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Note: initial draft, probably a lot of rough edges. Comments/questions/ideas are welcome!

Editing a Unison codebase

The Unison codebase is not just a mutable bag of text files, it's a structured object that undergoes a series of well-typed transformations over the course of development, yet we can still make arbitrary edits to a codebase. The benefits of the Unison approach which we'll see are:

  • Incremental compilation is perfectly precise and comes for free, regardless of what editor you use. You'll almost never spend time waiting for Unison code to compile, no matter how large your codebase.
  • Refactoring is a controlled experience where the refactoring always typechecks and you can precisely measure your progress, so arbitrary changes to a codebase can be completed without ever dealing with a depressingly long list of (often misleading) compile errors or broken tests!
  • Codebase changes can be worked on concurrently by multiple developers, and many situations that traditionally result in incidental merge conflicts or build issues can no longer occur. (e.g., Alice swapped the order of two definitions in a file, conflicting with Bob's adding an unrelated definition.)
  • Renames, even bulk renames of whole packages of definitions, are 100% accurate and fast. When it's this easy to rename things, there's less anxiety about picking names and less need to pick the perfect name at the moment you start writing something.
  • We can assign multiple names to the same definitions, and you can choose which naming you prefer and publish your naming schemes for others to use if they wish. Bikeshedding over names can be a thing of the past (or at least vastly reduced 😀).
  • Dependency hell is also vastly reduced: many situations that contribute to dependency hell simply cannot arise with the Unison codebase model.
  • As an added bonus, it's no problem to use different versions of some library in different parts of your application when convenient, just as you might use two unrelated libraries in your application.
  • It's easy to mix and match parts of different libraries into a custom bundle, which others can use, all while retaining full compatibility with the existing libraries that the bundle draws from.
  • Publishing code is trivial; it won't require any additional steps beyond pushing to a git repository or shared filesystem. (Other filesystem-like services can be supported in the future.)
  • Import statements are first-class values which can be shared and aggregated and published for consumption by others. No more project-wide import boilerplate at the top of every file!
  • And this is all done in a backwards compatible way using existing tools: you can still use your favorite text editor, can still version your code with Git, use GitHub, etc.

Warning: once you experience this mode of editing a codebase and the control, safety, and ease of it, the "mutable bag of text files" model of a codebase may start to seem barbaric in comparison. 😱

The big idea 🧠

Here it is: Unison definitions are identified by content. Therefore, there's no such thing as changing a definition, there's only introducing new definitions. What can change is how we map definitions to human-friendly names. e.g. x -> x + 1 (a definition) vs Integer.increment (a name we associate with it for the purposes of writing and reading other code that references it). An analogy: Unison definitions are like stars in the sky. We can discover new stars and create new star maps that pick different names for the stars, but the stars exist independently of what we choose to call them.

With this model, we don't ever change a definition, nor do we ever change the mapping from names to definitions (we call such mappings "namespaces"). A namespace is simply another kind of definition. Like all definitions, it is immutable. When we want to "change" a namespace, we create a new one, and change which namespace mapping we are interested in. This might seem limited, but it isn't at all, as we'll see.

From this simple idea of making definitions (including definitions of namespaces) immutable, we can build a better development experience around codebase editing with all of the above benefits.

The model

This section gives the model of what a Unison codebase is and gives its API. Later we'll cover what the actual user experience is for interacting with the model, along with various concrete usage scenarios. The model deals with a few types, Code, Codebase, Release, and Branch:

  • Code could be a function or value definition (a Term) or a TypeDeclaration. Each Term in the Codebase also includes its Type. A Unison codebase contains no ill-typed terms. Each Code also knows its Author and License, which are just terms.
  • Namespace denotes a Map Name Code. It defines a subset of the universe of possible Unison definitions, along with names for these definitions. (The set of definitions it talks about is just the set of values of this Map.)
  • Release denotes a Namespace -> Namespace. It provides a function for "upgrading" from old definitions, and the "current" Namespace can be obtained by giving the Release the empty Namespace.
  • Branch denotes a Causal (Map Code (Conflicted CodeEdit, Conflicted NameEdits)), which comes equipped with a commutative merge operation and can be converted to a Release assuming no conflicts. A Branch represents a Release "in progress". We discuss the Causal and Conflicted types later.
  • Codebase denotes a Set Code, a Map Name Branch of named branches, and a Map Name Release of named releases.

