Synapse is a framework for program synthesis with cost functions, as described in our POPL'16 paper Optimizing Synthesis with Metasketches.
- Racket v6.2.1 (download; v6.3 has not yet been tested)
- Java v1.7 or above (download)
- Rosette (instructions on GitHub)
Existing benchmarks can be run from the command line using the
benchmarks/run.rkt script. Be sure to compile this script first. For example:
$ raco make benchmarks/run.rkt $ racket benchmarks/run.rkt "(hd-d0 1)" (program 1 (list (bv 1) (bvsub 0 1) (bvand 0 2)))
(hd-d0 1) specifies the benchmark to execute. To see a list of available benchmarks, and the other options this script accepts, run:
$ racket benchmarks/run.rkt -h
Instructions for running more experiments with Synapse's existing benchmarks accompany our POPL'16 artifact.
The raw results from our POPL'16 paper are located in the
A metasketch is an ordered set of sketches together with a cost function and gradient function. Together, these elements define an optimal synthesis problem: the set of sketches defines the search space, and the solution is the program in that search space that minimizes the cost function.
Synapse includes several standard metasketches for a variety of synthesis problems. These implementations all reside in the
superoptimization.rktimplements a superoptimization metasketch for bitvector programs in SSA form
piecewise.rktimplements a metasketch for a piecewise polynomial program
bdf.rktimplement metasketches for approximate computing:
ris.rktextracts a "reduced instruction set" of operations from a reference implementation and uses them to guide synthesis of an optimal approximate implementation
bdf.rktextracts the data-flow graph from a reference implementation and uses it as the basis for synthesis of an optimal approximate implementation
neural.rktimplements a metasketch for training a neural network on a set of input-output examples
Using a standard metasketch
benchmarks/demo/example.rkt contains simple examples of how to use the built-in superoptimization metasketch. Here we'll walk through this example to demonstrate the key parts of Synapse.
This metasketch operates over programs in SSA form, represented with a
program structure (in
(struct program (inputs instructions))
For example, this program:
(program 2 (list (bvslt 0 1) (ite 2 1 0)))
max function. The program takes two inputs. The operands to instructions refer to SSA registers; the first 2 of these registers (0 and 1) are the two inputs to the program, and the remaining are the outputs of previous instructions. Therefore, this program first stores
x < y in register 2, and then stores
if (r2) then y else x in register 3 (where
r2 is the value of register 2). Programs implicitly return the value of the last assigned register (in this case, register 3).
example.rkt starts by defining a postcondition:
(define (max-post P inputs) (match-define (list x y) inputs) (define out (interpret P inputs)) (assert (>= out x)) (assert (>= out y)) (assert (or (= out x) (= out y))))
The postcondition function takes as input a program P (which is an instance of the
program struct above) and symbolic inputs to that program. The function should assert (using Rosette's
assert operation) the desired postconditions for functional correctness.
Here, the assertions say that the output of P should be greater than or eqaul to both of the arguments, and should be equal to one of the arguments.
example procedure defines a simple metasketch based on the provided superoptimization metaskecth:
(define (example) (superopt∑ #:arity 2 #:instructions (list bvslt ite) #:post max-post #:cost-model constant-cost-model))
superopt∑ procedure takes the number of inputs to the synthesized program, the instructions it is allowed to use, the postcondition, and a cost model. The cost model attaches a static cost to each type of instruction, and Synapse will minimize the sum of these costs for the synthesized program. Here, we have specified the constant cost model, that attaches the same cost to every instruction. Synapse will therefore return the shortest program that satisfies the postcondition.
Running the example
To run Synapse on the example metasketch, execute:
$ racket benchmarks/run.rkt "(example)"
This will return the same program as above:
(program 2 (list (bvslt 0 1) (ite 2 1 0)))
You can also pass the
-v flag to
run.rkt to see verbose output about the programm of Synapse's search algorithms.
example.rkt contains three more examples --
(example4) -- which can be executed in the same fashion as
(example2)prevents the synthesized program from using
iteinstructions, which forces it to instead generate bitwise manipulations to compute the maximum:
(define (example2) (superopt∑ #:arity 2 #:instructions (list bvand bvor bvxor bvnot bvneg bvadd bvsub bvslt) #:post max-post #:cost-model constant-cost-model))
(example3)allows the synthesized program to use both bitwise manipulations and
iteinstructions. It also uses a different cost model that attaches different costs to each operations; for example,
bvxorcosts 1 while
(define c (static-cost-model (hash-set sample-costs ite 8))) (define (example3) (superopt∑ #:arity 2 #:instructions (list bvand bvor bvxor bvnot bvneg bvadd bvsub bvslt ite) #:post max-post #:cost-model c))
The result is that a longer program is "cheaper" than a shorter one. Executing this metasketch with the
-vflag will show that Synapse finds the shorter program first, but realizes from the metasketch's gradient function that it must consider longer programs, and eventually finds the cheaper, longer solution.
(define (max-pre inputs) (match-define (list x y) inputs) (assert (< x y))) (define (example4) (superopt∑ #:arity 2 #:instructions (list bvor) #:pre max-pre #:post max-post #:cost-model constant-cost-model))
Here the precondition asserts that
x < y, which makes computing the maximum of
ymuch simpler. The synthesized program is:
(program 2 (list (bvor 1 1)))
which simply returns
y | y, or just
The metasketch interface is defined as a Racket generic interface in
opsyn/metasketches/metasketch.rkt. However, Synapse supports only indexed metasketches, which are simply metasketches that attach a unique index to each sketch in the set of sketches. The indexing helps Synapse to track progress and parallelize execution. The indexed metaaketch interface is defined and documented in
To be able to run a metasketch using
benchmarks/run.rkt, it must be
provided by a file that is then added to the
require spec of
benchmarks/all.rkt. For example, the example metasketch defined above is provided in the
benchmarks/demos/example.rkt file, which is required by
The command line for
benchmarks/run.rkt accepts an s-expression corresponding to an invocation of a metasketch function. For example, if we had defined a metasketch that took an argument:
(define (example do-stuff?) (if do-stuff? ... ...))
then we could invoke this metasketch from the command line, passing in a value for the argument:
$ racket benchmarks/run.rkt "(example #t)"