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An R package to load, explore, and work with the Episodes of Regime Transformation (ERT) dataset - a project of the V-Dem Institute.

Episodes of Regime Transformation (ERT)

Load, explore, and work with the ERT dataset (for details see also the ERT Codebook):

  • NOTE: for non-R users we provide the ERT dataset here as csv. file - however, we recommend loading the ERT dataset via the package since one huge advantage of the package is that it allows to flexibly set parameters for generating the episodes.
  • RELEASES: ERT 4 is based on the V-Dem dataset v12. For earlier releases using earlier versions of the V-Dem dataset, see the "Releases" column on the right sight.


  • get_eps: Identify episodes of regime transitions (autocratization, democratization) in the most recent V-dem data set. Autocratization is defined as any movement towards autocracy which starts within democracies or autocracies (cf. Lührmann and Lindberg, Democratization, 2019). Democratization is defined as any movement towards democracy which starts in autocracies or democracies (cf. Wilson et al., 2022)
  • find_overlap: Find potential overlaps between episodes of democratization and autocratization which may occur depending on how the thresholds are set.
  • plot_episodes: Plot Episodes of Regime Transitions (ERT) over time for a selected country.
  • plot_all: Plot share or absolute number of all countries in Episodes of Regime Transitions (ERT) over time.


# Install the development version of the ERT package 
# (since this package is still an ongoing project, 
# keep checking for updates, new functions, etc.!)

# First, you need to have the devtools package installed
# now, install the ERT package directly from GitHub

# NOTE: make sure you have an updated R version (> 3.5) and
# - since the package is still a development version - 
# an updated version of xcode (Mac), rtools (Windows), r-base-dev (Linux)
# installed. If you have troubles with the installation 
# write to the package maintainer Seraphine Maerz (