A Release can be sequenced with another Release:

sequence : Release -> Release -> Release
sequence up1 up2 nsi = Map.unionWith const (up2 . up1 $ nsi) (up1 nsi)

A Branch has two important operations:

  • A commutative merge operation for combining concurrent edits.
  • An associative sequence operation for sequencing edits.

Causal a has 5 operations, specified algebraically here (we give an implementation later):

  • before : Causal a -> Causal a -> Bool defines a partial order on Causal.
  • head : Causal a -> a, which represents the "latest" a value in a causal chain.
  • one : a -> Causal a, satisfying head (one hd) == hd
  • cons : a -> Causal a -> Causal a, satisfying head (cons hd tl) == hd and also before tl (cons hd tl).
  • merge : CommutativeSemigroup a => Causal a -> Causal a -> Causal a, which is associative and commutative and satisfies:
    • before c1 (merge c1 c2)
    • before c2 (merge c1 c2)
  • sequence : Causal a -> Causal a -> Causal a, which is defined as sequence c1 c2 = cons (head c2) (merge c1 c2).
    • before c1 (sequence c1 c2)
    • head (sequence c1 c2) == head c2

Question: can we give a simple denotation for Causal a? (That doesn't mention hashes or anything)

Thought: Causal could also be a Comonad (in the category of commutative semigroups), where each value has access to the past history at each point.

merge : Branch -> Branch -> Branch
merge = Causal.merge

mergePickRight : Branch -> Branch -> Branch
mergePickRight b1 b2 = Causal.mergePickRight

data Conflicted a = Conflicted (Set a) deriving Monoid via Set

-- note:
instance (Semigroup v, Ord k) => Monoid (Map k v) where
  mempty = Map.empty
  m1 `mappend` m2 = Map.unionWith (<>) m1 m2

-- Add a new definition; if one already exists for that name, produce a conflict
add : Name -> Code -> Branch
add n c = step (Map.insertWith (<>) n ( c))

-- Add or replace a definition, clobber any existing definitions for given name
set : Name -> Code -> Branch
set n c = step (Map.insert n ( c))

step : (a -> a) -> Causal a -> Causal a
step f c = f (head c) `cons` c

deleteName : Name -> Branch
deleteName n = step (Map.delete n)

deleteCode : Code -> Branch
deleteCode c = step (Map.filterValues (/= c))

Here's Codebase and Code types:

data Codebase =
  Codebase { code     : Set Code
           , branches : Map Name Branch
           , releases : Map Name Release }

-- All code knows its dependencies, author, and license
Code.dependencies : Code -> Set Code : Code -> Author
Code.license : Code -> License


Now that we've given the denotation, here's some ideas for implementation:

-- A branch can have unresolved conflicts, and we maintain some
-- history to help merge branches, respecting causality
data Branch' = Branch'
  { namespace   :: Map Code (Conflicted NameEdits)
  , edited      :: Map Term (Conflicted Edit)
  , editedTypes :: Map TypeDeclaration (Conflicted TypeEdit) }

data Branch = Branch (Causal Branch')

