uc_context_free(uc_context *context);
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif
#endif