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apiwrap.el

README.org

API-Wrap.el

API-Wrap.el is a tool to interface with the APIs of your favorite services. These macros make it easy to define efficient and consistently-documented Elisp functions that use a natural syntax for application development.

Lightning Tour

(require 'apiwrap)
(require 'ghub)   ; backend for API primitives -- https://github.com/magit/ghub
;; typical backend is <150 lines

(defun my-github-wrapper--request (method resource params data)
  (ghub-request (upcase (symbol-name method))
                resource (apiwrap-plist->alist params) data))

(apiwrap-new-backend "GitHub" "my-github-wrapper"
  '((repo . "REPO is a repository alist of the form returned by `/user/repos'."))
  :request #'my-github-wrapper--request)

(defapiget-my-github-wrapper "/repos/:owner/:repo/issues"
  "List issues for a repository."
  "https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/#list-issues-for-a-repository"
  (repo) "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues")

;; Check the docstring of this new function!
(my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues
 '((owner (login . "magit"))
   (name . "ghub")))
;; => parsed response of GET /repos/magit/ghub/issues

The API Primitive Request

API-Wrap.el can’t do all of the work for you; you will have to supply your own primitive request function that can query the API and return the processed response, but this is expected to be pretty bare-bones. Without duplicating the documentation of apiwrap-new-backend, the macro expects a function like this:

(defun api-primitive (method resource params data)
  "Using METHOD, use RESOURCE with PARAMS and DATA.
METHOD is a symbol -- one of `get', `put', `head', `post',
`patch', or `delete'.

RESOURCE is a string, like \"/users/20543/info\".

PARAMS is a plist of parameters to RESOURCE.

DATA is an alist of data for RESOURCE (e.g., for posting).")

If you have a function like this, you should be good to go! If you don’t, you can likely model your primitive on ghub’s (tiny) codebase.

It’s not uncommon to need to write a wrapper! API-Wrap.el is written to be as unassuming as possible. For instance, ghub-request does not take the right kinds of parameters, but we can write a suitable wrapper as above in the lightning tour.

Defining API Backends

Suppose I want to use ghub’s primitives to define a bunch of resource wrappers to use in my application code. To do this, I’ll use apiwrap-new-backend:

(require 'apiwrap)

(eval-when-compile
  (apiwrap-new-backend "GitHub" "my-github-wrapper"
    '((repo . "REPO is a repository alist of the form returned by `/user/repos'.")
      (org  . "ORG is an organization alist of the form returned by `/user/orgs'."))
    :request #'my-github-wrapper--request
    :link (lambda (props)
            (format "https://developer.github.com/v3/%s"
                    (alist-get 'link props)))))

Refer to the macro’s docstring for full a full description of the parameters, but take away these highlights:

  • we provide a service name that will be referenced in the documentation
  • we provide a prefix for all macros and functions generated from here forward
  • we provide an alist of standard parameters with standard documentation – these parameters will be used by my application code and are usually similarly structured objects
  • we provide a function to generate a link to the official API documentation from GitHub – after all, these are just wrappers!
  • we provide a primitive handler to handle making the request
  • we provide a means to generate full documentation links based on subsequent macro arguments

Note that I must wrap this call (and all function definitions beyond the primitives) in eval-when-compile so that my-github-wrapper.el will compile. If I don’t ever need it to compile, I don’t need this call. When I do compile, though, I can rest easy knowing that the macros do not make it into the byte-code – only the actual, generated wrapper functions do. The macros are only generated once!

This doesn’t mean I don’t have to (require 'apiwrap) every time, though; application code will rely on support functions that evaluate at runtime (like apiwrap-plist->alist).

Using the Generated Macros

After evaluating the above call to apiwrap-new-backend, you will have six new macros for your use:

  • defapiget-my-github-wrapper
  • defapiput-my-github-wrapper
  • defapihead-my-github-wrapper
  • defapipost-my-github-wrapper
  • defapipatch-my-github-wrapper
  • defapidelete-my-github-wrapper

These wonderful new macros super-charge your primitive API functions into documentation-generating, resource-wrapping machines! Let’s define a wrapper for the GitHub API endpoint GET /issues.

A simple use-case

Here is the definition of my-github-wrapper-get-issues:

(defapiget-my-github-wrapper "/issues"
  "List all issues assigned to the authenticated user across all
visible repositories including owned repositories, member
repositories, and organization repositories."
  "issues/#list-issues")

If we refer to the documentation of defapiget-my-github-wrapper, we’ll see that /issues is the method call as written in the linked GitHub API documentation. A brief docstring is provided, here copied from the API.