-- A release doesn't have history or conflicts.
data Release' = Release'
  { namespace   :: Map Name Code
  , edited      :: Map Term Edit
  , editedTypes :: Map TypeDeclaration TypeEdit }

data Release = Release (Causal Release')

data Conflicted a = One a | Many (Set a)

instance Eq a => Semigroup (Conflicted a) where
  One a <> One a2 = if a == a2 then One a else Many (Set.fromList [a,a2])
  One a <> Many as = Many (Set.add a as)
  Many as <> One a = Many (Set.add a as)
  Many as <> Many as2 = Many (as `Set.union` as2)

data Edit     = Replace Term Typing     | Deprecated | .. -- SwapArguments Permutation, etc
data TypeEdit = Replace TypeDeclaration | Deprecated
data NameEdits = NameEdits { adds :: Set Code, removes :: Set Code }
data Typing = Same | Subtype | Different

merge :: Branch -> Branch -> Branch
merge (Branch b1) (Branch b2) = Branch (Causal.merge b1 b2)

-- produces a release if the branch is not conflicted
Branch.toRelease :: Branch -> Either Conflicts Release
Release.toBranch :: Release -> Branch
Release.toBranch = ... -- trivial, just promoting a to `Causal (Conflicted a)`

A couple notes:

  • The Typing indicates whether the replacement Code is the same type as the old Code, a subtype of it, or a different type. This is useful for knowing how far we can automatically apply changes in a Branch.
  • The Edit type produces a Conflict when merged, though with more structured edits (e.g., in the case of the SwapArguments data constructor), even more could be done here.
  • A common workflow will be grabbing a release and then applying it to a branch you have in progress. There are some choices about how you do this:
    • You can sequence the release into your branch, either before or after your existing changes. If you sequence the release before your changes, then any edits to the same Code will keep your version. Etc.
    • You can merge the release into your branch, which can result in conflicts that you can then resolve however you like.
    • You can break apart a release Branch and cherry-pick elements of the release, making different sequence / merge decisions on even a per-definition basis. It would be interesting to try to come up with some UX for doing this that isn't totally overwhelming for the user.

Here's the Causal type, which is used above in Branch:

newtype Causal e
  = One { currentHash :: Hash, head :: e }
  | Cons { currentHash :: Hash, head :: e, tail :: Causal e }
  | Merge { currentHash :: Hash, head :: e, tail1 :: Causal e, tail2 :: Causal e }

instance Semigroup e => Semigroup (Causal e) where
  Causal a1 h1 <> Causal a2 h2
    | before h1 h2 = Causal a2 h2
    | before h2 h1 = Causal a1 h1
    | otherwise    = Causal (a1 <> a2) (h1 `merge` h2)

one :: Hashable e => e -> Causal e
one e h = One (hash e) e

cons :: Hashable e => e -> Causal e -> Causal e
cons e tl = Cons (hash e <> currentHash tl) e tl

merge :: (Hashable e, Semigroup e) => Causal e -> Causal e -> Causal e
merge h1 h2 | h1 `before` h2 = h2
            | h2 `before` h1 = h1
            | otherwise      = Merge (currentHash h1 <> currentHash h2) (head h1 <> head h2) h1 h2

sequence :: Hashable e => Causal e -> Causal e -> Causal e
sequence a (One h e) = cons e a
sequence a (Cons h e tl) = cons e (sequence a tl)
sequence a (Merge h e l r) = merge e (sequence a l) r
-- note: if causal had a `split` operation, we'd need to sequence on both sides

-- Does `h2` incorporate all of `h1`?
before :: Causal e -> Causal e -> Bool
before h1 h2 = go (currentHash h1) h2 where
  go h1 (One h _) = h == h1
  go h1 (Cons h _ tl) = h == h1 || go h1 tl
  go h1 (Merge h _ left right) = h == h1 || go h1 left || go h1 right

Operations on a Branch:

  • add a Name and associated Code to a Branch.
  • rename name1 name2, checks that name2 is available, and if so does the rename.
  • update oldcode oldnameafter newcode newname, check that newname is available, if so add it to edited map. oldcode will be referred to using some fully-qualified name. oldnameafter will be the name for oldcode after the update, just like for deprecate.
  • deprecate oldcode newname marks oldcode for deprecation, with optional newname, also adds this to edited map.
  • empty creates a Branch 0 newGuid Map.empty Map.empty Map.empty, satisfies merge b empty ~= b and merge empty b ~= b, where ~= compares branches ignoring their branchId.
  • fork b == merge new-branch b

