Shablona is a template project for small scientific python projects. The recommendations we make here follow the standards and conventions of much of the scientific Python eco-system. Following these standards and recommendations will make it easier for others to use your code, and can make it easier for you to port your code into other projects and collaborate with other users of this eco-system.
To use it as a template for your own project, click the green "use this template" button at the top of the front page of this repo.
First, let me explain all the different moving parts that make up a small scientific python project, and all the elements which allow us to effectively share it with others, test it, document it, and track its evolution.
Organization of the project
The project has the following structure:
shablona/ |- README.md |- shablona/ |- __init__.py |- shablona.py |- due.py |- data/ |- ... |- tests/ |- ... |- doc/ |- Makefile |- conf.py |- sphinxext/ |- ... |- _static/ |- ... |- setup.py |- .travis.yml |- .mailmap |- appveyor.yml |- LICENSE |- Makefile |- ipynb/ |- ...
In the following sections we will examine these elements one by one. First,
let's consider the core of the project. This is the code inside of
shablona/shablona.py. The code provided in this file is intentionally rather
simple. It implements some simple curve-fitting to data from a psychophysical
experiment. It's not too important to know what it does, but if you are really
interested, you can read all about it
We place the module code in a file called
shablona.py in directory called
shablona. This structure is a bit confusing at first, but it is a simple way
to create a structure where when we type
import shablona as sb in an
interactive Python session, the classes and functions defined inside of the
shablona.py file are available in the
sb namespace. For this to work, we
need to also create a file in
__init__.py which contains code that imports
everything in that file into the namespace of the project:
from .shablona import *
In the module code, we follow the convention that all functions are either imported from other places, or are defined in lines that precede the lines that use that function. This helps readability of the code, because you know that if you see some name, the definition of that name will appear earlier in the file, either as a function/variable definition, or as an import from some other module or package.
In the case of the shablona module, the main classes defined at the bottom of the file make use of some of the functions defined in preceding lines.
Remember that code will be probably be read more times than it will be written.
Make it easy to read (for others, but also for yourself when you come back to
it), by following a consistent formatting style. We strongly recommend
PEP8 code formatting standard, and
we enforce this by running a code-linter called
flake8, which automatically checks the
code and reports any violations of the PEP8 standard (and checks for other
general code hygiene issues), see below.
In this case, the project data is rather small, and recorded in csv files. Thus, it can be stored alongside the module code. Even if the data that you are analyzing is too large, and cannot be effectively tracked with github, you might still want to store some data for testing purposes.
Either way, you can create a
shablona/data folder in which you can
organize the data. As you can see in the test scripts, and in the
analysis scripts, this provides a standard file-system location for
the data at:
import os.path as op import shablona as sb data_path = op.join(sb.__path__, 'data')
Most scientists who write software constantly test their code. That is, if you are a scientist writing software, I am sure that you have tried to see how well your code works by running every new function you write, examining the inputs and the outputs of the function, to see if the code runs properly (without error), and to see whether the results make sense.
Automated code testing takes this informal practice, makes it formal, and automates it, so that you can make sure that your code does what it is supposed to do, even as you go about making changes around it.
Most scientists writing code are not really in a position to write a complete specification of their software, because when they start writing their code they don't quite know what they will discover in their data, and these chance discoveries might affect how the software evolves. Nor do most scientists have the inclination to write complete specs - scientific code often needs to be good enough to cover our use-case, and not any possible use-case. Testing the code serves as a way to provide a reader of the code with very rough specification, in the sense that it at least specifies certain input/output relationships that will certainly hold in your code.
We recommend using the 'pytest' library for
py.test application traverses the directory tree in which it is
issued, looking for files with the names that match the pattern
(typically, something like our
shablona/tests/test_shablona.py). Within each
of these files, it looks for functions with names that match the pattern
test_*. Typically each function in the module would have a corresponding test
test_transform_data). This is sometimes called 'unit testing', because
it independently tests each atomic unit in the software. Other tests might run a
more elaborate sequence of functions ('end-to-end testing' if you run through
the entire analysis), and check that particular values in the code evaluate to
the same values over time. This is sometimes called 'regression testing'. We
have one such test in
test_params_regression. Regressions in the code are often canaries in the coal
mine, telling you that you need to examine changes in your software
dependencies, the platform on which you are running your software, etc.
Test functions should contain assertion statements that check certain relations
in the code. Most typically, they will test for equality between an explicit
calculation of some kind and a return of some function. For example, in the
test_cumgauss function, we test that our implmentation of the cumulative
Gaussian function evaluates at the mean minus 1 standard deviation to
approximately (1-0.68)/2, which is the theoretical value this calculation should
have. We recommend using functions from the
numpy.testing module (which we
npt) to assert certain relations on arrays and floating point
numbers. This is because
npt contains functions that are specialized for
numpy arrays, and they allow to specify the tolerance of the
comparison through the
decimal key-word argument.
To run the tests on the command line, change your present working directory to
the top-level directory of the repository (e.g.
