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:advanced_sneakers adapter for ActiveJob

Build Status Gem Version

Drop-in replacement for :sneakers adapter of ActiveJob. Extra features:

  1. Tries to handle unrouted messages
  2. Respects queue_as of ActiveJob and defines consumer class per RabbitMQ queue
  3. Supports custom message options
  4. Allows to run ActiveJob consumers separately from native Sneakers consumers
  5. Support for delayed jobs GuestsCleanupJob.set(wait: 1.week).perform_later(guest)
  6. Exponential backoff*
  7. Exposes #delivery_info & #headers AMQP metadata to job


Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'advanced-sneakers-activejob'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install advanced-sneakers-activejob


Configure ActiveJob adapter

config.active_job.queue_adapter = :advanced_sneakers

Run worker for all queues of ActiveJob

rake sneakers:active_job

Run worker for picked queues of ActiveJob

QUEUES=mailers,foo,bar rake sneakers:active_job

Wildcards are supported for queues names with "words" (separator is .). Algorithm is similar to the way the topic exchange matches routing keys. * (star) substitutes for exactly one word. # (hash) substitutes for zero or more words

QUEUES=mailers,index.*,telemetery.# rake sneakers:active_job

Unrouted messages

If message is published before routing has been configured (e.g. by consumer), it might be lost. To mitigate this problem the adapter uses :mandatory option for publishing messages. RabbitMQ returns unrouted messages back and the publisher is able to handle them:

  1. Create queue
  2. Create binding
  3. Re-publish message

There is a setting handle_unrouted_messages in configuration to disable this behavior. If it is disabled, publisher will only log unrouted messages.

Take into accout that this process is asynchronous. It means that in case of network failures or process exit unrouted messages could be lost. The adapter tries to postpone application exit up to 5 seconds in case if there are unrouted messages, but it does not provide any guarantees.

Delayed messages are not handled! If job is delayed GuestsCleanupJob.set(wait: 1.week).perform_later(guest) and there is no proper routing defined at the moment of job execution, it would be lost.

Custom message options

Advanced sneakers adapter allows to set custom message options (e.g. routing keys) on class-level.

class MyJob < ActiveJob::Base

  queue_as :some_name

  message_options routing_key: 'my.custom.routing.key',
                  headers: { 'foo' => 'bar' }

  def perform(params)

Procs are also supported

class MyJob < ActiveJob::Base

  queue_as :some_name

  message_options routing_key: ->(job) { "process_user_data.#{ ? 'urgent' : 'regular' }" }

  def perform(user)

And also supports custom message options per job

MyJob.set(priority: 1, headers: { 'foo' => 'bar' }).perform_later('baz')

Read more about message properties:

Take into accout that custom message options are used for publishing only.

How to separate ActiveJob consumers

Sneakers comes with rake sneakers:run task, which would run all consumers (including ActiveJob ones). If you need to run native sneakers consumers apart from ActiveJob consumers:

  1. Set activejob_workers_strategy to :exclude in configuration
  2. Run rake sneakers:run task to run native Sneakers consumers
  3. Run rake sneakers:active_job task to run ActiveJob consumers

Tip: if you want to see how consumers are grouped, exec Sneakers::Worker::Classes in rails console.

Exponential backoff*

The adapter enforces AdvancedSneakersActiveJob::Handler for ActiveJob consumers. This handler applies exponential backoff if failure is not handled by ActiveJob rescue_from/retry_on/discard_on. Error name is tracked in x-last-error-name, error full message is tracked in x-last-error-details gzipped & encoded by Base64. To decode error details:


* For RabbitMQ queues amount optimization exponential backoff is not calculated by formula, but predifined. You can customize retry_delay_proc in configuration

AMQP metadata

Each message in AMQP comes with delivery_info and headers. :advanced_sneakers adapter provides them on job level.

class SomeComplexJob < ActiveJob::Base
  before :perform do |job|
    # metadata is available in callbacks
    logger.debug({delivery_info: job.delivery_info, headers: job.headers})

  def perform(msg)
    # metadata is available here as well
    logger.debug({delivery_info: delivery_info, headers: headers})


AdvancedSneakersActiveJob.configure do |config|
  # Should AdvancedSneakersActiveJob try to handle unrouted messages?
  # There are still no guarantees that unrouted message is not lost in case of network failure or process exit.
  # Delayed unrouted messages are not handled.
  config.handle_unrouted_messages = true

  # Should Sneakers build-in runner (e.g. `rake sneakers:run`) run ActiveJob consumers?
  # :include - yes
  # :exclude - no
  # :only - Sneakers runner will run _only_ ActiveJob consumers
  # This setting might be helpful if you want to run ActiveJob consumers apart from native Sneakers consumers.
  # In that case set strategy to :exclude and use `rake sneakers:run` for native and `rake sneakers:active_job` for ActiveJob consumers
  config.activejob_workers_strategy = :include

  # All delayed messages delays are rounded to seconds.
  config.delay_proc = ->(timestamp) { (timestamp - } } # integer result is expected

  # Delayed queues can be filtered by this prefix (e.g. delayed:60 - queue for messages with 1 minute delay)
  config.delayed_queue_prefix = 'delayed'

  # Custom sneakers configuration for ActiveJob publisher & runner
  config.sneakers = {
    connection:'CUSTOM_URL', with: { other: 'options' }),
    exchange: 'activejob',
    handler: AdvancedSneakersActiveJob::Handler

  # Define custom delay for retries, but remember - each unique delay leads to new queue on RabbitMQ side
  config.retry_delay_proc = ->(count) { AdvancedSneakersActiveJob::EXPONENTIAL_BACKOFF[count] }

  # Connection for publisher (fallbacks to connection of consumers)
  config.publish_connection ='CUSTOM_URL', with: { other: 'options' })

  # Log level of "rake sneakers:active_job" output
  config.log_level = :info


Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at


The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License.

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