Urlaube CMS
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README.md

Urlaube CMS

The Urlaube CMS is a flat-file content management system. It has been developed with modularity in mind. The core consists of the files contained in ./system/ while all user-provided files are located in ./user/.

Config

Config SHALL be located in the ./user/config/config.php file.

Content

Content SHALL be located in the ./user/content/ directory and MAY be located in subdirectories. Each content file has to end with the extension .md otherwise it is not considered to be a content file. Content files consist of header lines in the form of <Key>: <Value> which are used to provide further information about the content to handlers, plugins and themes. The actual content of the file starts after a blank line and ends at the end of the file.

Example

An example content file might look like this:

Category: myCategory examplePages
Date:     21.05.2018
Title:    Example Page

This is an example page.

Core

The core are the minimal files that make up the CMS. The following files belong to the core:

  • ./index.php is the main entrypoint into the CMS, no other source file SHOULD be directly callable
  • ./router.php is the router file that can be used to test Urlaube locally by calling php -S localhost:8080 ./router.php
  • ./system/derived.php contains constants that are derived from other values
  • ./system/init.php is the place where all core files are included
  • ./system/recommended.php contains constants that SHOULD be used by handlers, plugins and themes for interoperability
  • ./system/static.php contains constants that are static
  • ./system/system.php constains core functions that SHOULD NOT be used by handlers, plugins and themes
  • ./system/user.php constains core functions that MAY be used by handlers, plugins and themes
  • ./system/core/BaseConfig.class.php contains a base class with getters and setters for dynamic values
  • ./system/core/BaseHandler.class.php contains a standard handler implementation
  • ./system/core/BaseSingleton.class.php contains a simple singleton base class
  • ./system/core/Content.class.php contains the content class that is used to represent content files
  • ./system/core/Handler.interface.php contains the handler interface that SHOULD be used by all handler developers
  • ./system/core/Handlers.class.php contains the handler management class
  • ./system/core/Logging.class.php contains a simple logging class
  • ./system/core/Main.class.php contains the main class that controls the workflow of the core
  • ./system/core/Plugin.interface.php contains the plugin interface that SHOULD be used by all plugin developers
  • ./system/core/Plugins.class.php contains the plugin management class
  • ./system/core/Theme.interface.php contains the theme interface that SHOULD be used by all theme developers
  • ./system/core/Themes.class.php contains the theme management class
  • ./system/core/Translate.class.php containts a simple translation engine class

Handlers

Handlers extend the core and react on certain URLs by matching a handler's regular expression against the relative URI that has been called by the user.

Registration

Handlers can be registered in the core by calling the following method:

Handlers::register($entity, $function, $regex, $methods = [GET], $priority = 0);

The register method has the following parameters:

  • $entity is either null, a class name or an object
  • $function is either the name of a function (when $entity is null) or the name of a method of $entity
  • $regex is the regular expression that is matched against the URI relative to the configured root URI
  • $methods is either a string or an array of strings denoting the HTTP methods the handler shall react on
  • $priority is the priority value of the handler to allow it to be called earlier

The following priority values SHOULD be used for now:

  • FIXURL is the earliest stage when the URI has not even been normalized
  • ADDSLASH is the stage when the URI has been normalized but the trailing slash has not been added (useful for handling URIs denoting file names)
  • USER is the stage when most handlers run after the URI has been fully normalized
  • ERROR is the stage before the system's error handler collects all unhandled URIs

Behaviour

When a handler has successfully handled a URI, it MUST return true to abort the further handling of the URI by other handlers.

System Handlers

At the moment the Urlaube CMS consists of the following system handlers that are located in ./system/handlers/:

  • fixurl normalizes the URI to discard garbage
  • faviconico handles accesses to the favicon.ico file by returning a 204 No Content
  • indexphp handles accesses to the index.php file by redirecting to the configured root URI
  • robotstxt handles accesses to the robots.txt file by generating a minimal file
  • sitemapxml handles access to the sitemap.xml file by generating a minimal file
  • addslash adds a trailing slash to the URI
  • archive provides a paginated archive feature based on the content's Date field
  • author provides a paginated author feature based on the content's Author field
  • category provides a paginated category feature based on the content's Category field
  • feed provides an RSS feed for the archive, author, category and search feature
  • search provides a paginated search feature
  • page handles access to single pages by converting the URI to the corresponding content file path
  • error handles all URIs that have not been handled by another handler

User Handlers

Users MAY add their own handlers by putting them in the ./user/handlers/ directory.

Configuration

User handlers MAY need additional configuration. To do this the handler management class provides the following method:

Handlers::set($name, $value);

The method has the following parameters:

  • $name is the name of the configuration value
  • $value is the contents of the configuration value

Plugins

Plugins extend the core and react on certain events.