A branch is said to cover a cb : Set Code when it has been developed to the point that the remaining updates are type-preserving and can thus be applied automatically. More precisely, a Branch c covers a cb : Set Code when all dependents in cb of type-changing edits in c (including deprecations) also have an edit in c, and none of the edits are in a conflicted state. If we want to measure how much work remains for a Branch c to cover a cb : Codebase, we can count the transitive dependents of all escaped dependents of type-changing edits in c. An escaped dependent is in cb but not c. This number will decrease monotonically as the Branch is developed.

Related: There are some useful computations we can do to suggest which dependents of the frontier to upgrade next, based on what will make maximal progress in decreasing the remaining work. The idea is that it's useful to focus first on the "trunk" of a refactoring, which lots of code depend on, rather than the branches and leaves. Programmers sometimes try to do something like this when refactoring, but it can be difficult to know what's what when the main feedback you get from the compiler is just a big list of compile errors.

We also typically want to encourage the user to work on updates by expanding outward from initial changes, such that the set of edits form a connected dependency graph. If the user "skips over" nodes in the graph, there's a chance they'll need to redo their work, and we should notify the user about this. It's not something we need to prevent but we want the user to be aware that it's happening.

Thought: we may want to prevent a merge of source into target unless source covers all the definitions in target (either in the namespace or in the values of the edited Map). The user could develop source until it covers target, then the two branches can be merged. Alternately, we could just allow the branches to exist in an inconsistent state and prompt the user to fix these inconsistencies.

The namespace portion of a Branch can be built up using whatever logic the programmer wishes, including picking arbitrary new names for definitions, though very often, the names output by a Branch will be the same as or based on the names assigned to old versions of definitions.

This is it for the model. The rest of this document focuses on how to expose this nice model for use by the Unison programmer.

The developer experience

This section very much a work in progress.

When writing code, a developer has full access to all code that's been written, just by using different imports. Here's a sketch of developer experience:

> branch scratch
There's no branch named 'scratch' yet.
Would you like me to create it and switch to it? y/n
> y
✅ I've created and switched to branch 'scratch'.
   Note: `> branch` can be used to show the active branch.
> branch
'scratch' at version 0
> watch foo.u
Watching foo.u for definitions to add to 'scratch' branch...
Noticed a change, parsing and typechecking...
🛑 I've found errors in 'foo.u', here's what I know:
✅ I've parsed and typechecked definitions in foo.u: `wrangle`
   Would you like to add this to the codebase? y/n
> y
✅ It's done, using 'Alice' as author, Acme, Inc. as copyright holder,
   license is BSD3 (your chosen defaults). Use `> help license` if you'd
   like guidance on how to change any of this.
> branch
'scratch' at version 1
> branch series/24
✅ Switched to 'series/24' branch
> alias scratch.wrangle Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle
✅ I've marked a new definition 'Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle' for publication
   in 'series/24' branch.

Question: what if Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle already exists in the 'series/24' branch? Unison reports a conflict and forces the user to pick a unique name:

> alias scratch.wrangle Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle
🛑 I'm afraid there's already a definition in this branch called 'Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle'.
   You can either `> move Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle <new name>` or choose
   a different local name for `scratch.wrangle`.

Another possibility: the name already exists locally and is coincidentally bound to the exact same Code, in which case we get a warning:

> alias scratch.wrangle Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle
🔸 There was already a definition `Acme.Alice.utils.wrangle` which was
   exactly equivalent to `scratch.wrangle`.

