NFS File Locking library, a PHP port of Perl's File::NFSLock module
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README

File_NFSLock - bdpO - NFS compatible (safe) locking utility

Copyright (C) 2010, Dave Buchanan
                    dos@joesvolcano.net
                    http://joesvolcano.net/open_source/

                    Paul T Seamons
                    paul@seamons.com
                    http://seamons.com/

                    Rob B Brown
                    bbb@cpan.org

This package may be distributed under the terms of either the
GNU General Public License
  or the
Perl Artistic License

All rights reserved.

*******************************************************

---   FULL DOCUMENTATION  ---

---   NAME

File_NFSLock - perl module to do NFS (or not) locking

---   SYNOPSIS

  require_once('File_NFSLock.class.php');

  $file = "somefile";

  ### set up a lock - lasts until object looses scope
  $lock = new File_NFSLock( array( 'file'               => $file,
                                   'lock_type'          => NFS_LOCK_EX|NFS_LOCK_NB,
                                   'blocking_timeout'   => 10,      # 10 sec
                                   'stale_lock_timeout' => 30 * 60, # 30 min
                                   )
                            );
  if ( $lock->lock_success ) {

    ### OR
    ### $lock = File_NFSLock->new($file,NFS_LOCK_EX|NFS_LOCK_NB,10,30*60);

    ### do write protected stuff on $file
    ### at this point $file is uncached from NFS (most recent)
    $FILE = fopen($file, "r+");

    ### or open it any way you like
    ### file_get_contents( $file, "Foo" );

    ### update (uncache across NFS) other files
    $lock->uncache("someotherfile1");
    nfs_uncache("someotherfile2");
    # $FILE2 = fopen("someotherfile1", 'r+');

    ### unlock it
    $lock->unlock();
    ### OR
    ### unset( $lock );
    ### OR when lock object is garbage collected, it's __destruct() will un-lock
  }else{
    return trigger_error("I couldn't lock the file [$lock->errstr]", E_USER_ERROR);
  }


---   DESCRIPTION

Program based of concept of hard linking of files being atomic across
NFS.  This concept was mentioned in Mail__Box__Locker (which was
originally presented in Mail__Folder__Maildir).  Some routine flow is
taken from there -- particularly the idea of creating a random local
file, hard linking a common file to the local file, and then checking
the nlink status.  Some ideologies were not complete (uncache
mechanism, shared locking) and some coding was even incorrect (wrong
stat index).  File_NFSLock was written to be light, generic,
and fast.


---   USAGE

Locking occurs by creating a File_NFSLock object.  If the object
is created successfully, a lock is currently in place and remains in
place until the lock object goes out of scope (or calls the unlock
method).

A lock object is created by calling the new method and passing two
to four parameters in the following manner:

  $lock = File_NFSLock->new($file,
                             $lock_type,
                             $blocking_timeout,
                             $stale_lock_timeout,
                             );

Additionally, parameters may be passed as a hashref:

  $lock = File_NFSLock->new(array(
    'file'               => $file,
    'lock_type'          => $lock_type,
    'blocking_timeout'   => $blocking_timeout,
    'stale_lock_timeout' => $stale_lock_timeout,
  ));

---   PARAMETERS

    ---  Parameter 1: file
    
    Filename of the file upon which it is anticipated that a write will
    happen to.  Locking will provide the most recent version (uncached)
    of this file upon a successful file lock.  It is not necessary
    for this file to exist.
    
    ---  Parameter 2: lock_type
    
    Lock type must be one of the following:
    
      BLOCKING
      BL
      EXCLUSIVE (BLOCKING)
      EX
      NONBLOCKING
      NB
      SHARED
      SH
    
    Or else one or more of the following joined with '|':
    
      Fcntl__NFS_LOCK_EX() (BLOCKING)
      Fcntl__NFS_LOCK_NB() (NONBLOCKING)
      Fcntl__NFS_LOCK_SH() (SHARED)
    
    Lock type determines whether the lock will be blocking, non blocking,
    or shared.  Blocking locks will wait until other locks are removed
    before the process continues.  Non blocking locks will return undef if
    another process currently has the lock.  Shared will allow other
    process to do a shared lock at the same time as long as there is not
    already an exclusive lock obtained.
    
    ---  Parameter 3: blocking_timeout (optional)
    
    Timeout is used in conjunction with a blocking timeout.  If specified,
    File_NFSLock will block up to the number of seconds specified in
    timeout before returning undef (could not get a lock).
    