Registration

Plugins MAY be registered in the core by calling the following method:

Plugins::register($entity, $function, $event);

The register method has the following parameters:

  • $entity is either null, a class name or an object
  • $function is either the name of a function (when $entity is null) or the name of a method of $entity
  • $event is the event name the plugin shall react on

The following core trigger events are available for now:

  • BEFORE_MAIN is called before the core is run
  • BEFORE_HANDLER is called before the handlers are run
  • BEFORE_THEME is called before the theme is run
  • AFTER_THEME is called after the theme has finished running
  • AFTER_HANDLER is called after the handlers have finished running
  • AFTER_MAIN is called after the core has finished running

The following theme trigger events SHOULD be used for now:

  • BEFORE_HEAD should be called by a theme before the head is generated
  • AFTER_HEAD should be called by a theme after the head is generated
  • BEFORE_BODY should be called by a theme before the body is generated
  • BEFORE_SIDEBAR should be called by a theme before the sidebar is generated
  • AFTER_SIDEBAR should be called by a theme after the sidebar is generated
  • AFTER_BODY should be called by a theme after the body is generated
  • BEFORE_FOOTER should be called by a theme before the footer is generated
  • AFTER_FOOTER should be called by a theme after the footer is generated

The following core filter events are available for now:

  • FILTER_CONTENT is called after the ON_CONTENT plugins have been called in callcontent()
  • FILTER_HANDLERS is called after the handlers have been registered
  • FILTER_OUTPUT is called before Main::run() exits
  • FILTER_PAGINATE is called before pagination is applied in paginate()
  • FILTER_PLUGINS is called after the plugins have been registered
  • FILTER_THEMES is called after the themes have been registered
  • FILTER_WIDGETS is called after the ON_WIDGETS plugins have been called in callwidgets()

The following core content events are available for now:

  • ON_CONTENT is called in callcontent()
  • ON_WIDGETS is called in callwidgets()

The following cache events are available for now:

  • GET_CACHE is called in getcache()
  • SET_CACHE is called in setcache()

Behaviour

  • Trigger plugins just get executed and don't have to provide a certain behaviour.
  • Filter plugins are provided with a content argument and SHOULD return content.
  • Content plugins SHOULD return content.

System Plugins

At the moment the Urlaube CMS consists of the following system plugins that are located in ./system/plugins/:

  • cache is used to provide a file-based caching feature that uses serialize/unserialize
  • file is used by system handlers to load content files
  • hide is used to provide a feature to hide content from certain pages
  • markdown is used to provide markdown support which can be disables through the nomarkdown field
  • relocate is used to provide a relocation feature through the Relocate and RelocateType fields
  • sticky is used to provide a stickiness feature through the Sticky field

User Plugins

Users MAY add their own plugins by putting them in the ./user/plugins/ directory.

Configuration

User plugins MAY need additional configuration. To do this the plugin management class provides the following method:

Plugins::set($name, $value);

The method has the following parameters:

  • $name is the name of the configuration value
  • $value is the contents of the configuration value

Themes

Themes extend the core and are called by a handler.

Registration

Themes can be registered in the core by calling the following method:

Themes::register($entity, $function, $name);

The register method has the following parameters:

  • $entity is either null, a class name or an object
  • $function is either the name of a function (when $entity is null) or the name of a method of $entity
  • $name is the name of the theme to be used in the config file

Activation

To use a theme its name SHOULD be configured in the config file located at ./user/config/config.php:

Main::set(THEMENAME, "<NAME OF THE THEME>");

User Themes

Users MUST add their own theme by putting it in the ./user/themes/ directory.

Configuration

User themes MAY need additional configuration. To do this the theme management class provides the following method:

Themes::set($name, $value);

The method has the following parameters:

  • $name is the name of the configuration value
  • $value is the contents of the configuration value

Translation

The Translate class provides a translation feature based on simple JSON files.