Question: what if scratch.wrangle also exists in this branch? If you're using alias, you are always referring to another branch as the first argument. You can't alias a definition in the current branch as that would mean that a Code in this branch no longer had a unique name. (Alternate answer: some special syntax to disambiguate referring to another branch, like scratch:wrangle or scratch/wrangle, though if we do that, we would need to disallow that separator in branch identifiers)

Question: How does Alice test that her changes actually work? She probably needs to propagate them out as far as her tests, assuming that's possible. But we obviously don't want to be recompiling and regenerating binaries on every edit. Answer: The namespace of a branch refers to the latest version of everything, propagated as far as possible. Anything else has the prefix old. We achieve this just by keep a Map Reference Reference of type-compatible replacements which we then use in various places (such as the runtime) to do on-the-fly rewriting.

Question: What about "third-party" dependencies? How do those fit in here? Answer: These are tracked with first-class imports.

Assuming that is successful:

> delete branch scratch
✅ I've deleted the 'scratch' branch.
> git commit push
✅ I've committed and pushed 'series/24' updates (listed below)

It's not generally necessary to create a new branch every time, you can also just add definitions directly to the current base branch.

The > branch blah command creates a new branch with no ancestors. You can also create branches whose ancestor is the current branch, which is useful for a refactoring that you eventually want to merge back into the current branch.

> fork major-refactoring
✅ I've created and switched to new branch 'major-refactoring'.
   It's a child of branch 'series/24' version 29381.
> watch foo.u
✅ Added definition 'Acme.transmogrify'
> branch series/24
✅ Switched to 'series/24' branch
> merge major-refactoring
✅ Updated 182 definitions, no conflicts
> save release/24
✅ Saved 'series/24' as branch 'release/24'

Note that a use release/24 in your Unison code can be used to access the namespace of a branch.


To publish something for use by others, users just share a URL that links to their GitHub repository. There's no separate step of creating some artifact like a jar and uploading that to some third-party package repository. That URL is something like, where the QjdBS8sdbWdj is a Base 58 encoding of a particular Unison hash. The GitHub repository format for Unison doubles as a GitHub pages site so anyone can explore the repository from that point, obtaining pretty-printed and hyperlinked source code, pretty HTML documentation, and so on.

To start using someone else's published code, you can do a get:

> get
About to fetch ''.
choose a name for the namespace (suggest 'acme'): acme


✅ Loaded 1089 definitions into acme/release/24
   Use `> docs acme/release/24`

The URL here can point to a single definition, in which case it along with its transitive dependencies are added to the local codebase. In this case, it doesn't get a name, but you can refer to it by hash. Nameless code in the codebase probably records the URL where it was loaded from since that URL might have useful information about the hash. We might also by default look for <url>/docs-**.link or something to fetch documentation.

Alternately, we can juse use a release URL directly, as a namespace, without a > get happening first. Perhaps use <any import expression> from <long url>. <long url> includes the hash of the release, which is a Unison Term including the namespace itself and references to a bunch of code. This is downloaded, along with all of its transitive dependencies. The namespace is spliced into the current parsing environment according to the import expression of the use statement.

Question: How do you discover new versions of hashes? (including hashes that refer to docs)

Note: In the event of naming conflicts when doing a get (if you already have a branch with that name locally), Unison will force you to pick a different name.

Repository format

A design goal of the repository format is that it can be versioned using Git (or Hg, or whatever), and there should never be merge conflicts when merging two Unison repositories. That is, Git merge conflicts are a bad UX for surfacing concurrent edits that the user may wish to reconcile. We use a few tricks to achieve this property:

  • Sets are represented by directories of immutable empty files whose file names represent the elements of the set - the sets are union'd as a result of a Git merge. Deletions are handled without conflicts as well.
  • Likewise, maps are represented by directories with a subdirectory named by each key in the map. The content of each subdirectory represents the value for that key in the map.
  • When naming files according to a hash of their content, git will never produce a conflict as a result of a merge.

