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The Pandemic Backsliding Project (PanDem), Version 4

This repository contains the data, comments and sources for the PanDem dataset V4. Download the repository including the codebook and data by clicking the green clone or download button.


Emergency provisions - such as the ones in place in many countries during the current Covid-19 crisis - enable states to temporarily limit personal freedoms and checks and balances to react effectively in situations of crisis. However, previous research shows that some leaders abuse such tools to foster more permanent autocratization by (a) imposing measures that are disproportionate to the severity of crises and (b) keeping emergency provisions in place once the factual situation improves (see Lührmann and Rooney, 2020). How can states effectively respond to crises without undermining democratic standards, freedom and human rights?

The Pandemic Backsliding Project (PanDem) tracks state responses to the Covid-19 pandemic as illustrative of the varieties of emergency measures and their execution, addressing how these decisions affect short- and long-term prospects for the political regime and democracy.

This repository contains the data and sources for the PanDem project. The data for Version 4 of the dataset can be accessed here.

Click here to see coder comments and sources by country, and here to see comments and sources organized by question.

The codebook for this project can be accessed here.

Check out our dashboard here to explore the most recent PanDem data and indices. Read our policy briefs here.

For research using our PanDem data see, for example, here.


The Pandemic Backsliding Project (PanDem)



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