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Introduction

The GoTEE framework implements concurrent instantiation of TamaGo based unikernels in privileged and unprivileged modes, interacting with each other through monitor mode and custom system calls.

With these capabilities GoTEE implements a TamaGo based Trusted Execution Environments (TEE), bringing Go memory safety, convenience and capabilities to bare metal execution within ARM TrustZone Secure World or RISC-V Supervisor Execution Environments.

GoTEE can supervise pure Go, Rust or C based freestanding Trusted Applets, implementing the GoTEE API, as well as any operating system capable of running in ARM TrustZone Normal World or RISC-V S-mode such as Linux.

Documentation

The main documentation, which includes a tutorial, can be found on the project wiki.

The package API documentation can be found on pkg.go.dev.

Supported hardware

The following table summarizes currently supported SoCs and boards.

SoC Board SoC package Board package
NXP i.MX6ULZ USB armory Mk II imx6ul usbarmory/mk2
NXP i.MX6ULL MCIMX6ULL-EVK imx6ul mx6ullevk
SiFive FU540 QEMU sifive_u fu540 qemu/sifive_u

Example application

In TEE nomenclature, the privileged unikernel is commonly referred to as Trusted OS, while the unprivileged one represents a Trusted Applet.

The GoTEE example demonstrate concurrent operation of Go unikernels acting as Trusted OS, Trusted Applet and Main OS.

⚠️ the Main OS can be any "rich" OS (e.g. Linux), TamaGo is simply used for a self-contained example. The same applies to the Trusted Applet which can be any bare metal application capable of running in user mode and implementing GoTEE API, such as freestanding C or Rust programs.

A Rust example can be used replacing trusted_applet_go with trusted_applet_rust when building.

The example trusted OS/applet combination performs basic testing of concurrent execution of three TamaGo unikernels at different privilege levels:

  • Trusted OS (ARM: TZ Secure World system mode, RISC-V: M-mode)
  • Trusted Applet (ARM: TZ Secure World user mode, RISC-V: S-mode)
  • Main OS (ARM: TZ Normal World system mode, RISC-V: S-mode)

The Main OS yields back with a monitor call.

The Trusted Applet sleeps for 5 seconds before attempting to read Trusted OS memory, which triggers an exception handled by the supervisor which terminates the Trusted Applet.

The GoTEE syscall interface is implemented for communication between the Trusted OS and Trusted Applet.

When launched on the USB armory Mk II, the example application is reachable via SSH through Ethernet over USB (ECM protocol, supported on Linux and macOS hosts):

$ ssh gotee@10.0.0.1
tamago/arm • TEE security monitor (Secure World system/monitor)

allgptr                                          # memory forensics of applet goroutines
csl                                              # show config security levels (CSL)
csl             <periph> <slave> <hex csl>       # set config security level (CSL)
dbg                                              # show ARM debug permissions
exit, quit                                       # close session
gotee                                            # TrustZone example w/ TamaGo unikernels
help                                             # this help
linux           <uSD|eMMC>                       # boot NonSecure USB armory Debian base image
peek            <hex offset> <size>              # memory display (use with caution)
poke            <hex offset> <hex value>         # memory write   (use with caution)
reboot                                           # reset device
sa                                               # show security access (SA)
sa              <id> <secure|nonsecure>          # set security access (SA)
stack                                            # stack trace of current goroutine
stackall                                         # stack trace of all goroutines

>

The example can be launched with the gotee command which spawns the Main OS twice to demonstrate behaviour before and after TrustZone restrictions are in effect using real hardware peripherals.

Additionally the linux command can be used to spawn the USB armory Debian base image as Non-secure main OS.

⚠️ only USB armory Debian base image releases >= 20211129 are supported for Non-secure operation.

gotee

The example can be also executed under QEMU emulation.