Here's a proposed repository representation:

    compiled.ub  -- compiled form of the term
    type.ub    -- binary representation of the type of the term
    index.html -- pretty, hyperlinked source code of the term -- link to docs, in English -- link to docs, in Spanish -- other docs -- reference to the license for this term -- link to the hash of the authors list
types/ -- directory of all type declarations
    compiled.ub -- compiled form of the type declaration
    index.html  -- pretty, hyperlinked source code of the type decl -- reference docs -- other docs -- reference to the license for this term -- link to
      0/type.ub -- the type of the first ctor
      1/type.ub -- the type of the second ctor
    asdf8j23jd.ubf -- unison branch file, named according to its hash (so no conflicts), deserializes to a `Branch`
    asdf8j23jd.ur -- unison release file, named according to its hash, deserializes to a `Release`

Thought: might want to make Release representation more granular, so can pull out the namespace separate from the upgrade function.

When doing a git pull or git merge, this can sometimes result in multiple .ubf files under a branch. We simply deserialize both Branch values, merge them, and serialize the result back to a file. The previous .ubf files can be deleted.

Observation: we'll probably want some additional indexing structure (which won't be versioned) which can be cached on disk and derived from the primary repo format. This is useful for answering different queries on the codebase more efficiently.


Some good questions from @atacratic:

What's a typical workflow, say for a few developers working on different topics?

I think very similar to now in "masterless" development. You create series/1 branch, branch topics off that and merge into it, cut release/1, then create series/2, etc.

To cut a release:

  • Convert series/1 to release/1.
  • Create a new branch, series/2, which is empty.
  • Start hacking on series/2, likely referencing things by name in release/1 (edit release/1/math.random might be a thing you do to edit a definition from a prior release)


  • Maybe it's fine to just have an indefinitely-long running master branch and just cut releases off of that? This might be equivalent to sequencing all the releases that come before each release (maybe less flexible).
  • Let's keep in mind that we might want to expose some simplified workflow for beginners so they aren't forced to learn about all this branch management stuff before even writing "hello world!"
  • Should be easy for advanced users too, no unnecessary juggling.

Where in the old ways people would have made a commit, do they now make a Branch? How do things proceed as we build up several of those for a topic?

Same as now. You don't create a branch for every little change necessarily, though you could. You often just make changes to a branch directly. In terms of recording history, we can "git commit" whenever is convenient.

How does it work if you're editing "your" code as well as "other" people's code?

Thought: You can reference any code in any release just with imports. You can also edit any code from any release, even from a release you didn't create. I suspect you'll want to give some qualified name to a definition that you edit which comes from another user's library. (For instance, I might republish a new version of Runar.sort under Paul.patches.Runar.sort in the branch I'm working on... and then I might contact Runar to get that change merged "upstream", something something...)

Where can they see their version history? Presumably not in the underlying git repo, if there's a branch for every incremental change?

To start, git history is probably okay (though we could probably present it nicer).

Is the typical github PR now the addition of a branch? Or an in-place update to the master release?

Might be addition of a new Unison branch, a merge or commits to some Unison branch, or a new Unison release.

When is a branch B converted to a release?

Whenever is convenient or you want to record a snapshot.

What are the implications of the loss of all the Causal history at that point? Will other people find it harder to merge onto that release, if they've been working concurrently with what was in B, maybe sharing changes with it?

Good questions. Maybe convention is to just use a single long-running branch, with all releases cut from that branch (similar to how people use master today?) For efficiency, want to have branch representation such that don't have to load it all in memory.

I think this is overall TBD.

I can't actually put my finger on why we need a commutative merge operation.

It needs to be commutative so that Alice and Bob can apply their changes in either order and still reach the same repository state.

Ditto I can't explain why we need Causal. I guess it helps spot when one edit is a merge ancestor of another. But why do we need that?

So that in merging, we have enough information to know that one edit supercedes another. Similar to Git tracking enough info to be able to do "fast-forward" merges. If we didn't have this, we'd get spurious conflicts when forking off branches and then merging them back in.

Why is Causal being applied on a per-name basis? i.e. why is it Map Name Causal (Conflicted Edit) rather than Causal (Map Name (Conflicted Edit))?

No good reason! We changed this, to put the Causal on the outside.

