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from __future__ import absolute_import
from contextlib import contextmanager
import zlib
import io
import logging
from socket import timeout as SocketTimeout
from socket import error as SocketError
from ._collections import HTTPHeaderDict
from .exceptions import (
BodyNotHttplibCompatible, ProtocolError, DecodeError, ReadTimeoutError,
ResponseNotChunked, IncompleteRead, InvalidHeader
from .packages.six import string_types as basestring, binary_type, PY3
from .packages.six.moves import http_client as httplib
from .connection import HTTPException, BaseSSLError
from .util.response import is_fp_closed, is_response_to_head
log = logging.getLogger(__name__)
class DeflateDecoder(object):
def __init__(self):
self._first_try = True
self._data = binary_type()
self._obj = zlib.decompressobj()
def __getattr__(self, name):
return getattr(self._obj, name)
def decompress(self, data):
if not data:
return data
if not self._first_try:
return self._obj.decompress(data)
self._data += data
decompressed = self._obj.decompress(data)
if decompressed:
self._first_try = False
self._data = None
return decompressed
except zlib.error:
self._first_try = False
self._obj = zlib.decompressobj(-zlib.MAX_WBITS)
return self.decompress(self._data)
self._data = None
class GzipDecoderState(object):
class GzipDecoder(object):
def __init__(self):
self._obj = zlib.decompressobj(16 + zlib.MAX_WBITS)
self._state = GzipDecoderState.FIRST_MEMBER
def __getattr__(self, name):
return getattr(self._obj, name)
def decompress(self, data):
ret = binary_type()
if self._state == GzipDecoderState.SWALLOW_DATA or not data:
return ret
while True:
ret += self._obj.decompress(data)
except zlib.error:
previous_state = self._state
# Ignore data after the first error
self._state = GzipDecoderState.SWALLOW_DATA
if previous_state == GzipDecoderState.OTHER_MEMBERS:
# Allow trailing garbage acceptable in other gzip clients
return ret
data = self._obj.unused_data
if not data:
return ret
self._state = GzipDecoderState.OTHER_MEMBERS
self._obj = zlib.decompressobj(16 + zlib.MAX_WBITS)
def _get_decoder(mode):
if mode == 'gzip':
return GzipDecoder()
return DeflateDecoder()
class HTTPResponse(io.IOBase):
HTTP Response container.
Backwards-compatible to httplib's HTTPResponse but the response ``body`` is
loaded and decoded on-demand when the ``data`` property is accessed. This
class is also compatible with the Python standard library's :mod:`io`
module, and can hence be treated as a readable object in the context of that
Extra parameters for behaviour not present in httplib.HTTPResponse:
:param preload_content:
If True, the response's body will be preloaded during construction.
:param decode_content:
If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the
'content-encoding' header.
:param original_response:
When this HTTPResponse wrapper is generated from an httplib.HTTPResponse
object, it's convenient to include the original for debug purposes. It's
otherwise unused.
:param retries:
The retries contains the last :class:`~urllib3.util.retry.Retry` that
was used during the request.
:param enforce_content_length:
Enforce content length checking. Body returned by server must match
value of Content-Length header, if present. Otherwise, raise error.
CONTENT_DECODERS = ['gzip', 'deflate']
REDIRECT_STATUSES = [301, 302, 303, 307, 308]
def __init__(self, body='', headers=None, status=0, version=0, reason=None,
strict=0, preload_content=True, decode_content=True,
original_response=None, pool=None, connection=None, msg=None,
retries=None, enforce_content_length=False,
request_method=None, request_url=None):
if isinstance(headers, HTTPHeaderDict):
self.headers = headers
self.headers = HTTPHeaderDict(headers)
self.status = status
self.version = version
self.reason = reason
self.strict = strict
self.decode_content = decode_content
self.retries = retries
self.enforce_content_length = enforce_content_length
self._decoder = None
self._body = None
self._fp = None
self._original_response = original_response
self._fp_bytes_read = 0
self.msg = msg
self._request_url = request_url
if body and isinstance(body, (basestring, binary_type)):
self._body = body
self._pool = pool
self._connection = connection
if hasattr(body, 'read'):
self._fp = body
# Are we using the chunked-style of transfer encoding?
self.chunked = False
self.chunk_left = None
tr_enc = self.headers.get('transfer-encoding', '').lower()
# Don't incur the penalty of creating a list and then discarding it
encodings = (enc.strip() for enc in tr_enc.split(","))
if "chunked" in encodings:
self.chunked = True
# Determine length of response
self.length_remaining = self._init_length(request_method)
# If requested, preload the body.
if preload_content and not self._body:
self._body =
def get_redirect_location(self):
Should we redirect and where to?