⚠️ emulated runs perform partial tests due to lack of full TrustZone/PMP support by QEMU.

make qemu
...
> gotee
00:00:00 tamago/arm • TEE security monitor (Secure World system/monitor)
00:00:00 SM loaded applet addr:0x9c000000 entry:0x9c072740 size:4940275
00:00:00 SM loaded kernel addr:0x80000000 entry:0x8007100c size:4577643
00:00:00 SM waiting for applet and kernel
00:00:00 SM starting mode:USR sp:0x9e000000 pc:0x9c072740 ns:false
00:00:00 SM starting mode:SYS sp:0x00000000 pc:0x8007100c ns:true
00:00:00 tamago/arm (go1.19.1) • TEE user applet
00:00:00 tamago/arm (go1.19.1) • system/supervisor (Non-secure)
00:00:00 supervisor is about to yield back
00:00:00 SM stopped mode:SYS sp:0x8146bf54 lr:0x801937a4 pc:0x80193884 ns:true err:exit
00:00:00 applet obtained 16 random bytes from monitor: b4cc4764dd30291a52545b182313003c
00:00:00 applet requests echo via RPC: hello
00:00:00 applet received echo via RPC: hello
00:00:00 applet will sleep for 5 seconds
00:00:01 applet says 1 mississippi
...
00:00:05 applet says 5 mississippi
00:00:05 applet is about to read secure memory at 0x98010000
00:00:05    r0:98010000  r1:9c8240c0  r2:98010000  r3:00000000
00:00:05    r4:00000000  r5:00000000  r6:00000000  r7:9c86bec8
00:00:05    r8:00000007  r9:0000003d r10:9c8020f0 r11:9c342f41 cpsr:600001d7 (ABT)
00:00:05   r12:00000061  sp:9c86bf08  lr:9c1b1be8  pc:9c011330 spsr:600001d0 (USR)
00:00:05 SM stopped mode:USR sp:0x9c86bf08 lr:0x9c1b1be8 pc:0x9c011330 ns:false err:ABT

Building the compiler

Build the TamaGo compiler (or use the latest binary release):

wget https://github.com/usbarmory/tamago-go/archive/refs/tags/latest.zip
unzip latest.zip
cd tamago-go-latest/src && ./all.bash
cd ../bin && export TAMAGO=`pwd`/go

Building and executing on ARM targets

Build the example trusted applet and kernel executables as follows:

git clone https://github.com/usbarmory/GoTEE-example
cd GoTEE-example && export TARGET=usbarmory && make nonsecure_os_go && make trusted_applet_go && make trusted_os

⚠️ replace trusted_applet_go with trusted_applet_rust for a Rust TA example, this requires Rust nightly and the armv7a-none-eabi toolchain.

Final executables are created in the bin subdirectory, trusted_os_usbarmory.imx should be used for native execution.

The following targets are available:

TARGET Board Executing and debugging
usbarmory USB armory Mk II usbarmory

The targets support native (see relevant documentation links in the table above) as well as emulated execution (e.g. make qemu).

Building and executing on RISC-V targets

Build the example trusted applet and kernel executables as follows:

git clone https://github.com/usbarmory/GoTEE-example
cd GoTEE-example && export TARGET=sifive_u && make nonsecure_os_go && make trusted_applet_go && make trusted_os

⚠️ replace trusted_applet_go with trusted_applet_rust for a Rust TA example, this requires Rust nightly and the riscv64gc-unknown-none-elf toolchain.

Final executables are created in the bin subdirectory.

Available targets:

TARGET Board Executing and debugging
sifive_u QEMU sifive_u sifive_u

The target has only been tested with emulated execution (e.g. make qemu)

Applications using GoTEE

Authors

Andrea Barisani
andrea.barisani@withsecure.com | andrea@inversepath.com

Andrej Rosano
andrej.rosano@withsecure.com | andrej@inversepath.com

License

GoTEE | https://github.com/usbarmory/GoTEE
Copyright (c) WithSecure Corporation

These source files are distributed under the BSD-style license found in the LICENSE file.