    
    ---  Parameter 4: stale_lock_timeout (optional)
    
    Timeout is used to see if an existing lock file is older than the stale
    lock timeout.  If do_lock fails to get a lock, the modified time is checked
    and do_lock is attempted again.  If the stale_lock_timeout is set to low, a
    recursion load could exist so do_lock will only recurse 10 times (this is only
    a problem if the stale_lock_timeout is set too low -- on the order of one or two
    seconds).

---   METHODS

After the $lock object is instantiated with new,
as outlined above, some methods may be used for
additional functionality.

    ---  unlock
    
      $lock->unlock;
    
    This method may be used to explicitly release a lock
    that is aquired.  In most cases, it is not necessary
    to call unlock directly since it will implicitly be
    called when the object leaves whatever scope it is in.
    
    ---  uncache
    
      $lock->uncache;
      $lock->uncache("otherfile1");
      nfs_uncache("otherfile2");
    
    This method is used to freshen up the contents of a
    file across NFS, ignoring what is contained in the
    NFS client cache.  It is always called from within
    the new constructor on the file that the lock is
    being attempted.  uncache may be used as either an
    object method or as a stand alone subroutine (named nfs_uncache()).
    
    ---  newpid
    
      $pid = fork;
      if ( $pid == -1) ) {
        # Fork Failed
      } else if ($pid != 0) {
        $lock->newpid; # Parent
      } else {
        $lock->newpid; # Child
      }
    
    If fork() is called after a lock has been aquired,
    then when the lock object leaves scope in either
    the parent or child, it will be released.  This
    behavior may be inappropriate for your application.
    To delegate ownership of the lock from the parent
    to the child, both the parent and child process
    must call the newpid() method after a successful
    fork() call.  This will prevent the parent from
    releasing the lock when unlock is called or when
    the lock object leaves scope.  This is also
    useful to allow the parent to fail on subsequent
    lock attempts if the child lock is still aquired.

---   FAILURE

On failure, a class variable, "errstr", should be set and should
contain the cause for the failure to get a lock.  Useful primarily for debugging.

---   LOCK_EXTENSION

By default File::NFSLock will use a lock file extenstion of
".NFSLock".  This may be changed by passing in a custom array
key 'lock_extension', using the array object instantiation
syntax, to suit other purposes (such as compatibility in mail
systems).

---   BUGS

Notify dos@joesvolcano.net if you spot anything.

    ---  FIFO
    
    Locks are not necessarily obtained on a first come first serve basis.
    Not only does this not seem fair to new processes trying to obtain a lock,
    but it may cause a process starvation condition on heavily locked files.
    
    
    ---  DIRECTORIES
    
    Locks cannot be obtained on directory nodes, nor can a directory node be
    uncached with the uncache routine because hard links do not work with
    directory nodes.  Some other algorithm might be used to uncache a
    directory, but I am unaware of the best way to do it.  The biggest use I
    can see would be to avoid NFS cache of directory modified and last accessed
    timestamps.

---   INSTALL

Uhm, for now, just put File_NFSLock.class.php somewhere that you can require() 
it, and have fun!

---   AUTHORS

Dave Buchanan (dos@joesvolcano.net) - Ported to PHP from Perl

Paul T Seamons (paul@seamons.com) - Performed majority of the Perl
programming with copious amounts of input from Rob Brown.

Rob B Brown (bbb@cpan.org) - In addition to helping in the
programming, Rob Brown provided most of the core testing to make sure
implementation worked properly.  He is now the current maintainer.

Also Mark Overmeer (mark@overmeer.net) - Author of Mail::Box::Locker,
from which some key concepts for File::NFSLock were taken.

Also Kevin Johnson (kjj@pobox.com) - Author of Mail::Folder::Maildir,
from which Mark Overmeer based Mail::Box::Locker.

---   COPYRIGHT

  Copyright (C) 2010
  Dave Buchanan
  dos@joesvolcano.net
  http://joesvolcano.net/open_source/

  Copyright (C) 2001
  Paul T Seamons
  paul@seamons.com
  http://seamons.com/

  Copyright (C) 2002-2003,
  Rob B Brown
  bbb@cpan.org

  This package may be distributed under the terms of either the
  GNU General Public License
    or the
  Perl Artistic License

  All rights reserved.