This will exercise all of the tests in your code directory. If a test fails, you will see a message such as:
shablona/tests/test_shablona.py .F... =================================== FAILURES =================================== ________________________________ test_cum_gauss ________________________________ def test_cum_gauss(): sigma = 1 mu = 0 x = np.linspace(-1, 1, 12) y = sb.cumgauss(x, mu, sigma) # A basic test that the input and output have the same shape: npt.assert_equal(y.shape, x.shape) # The function evaluated over items symmetrical about mu should be # symmetrical relative to 0 and 1: npt.assert_equal(y, 1 - y[-1]) # Approximately 68% of the Gaussian distribution is in mu +/- sigma, so # the value of the cumulative Gaussian at mu - sigma should be # approximately equal to (1 - 0.68/2). Note the low precision! > npt.assert_almost_equal(y, (1 - 0.68) / 2, decimal=3) E AssertionError: E Arrays are not almost equal to 3 decimals E ACTUAL: 0.15865525393145707 E DESIRED: 0.15999999999999998 shablona/tests/test_shablona.py:49: AssertionError ====================== 1 failed, 4 passed in 0.82 seconds ======================
This indicates to you that a test has failed. In this case, the calculation is
accurate up to 2 decimal places, but not beyond, so the
argument needs to be adjusted (or the calculation needs to be made more
As your code grows and becomes more complicated, you might develop new features that interact with your old features in all kinds of unexpected and surprising ways. As you develop new features of your code, keep running the tests, to make sure that you haven't broken the old features. Keep writing new tests for your new code, and recording these tests in your testing scripts. That way, you can be confident that even as the software grows, it still keeps doing correctly at least the few things that are codified in the tests.
We have also provided a
Makefile that allows you to run the tests with more
verbose and informative output from the top-level directory, by issuing the
following from the command line:
It is a good idea to follow the PEP8 standard for code formatting. Common code
formatting makes code more readable, and using tools such as
combines the tools
pyflakes) can help make your code more readable,
avoid extraneous imports and lines of code, and overall keep a clean project
Some projects include
flake8 inside their automated tests, so that every pull
request is examined for code cleanliness.
In this project, we have run
flake8 most (but not all) files, on
most (but not all) checks:
flake8 --ignore N802,N806 `find . -name *.py | grep -v setup.py | grep -v /doc/`
This means, check all .py files, but exclude setup.py and everything in directories named "doc". Do all checks except N802 and N806, which enforce lowercase-only names for variables and functions.
Makefile contains an instruction for running this command as well:
Documenting your software is a good idea. Not only as a way to communicate to others about how to use the software, but also as a way of reminding yourself what the issues are that you faced, and how you dealt with them, in a few months/years, when you return to look at the code.
The first step in this direction is to document every function in your module code. We recommend following the numpy docstring standard, which specifies in detail the inputs/outputs of every function, and specifies how to document additional details, such as references to scientific articles, notes about the mathematics behind the implementation, etc.
This standard also plays well with a system that allows you to create more comprehensive documentation of your project. Writing such documentation allows you to provide more elaborate explanations of the decisions you made when you were developing the software, as well as provide some examples of usage, explanations of the relevant scientific concepts, and references to the relevant literature.
shablona we use the sphinx documentation
system. You can follow the instructions on the sphinx
website, and the example here to set up the
system, but we have also already initialized and commited a skeleton
documentation system in the
docs directory, that you can build upon.
Sphinx uses a
Makefile to build different outputs of your documentation. For
example, if you want to generate the HTML rendering of the documentation (web
pages that you can upload to a website to explain the software), you will type:
This will generate a set of static webpages in the
doc/_build/html, which you
can then upload to a website of your choice.
Alternatively, readthedocs.org (careful,
not readthedocs.com) is a service that will run sphinx for you,
and upload the documentation to their website. To use this service,
you will need to register with RTD. After you have done that, you will
need to "import your project" from your github account, through the
RTD web interface. To make things run smoothly, you also will need to
go to the "admin" panel of the project on RTD, and navigate into the
"advanced settings" so that you can tell it that your Python
configuration file is in
For installation and distribution we will use the python standard
distutils module. This module uses a
setup.py file to
figure out how to install your software on a particular system. For a
small project such as this one, managing installation of the software
modules and the data is rather simple.
shablona/version.py contains all of the information needed for the
installation and for setting up the PyPI
page for the software. This
also makes it possible to install your software with using
easy_install, which are package managers for Python software. The
setup.py file reads this information from there and passes it to the
setup function which takes care of the rest.
Much more information on packaging Python software can be found in the Hitchhiker's guide to packaging.
Travis-CI is a system that can be used to automatically test every revision of
your code directly from github, including testing of github pull requests,
before they are merged into the
master branch. This provides you with
information needed in order to evaluate contributions made by others. It also
serves as a source of information for others interested in using or contributing
to your project about the degree of test coverage of your project.
You will need a .travis.yml file in your repo. This file contains the
configuration of your testing environment. This includes the different
environments in which you will test the source code (for example, we test
shablona against Python 2.7, Python 3.3 and Python 3.4). It includes steps
that need to be taken before installation of the software. For example,
installation of the software dependencies. For
shablona, we use the
Miniconda software distribution (not
to be confused with
though they are similar and both produced by Continuum).