:returns: Truthy redirect location string if we got a redirect status
code and valid location. ``None`` if redirect status and no
location. ``False`` if not a redirect status code.
if self.status in self.REDIRECT_STATUSES:
return self.headers.get('location')
return False
def release_conn(self):
if not self._pool or not self._connection:
self._connection = None
def data(self):
# For backwords-compat with earlier urllib3 0.4 and earlier.
if self._body:
return self._body
if self._fp:
def connection(self):
return self._connection
def isclosed(self):
return is_fp_closed(self._fp)
def tell(self):
Obtain the number of bytes pulled over the wire so far. May differ from
the amount of content returned by :meth:```` if bytes
are encoded on the wire (e.g, compressed).
return self._fp_bytes_read
def _init_length(self, request_method):
Set initial length value for Response content if available.
length = self.headers.get('content-length')
if length is not None and self.chunked:
# This Response will fail with an IncompleteRead if it can't be
# received as chunked. This method falls back to attempt reading
# the response before raising an exception.
log.warning("Received response with both Content-Length and "
"Transfer-Encoding set. This is expressly forbidden "
"by RFC 7230 sec 3.3.2. Ignoring Content-Length and "
"attempting to process response as Transfer-Encoding: "
return None
elif length is not None:
# RFC 7230 section 3.3.2 specifies multiple content lengths can
# be sent in a single Content-Length header
# (e.g. Content-Length: 42, 42). This line ensures the values
# are all valid ints and that as long as the `set` length is 1,
# all values are the same. Otherwise, the header is invalid.
lengths = set([int(val) for val in length.split(',')])
if len(lengths) > 1:
raise InvalidHeader("Content-Length contained multiple "
"unmatching values (%s)" % length)
length = lengths.pop()
except ValueError:
length = None
if length < 0:
length = None
# Convert status to int for comparison
# In some cases, httplib returns a status of "_UNKNOWN"
status = int(self.status)
except ValueError:
status = 0
# Check for responses that shouldn't include a body
if status in (204, 304) or 100 <= status < 200 or request_method == 'HEAD':
length = 0
return length
def _init_decoder(self):
Set-up the _decoder attribute if necessary.
# Note: content-encoding value should be case-insensitive, per RFC 7230
# Section 3.2
content_encoding = self.headers.get('content-encoding', '').lower()
if self._decoder is None and content_encoding in self.CONTENT_DECODERS:
self._decoder = _get_decoder(content_encoding)
def _decode(self, data, decode_content, flush_decoder):
Decode the data passed in and potentially flush the decoder.
if decode_content and self._decoder:
data = self._decoder.decompress(data)
except (IOError, zlib.error) as e:
content_encoding = self.headers.get('content-encoding', '').lower()
raise DecodeError(
"Received response with content-encoding: %s, but "
"failed to decode it." % content_encoding, e)
if flush_decoder and decode_content:
data += self._flush_decoder()
return data
def _flush_decoder(self):
Flushes the decoder. Should only be called if the decoder is actually
being used.
if self._decoder:
buf = self._decoder.decompress(b'')
return buf + self._decoder.flush()
return b''
def _error_catcher(self):
Catch low-level python exceptions, instead re-raising urllib3
variants, so that low-level exceptions are not leaked in the
high-level api.