You've got Edit as a forgetful thing - it knows the new term but not the old one. I've got a feeling we're going to want to be able to reverse edits (and hence branch upgrades), so we should store the old value too.

Now we are keying on Code instead of Name so I think we have enough information in the current representation to be able to invert a Branch?

If Alice renames a term from X to Y, and Bob renames it from X to Z, what's their experience when merging?

They get a conflict which is easy to merge automatically, and you can imagine different choices: a) Allow both names b) Use Alice's name c) Use Bob's name. It's fine to have multiple names for the same code, though you will have to pick one when pretty-printing the code.

How does conflict resolution interact with propagation? So, if term f has some conflicting edits, does that mean that all its transitive dependents have conflicts too? How does someone resolve that?

Yes, but we'll give tooling to help resolve all these conflicts in an efficient order (probably want to resolve conflicts in dependencies of a term before resolving conflicts in the term itself).

How are you going to render a Conflicted Edit to the user doing conflict resolution? Surely they want to know which source branches/releases each version of the edit is coming from, but I can't see how you'll know that.

Good point. We could include some more metadata on each Edit to help with this.

Is this bit still current? "The namespace of a branch refers to the latest version of everything, propagated as far as possible. Anything else has the prefix old." Is doing propagations going to add a bunch of new names to the namespace automatically?

No longer current. The branch's namespace is actually minimal and doesn't include any transitive updates by default (though you could "bake" the branch to propagate updates).

Is it possible to rename a branch or a release?

Sure. Might have a GUID for each branch and/or release, with a name that can be changed associated with that GUID.

I have an urge to make it turtles all the way down: to make the names of branches and releases part of the namespaces we're trying to manage. Have you explored that line of thinking?

I like it. It would be cool if the codebase is something you can talk about from within Unison, so Branch and Release are types in Unison that come with some nice Unison API.

Not sure if we need to do this right away though.

Trying to work out the boundary between the unison codebase editor and the underlying VCS: is there a 'git blame' of any kind, in the new world? is there a history (of a term, a name, or the codebase as a whole)?

Might track this in the Edit, also any new Code will have associated metadata such as author, license, timestamp, possibly descendants / ancestors...

Note: we won't very granular information about who wrote which part of each expression, though we could recover information by doing tree diffs on the history.

is there a way to rewind the clock and get access to a previous revision in Unison-land, i.e. without using the VCS?

Yeah, all branches and releases are accessible to you. But if you want to access a point in time of some branch, you need to use the VCS. Could imagine doing something about that.


  • Can refer a branch at particular state just by hash, which picks out some subgraph of a Causal. But refering to hashes is annoying (though we can view a log of changes).
  • Put timestamp and user id in Causal, in addition to the hash.
  • Now can do queries like "go back in time to 1 week ago".

How much of the codebase model will be internalised into Unison? Will I be able to talk about a Namespace or a Branch in Unison code, say if I'm using a Codebase ability? I have a smalltalk-ish desire for the answer to be yes: if Unison can describe its own UI domain model, and is its own domain language, then we might end up with a more consistent and composable world, in which Unison tooling can be written in Unison, and in which people can talk about Unison in the same universe as they talk in Unison.

I like it. This API should be exposed to Unison so you can write tooling for Unison in Unison.

In your code for Semigroup Causal here, I can't work out if it's meant to be right-biased or left-biased - the first two lines make it seem like the former, and the next two the latter. Might have misunderstood though.

Code might be wrong, but I think the Causal semigroup was meant to be a commutative merge operation, but we should make that more explicit (the semigroup calls Causal.merge for instance)

Notes and ideas

You can have first-class imports with a type like:

type Namespace = Map Name (Set Code) -> Map Code [NameEdit]

There's a nice little combinator library you can write to build up Namespace values in various ways, and we can imagine the Unison use syntax to be sugar for this library.

Arya: I'm still thinking we'll want something like scopes to be able to apply a branch to a prefix in a "clone package foo.x to foo.y and apply these changes" sort of way.