Registration

New translations can be registered by calling the following method:

Translate::register($folder, $name = null);

The register method has the following parameters:

  • $folder is the path to a folder that contains files named after potential LANGUAGE values (e.g. de_de)
  • $name is an optional namespace for the registered translation, if no name is given, the translations are loaded into the global space

Example

An example translation file might look like this:

{
  "This"           : "Das",
  "is"             : "ist",
  "an"             : "eine",
  "example file"   : "Testdatei",
  "My name is %s." : "Mein Name ist %s."
}

Usage

To translate a basic string, the following method can be used:

Translate::get($string, $name = null)

The following parameters are allowed:

  • $string is the string that shall be translated, this string is searched in the JSON files within the registered folders
  • $name is the namespace in which the translation shall be searched for, this is helpful to separate translations of different extensions

To translate a string containing placeholders as supported by PHP's sprintf() function the following method can be used:

Translate::format($string, $name = null, ...$values)

The following parameters are allowed:

  • $string is the string that shall be translated, this string is searched in the JSON files within the registered folders
  • $name is the namespace in which the translation shall be searched for, this is helpful to separate translations of different extensions
  • $values are one or more additional values that shall be used to replace the placeholders in the translated string

There is a shortcode function in ./system/user.php to shorten the code necessary to get a translation:

t($string, $name = null, ...$values)

The following parameters are allowed:

  • $string is the string that shall be translated, this string is searched in the JSON files within the registered folders
  • $name is the namespace in which the translation shall be searched for, this is helpful to separate translations of different extensions
  • $values if left out then Translate::get() is called, if at least one addition $values parameter is set, then Translate::format() is called

Installation

To install the Urlaube CMS you can clone the corresponding git repository:

git clone https://github.com/urlaube/urlaube

The Urlaube CMS uses a single entrypoint scheme. A .htaccess is already provided for your convenience. To use the Urlaube CMS in combination with NGINX you have to implement the single entrypoint yourself:

if (!-f $request_filename) {
  rewrite ^.*$ /index.php last;
}

Configuration

The configuration takes place in the configuration file located at ./user/config/config.php.

The following configuration values are currently supported:

  • Main::set(CACHE, false); is the activation or deactivation of the cache
  • Main::set(CACHEAGE, 60*60); is the number of seconds a cached value is considered to be fresh by default
  • Main::set(CHARSET, "UTF-8"); is the charset used by the system
  • Main::set(CONTENTTYPE, "text/html"); is the default content type set by the system
  • Main::set(DEBUGMODE, false); actives printing of warning and error messages
    (Important: You SHOULD set this to false in production.)
  • Main::set(HOSTNAME, _getDefaultHostname()); is the hostname as taken from the URL
    (Important: You SHOULD configure this value as the default is considered to be insure. The default is taken from $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"], $_SERVER["HTTP_HOST"] or $_SERVER["SERVER_ADDR"] and is localhost as a fallback.)
  • Main::set(LANGUAGE, "de_DE"); is the language used by the system
  • Main::set(LOGLEVEL, Logging::NONE); is the minimum level of log entries that get printed
    (Important: You SHOULD set this to Logging::NONE in production or set a filename for LOGTARGET.)
  • Main::set(LOGTARGET, Logging::OUTPUT); is the target of log entries (either Logging::OUTPUT for direct output or a filename)
  • Main::set(METHOD, _getDefaultMethod()); is the HTTP method used to call the system
    (The default is derived from $_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"].)
  • Main::set(PAGESIZE, 5); is the number of entries per page displayed during pagination
  • Main::set(PORT, _getDefaultPort()); is the port number as taken from the URL
    (Important: You SHOULD configure this value as the default is considered to be insecure. The default is taken from $_SERVER["SERVER_PORT"].)
  • Main::set(PROTOCOL, _getDefaultProtocol()); is the protocol as taken from the URL
    (Important: You SHOULD configure this value as the default is considered to be unreliable. The default is derived from $_SERVER["HTTPS"].)
  • Main::set(RESPONSECODE, "200"); is the default HTTP response code set by the system
  • Main::set(ROOTURI, _getDefaultRootUri()); is the root URI the system is reachable at
    (Important: You SHOULD configure this value as the default is considered to be unreliable. The default is derived from $_SERVER["SCRIPT_NAME"].)
  • Main::set(THEMENAME, null); is the name of the active theme
  • Main::set(TIMEFORMAT, "c"); is the time format used for log entries
  • Main::set(TIMEZONE, "Europe/Berlin"); is the time zones used by the system
  • Main::set(URI, _getDefaultUri()); is the URI as taken from the URL
    (The default is derived from $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"].)

Log Levels

The following log levels SHALL be used:

  • Logging::NONE - do not log
  • Logging::DEBUG - something might help when debugging
  • Logging::INFO - something might be interesting
  • Logging::WARN - something shouldn't be done
  • Logging::ERROR - something went wrong

Runtime Status

The following values are set during runtime to provide status information to plugins and themes:

  • Main::set(CONTENT, null); is the content provided to plugins and themes
  • Main::set(METADATA, null); are the metadata provided to plugins and themes
  • Main::set(PAGE, 1); is the page number that is displayed during pagination
  • Main::set(PAGECOUNT, 1); is the maximum number of pages available during pagination