On exit, release the connection back to the pool.
clean_exit = False
except SocketTimeout:
# FIXME: Ideally we'd like to include the url in the ReadTimeoutError but
# there is yet no clean way to get at it from this context.
raise ReadTimeoutError(self._pool, None, 'Read timed out.')
except BaseSSLError as e:
# FIXME: Is there a better way to differentiate between SSLErrors?
if 'read operation timed out' not in str(e): # Defensive:
# This shouldn't happen but just in case we're missing an edge
# case, let's avoid swallowing SSL errors.
raise ReadTimeoutError(self._pool, None, 'Read timed out.')
except (HTTPException, SocketError) as e:
# This includes IncompleteRead.
raise ProtocolError('Connection broken: %r' % e, e)
# If no exception is thrown, we should avoid cleaning up
# unnecessarily.
clean_exit = True
# If we didn't terminate cleanly, we need to throw away our
# connection.
if not clean_exit:
# The response may not be closed but we're not going to use it
# anymore so close it now to ensure that the connection is
# released back to the pool.
if self._original_response:
# Closing the response may not actually be sufficient to close
# everything, so if we have a hold of the connection close that
# too.
if self._connection:
# If we hold the original response but it's closed now, we should
# return the connection back to the pool.
if self._original_response and self._original_response.isclosed():
def read(self, amt=None, decode_content=None, cache_content=False):
Similar to :meth:``, but with two additional
parameters: ``decode_content`` and ``cache_content``.
:param amt:
How much of the content to read. If specified, caching is skipped
because it doesn't make sense to cache partial content as the full
:param decode_content:
If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the
'content-encoding' header.
:param cache_content:
If True, will save the returned data such that the same result is
returned despite of the state of the underlying file object. This
is useful if you want the ``.data`` property to continue working
after having ``.read()`` the file object. (Overridden if ``amt`` is
if decode_content is None:
decode_content = self.decode_content
if self._fp is None:
flush_decoder = False
data = None
with self._error_catcher():
if amt is None:
# cStringIO doesn't like amt=None
data =
flush_decoder = True
cache_content = False
data =
if amt != 0 and not data: # Platform-specific: Buggy versions of Python.
# Close the connection when no data is returned
# This is redundant to what httplib/http.client _should_
# already do. However, versions of python released before
# December 15, 2012 ( do
# not properly close the connection in all cases. There is
# no harm in redundantly calling close.
flush_decoder = True
if self.enforce_content_length and self.length_remaining not in (0, None):
# This is an edge case that httplib failed to cover due
# to concerns of backward compatibility. We're
# addressing it here to make sure IncompleteRead is
# raised during streaming, so all calls with incorrect
# Content-Length are caught.
raise IncompleteRead(self._fp_bytes_read, self.length_remaining)
if data:
self._fp_bytes_read += len(data)
if self.length_remaining is not None:
self.length_remaining -= len(data)
data = self._decode(data, decode_content, flush_decoder)
if cache_content:
self._body = data
return data
def stream(self, amt=2**16, decode_content=None):
A generator wrapper for the read() method. A call will block until
``amt`` bytes have been read from the connection or until the
connection is closed.
:param amt:
How much of the content to read. The generator will return up to
much data per iteration, but may return less. This is particularly
likely when using compressed data. However, the empty string will
never be returned.
:param decode_content:
If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the
'content-encoding' header.
if self.chunked and self.supports_chunked_reads():
for line in self.read_chunked(amt, decode_content=decode_content):
yield line
while not is_fp_closed(self._fp):
data =, decode_content=decode_content)
if data:
yield data
def from_httplib(ResponseCls, r, **response_kw):
Given an :class:`httplib.HTTPResponse` instance ``r``, return a
corresponding :class:`urllib3.response.HTTPResponse` object.
Remaining parameters are passed to the HTTPResponse constructor, along
with ``original_response=r``.