For details on setting up Travis-CI with github, see Travis-CI's getting started page. To summarize:
First, go to the Travis-CI website and get a Travis user account, linked to your github user account.
You will need to set up your github repo to talk to Travis (More explanation + pictures will come here).
You will need to go back to travis-ci, and flip on the switch on that side as well.
The travis output will also report to you about test coverage, if you set it up that way.
You will start getting emails telling you the state of the testing suite on
every pull request for the software, and also when you break the test suite on
master branch. That way, you can be pretty sure that the
working (or at least know when it isn't...).
You can also continuously test your code on a Windows system. This is done on
another CI system called Appveyor. In prinicple, it
does something that is very similar to what Travis does: downloads your code,
installs it on a Windows machine, with various versions of python, and runs the
tests. Appveyor is controlled through another configuration file: the
appveyor.yml. In addition to committing this file into the repository, you
will need to activate Appveyor for your project. This is done by signing into
the Appveyor interface with your Github account, clicking on the "projects" tab
at the top of the page, then clicking on the "+" sign for "New project" and
selecting the project you would like to add from the menu that appears (you
might need to give Appveyor the permission to see projects in your Github
The main venue for distribution of Python software is the Python Package Index, or PyPI, also lovingly known as "the cheese-shop".
Using Travis, you can automatically upload your software to PyPI, every time you push a tag of your software to github. The instructions on setting this up can be found here. You will need to install the travis command-line interface
License your code! A repository like this without a license maintains
copyright to the author, but does not provide others with any
conditions under which they can use the software. In this case, we use
the MIT license. You can read the conditions of the license in the
LICENSE file. As you can see, this is not an Apple software license
agreement (has anyone ever actually tried to read one of those?). It's
actually all quite simple, and boils down to "You can do whatever you
want with my software, but I take no responsibility for what you do
with my software"
For more details on what you need to think about when considering choosing a license, see this article!
When others use your code in their research, they should probably cite you. To
make their life easier, we use duecredit. This is a software
library that allows you to annotate your code with the correct way to cite it.
duecredit, we have added a file
due.py into the main directory.
This file does not need to change at all (though you might want to occasionally
update it from duecredit itself. It's
under the name
In addition, you will want to provide a digital object identifier (DOI) to the article you want people to cite.
To get a DOI, use the instructions in this page
Another way to get your software cited is by writing a paper. There are several journals that publish papers about software.
A scripts directory can be used as a place to experiment with your module code, and as a place to produce scripts that contain a narrative structure, demonstrating the use of the code, or producing scientific results from your code and your data and telling a story with these elements.
For example, this repository contains an [IPython notebook] that reads in some data, and creates a figure. Maybe this is Figure 1 from some future article? You can see this notebook fully rendered here.
Currently there are two files in the repository which help working with this repository, and which you could extend further:
.gitignore-- specifies intentionally untracked files (such as compiled
*.pycfiles), which should not typically be committed to git (see
.mailmap-- if any of the contributors used multiple names/email addresses or his git commit identity is just an alias, you could specify the ultimate name/email(s) for each contributor, so such commands as
git shortlog -sncould take them into account (see
git shortlog --help)
shablona as a template
Let's assume that you want to create a small scientific Python project
smallish. Maybe you already have some code that you are
interested in plugging into the module file, and some ideas about what
the tests might look like.
To use this repository as a template, click the green "use this template" button on the front page of the "shablona" repository.
In "Repository name" enter the name of your project. For example, enter
smallish here. After that, you can hit the "Create repository from template"
You should then be able to clone the new repo into your machine. You will want
to change the names of the files. For example, you will want to move
shablona/shablona.py to be called
git mv shablona smallish git mv smallish/shablona.py smallish/smallish.py git mv smallish/tests/test_shablona.py smallish/tests/test_smallish.py
Make a commit recording these changes. Something like:
git commit -a -m"Moved names from `shablona` to `smallish`"
You will probably want to remove all the example data:
git rm smallish/data/* git commit -a -m"Removed example `shablona` data"
Possibly, you will want to add some of your own data in there.
You will want to edit a few more places that still have
shablona in them. Type
the following to see where all these files are:
git grep shablona
You can replace
smallish quickly with:
git grep -l 'shablona' | xargs sed -i 's/shablona/smallish/g'
This very file (README.md) should be edited to reflect what your project is about.
Other places that contain this name include the
doc/conf.py file, which
configures the sphinx documentation, as well as the
doc/Makefile file (edit
carefully!), and the
.coveragerc file contains a few mentions of that name, as well as the
.travis.yml file. This one will also have to be edited to reflect your PyPI
credentials (see [above](### Distribution)).
Edit all the mentions of
shablona in the
shablona/__init__.py file, and in
shablona/version.py file as well.
Finally, you will probably want to change the copyright holder in the
file to be you. You can also replace the text of that file, if it doesn't match
At this point, make another commit, and continue to develop your own code based on this template.