headers = r.msg
if not isinstance(headers, HTTPHeaderDict):
if PY3: # Python 3
headers = HTTPHeaderDict(headers.items())
else: # Python 2
headers = HTTPHeaderDict.from_httplib(headers)
# HTTPResponse objects in Python 3 don't have a .strict attribute
strict = getattr(r, 'strict', 0)
resp = ResponseCls(body=r,
return resp
# Backwards-compatibility methods for httplib.HTTPResponse
def getheaders(self):
return self.headers
def getheader(self, name, default=None):
return self.headers.get(name, default)
# Backwards compatibility for http.cookiejar
def info(self):
return self.headers
# Overrides from io.IOBase
def close(self):
if not self.closed:
if self._connection:
def closed(self):
if self._fp is None:
return True
elif hasattr(self._fp, 'isclosed'):
return self._fp.isclosed()
elif hasattr(self._fp, 'closed'):
return self._fp.closed
return True
def fileno(self):
if self._fp is None:
raise IOError("HTTPResponse has no file to get a fileno from")
elif hasattr(self._fp, "fileno"):
return self._fp.fileno()
raise IOError("The file-like object this HTTPResponse is wrapped "
"around has no file descriptor")
def flush(self):
if self._fp is not None and hasattr(self._fp, 'flush'):
return self._fp.flush()
def readable(self):
# This method is required for `io` module compatibility.
return True
def readinto(self, b):
# This method is required for `io` module compatibility.
temp =
if len(temp) == 0:
return 0
b[:len(temp)] = temp
return len(temp)
def supports_chunked_reads(self):
Checks if the underlying file-like object looks like a
httplib.HTTPResponse object. We do this by testing for the fp
attribute. If it is present we assume it returns raw chunks as
processed by read_chunked().
return hasattr(self._fp, 'fp')
def _update_chunk_length(self):
# First, we'll figure out length of a chunk and then
# we'll try to read it from socket.
if self.chunk_left is not None:
line = self._fp.fp.readline()
line = line.split(b';', 1)[0]
self.chunk_left = int(line, 16)
except ValueError:
# Invalid chunked protocol response, abort.
raise httplib.IncompleteRead(line)
def _handle_chunk(self, amt):
returned_chunk = None
if amt is None:
chunk = self._fp._safe_read(self.chunk_left)
returned_chunk = chunk
self._fp._safe_read(2) # Toss the CRLF at the end of the chunk.
self.chunk_left = None
elif amt < self.chunk_left:
value = self._fp._safe_read(amt)
self.chunk_left = self.chunk_left - amt
returned_chunk = value
elif amt == self.chunk_left:
value = self._fp._safe_read(amt)
self._fp._safe_read(2) # Toss the CRLF at the end of the chunk.
self.chunk_left = None
returned_chunk = value
else: # amt > self.chunk_left
returned_chunk = self._fp._safe_read(self.chunk_left)
self._fp._safe_read(2) # Toss the CRLF at the end of the chunk.
self.chunk_left = None
return returned_chunk
def read_chunked(self, amt=None, decode_content=None):
Similar to :meth:``, but with an additional
parameter: ``decode_content``.
:param amt:
How much of the content to read. If specified, caching is skipped
because it doesn't make sense to cache partial content as the full
:param decode_content:
If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the
'content-encoding' header.
# FIXME: Rewrite this method and make it a class with a better structured logic.
if not self.chunked:
raise ResponseNotChunked(
"Response is not chunked. "
"Header 'transfer-encoding: chunked' is missing.")
if not self.supports_chunked_reads():
raise BodyNotHttplibCompatible(
"Body should be httplib.HTTPResponse like. "
"It should have have an fp attribute which returns raw chunks.")
with self._error_catcher():
# Don't bother reading the body of a HEAD request.
if self._original_response and is_response_to_head(self._original_response):
# If a response is already read and closed
# then return immediately.
if self._fp.fp is None:
while True:
if self.chunk_left == 0:
chunk = self._handle_chunk(amt)
decoded = self._decode(chunk, decode_content=decode_content,
if decoded:
yield decoded
if decode_content:
# On CPython and PyPy, we should never need to flush the
# decoder. However, on Jython we *might* need to, so
# lets defensively do it anyway.
decoded = self._flush_decoder()
if decoded: # Platform-specific: Jython.
yield decoded
# Chunk content ends with \r\n: discard it.
while True:
line = self._fp.fp.readline()
if not line:
# Some sites may not end with '\r\n'.
if line == b'\r\n':
# We read everything; close the "file".
if self._original_response:
def geturl(self):
Returns the URL that was the source of this response.
If the request that generated this response redirected, this method
will return the final redirect location.
if self.retries is not None and len(self.retries.history):
return self.retries.history[-1].redirect_location
return self._request_url