If we now inspect the documentation of my-github-wrapper-get-issues, we’ll see all of our information included in the docstring:

my-github-wrapper-get-issues is a Lisp function.

(my-github-wrapper-get-issues &optional DATA &rest PARAMS)

List all issues assigned to the authenticated user across all
visible repositories including owned repositories, member
repositories, and organization repositories.

DATA is a data structure to be sent with this request.  If it’s
not required, it can simply be omitted.

PARAMS is a plist of parameters appended to the method call.

--------------------

This generated function wraps the GitHub API endpoint

    GET /issues

which is documented at

    URL ‘https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/#list-issues’

In addition to the documentation we provided, the DATA and PARAMS parameters have been added to the function and appropriately documented. At the end of the documentaton, we report that the function was generated from a raw method call and where that method is fully documented (e.g., what PARAMS it accepts, what the format of DATA is, the structure of its response, etc.).

On-the-fly parameters

Each function defined with the defapi*-my-github-wrapper macros accepts PARAMS as a &rest argument. This argument is effectively a list of keyword arguments to the method call – similar to how &keys works in Common Lisp. However, collecting them as a list allows us to perform generic processing on them (with apiwrap-plist->alist) so that they can be passed straight to the request primitive. For example,

;; retrieve closed issues
(my-github-wrapper-get-issues :state "closed")

If I wanted to use :state 'closed instead, I would need to handle that in my primitive function (in this case, my-github-wrapper--request). For example, if I wanted to convert symbols to strings, I could modify the function to say the following:

(defun my-github-wrapper--request (method resource params data)
  (ghub-request
   (upcase (sumbol-name method))
   resource
   (my-github-wrapper--preprocess-params params)
   data))

(defun my-github-wrapper--preprocess-params (alist)
  (mapcar (lambda (cell)
            (if (symbolp (cdr cell))
                (cons (car cell) (symbol-name (cdr cell)))
              cell))
          alist))

A complex use-case

Of course, many method calls accept ‘interpolated’ parameters (so-called for lack of a better phrase). Thanks to some very slick macro-magic, defapi*-my-github-wrapper can handle these, too!

Consider this definition of my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues:

(defapiget-my-github-wrapper "/repos/:owner/:repo/issues"
  "List issues for a repository."
  "issues/#list-issues-for-a-repository"
  (repo) "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues")

We’ve provided two extra parameters: repo and the string /repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues. Since defapiget-my-github-wrapper is a macro, repo is a just a symbol that will be used in the argument list of the generated function (and inserted into its docstring according to my-github-wrapper--standard-parameters).

This second string is where things get interesting. This argument overrides the first, as-advertised method call for a very specific purpose: when our new function is used, this string is evaluated in the context of our repo object using syntax akin to let-alist:

;; repo "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues"
(my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues
 '((owner (login . "vermiculus"))
   (name . "apiwrap.el")))
;; calls GET /repos/vermiculus/apiwrap.el/issues

Multiple required parameters

You may have noticed that you provided the repo symbol above in a list. You can have as many symbols as you want in this list; they will all be evaluated in the string described above:

(defapiget-my-github-wrapper "/repos/:owner/:repo/issues/:number/comments"
  "List comments on an issue."
  "issues/comments/#list-comments-on-an-issue"
  (repo issue) "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues/:issue.number/comments")

Each :object is considered for evaluation:

;; repo issue "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues/:issue.number/comments"
(my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues-number-comments
 '((owner (login . "vermiculus"))
   (name . "apiwrap.el"))
 '((number . 1)))
;; calls GET /repos/vermiculus/apiwrap.el/issues/1/comments

It’s recommended that you treat each interpolated parameter as a full object. For example, I could’ve defined the above as

(defapiget-my-github-wrapper "/repos/:owner/:repo/issues/:number/comments"
  "List comments on an issue."
  "issues/comments/#list-comments-on-an-issue"
  (repo number) "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name/issues/:number/comments")

but I would not be able to pass an issue object into the function without first getting its number out of the object. If desired, convenience functions can easily be written to create the sparse object necessary to complete the API call:

(defun my-github-wrapper-issue-get-comments (repo issue-number)
  (my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues-number-comments
   repo `((number . ,issue-number))))

Handling Errors

When writing a request primitive, it is usually wise to signal an error for abnormal responses usually anything that’s not HTTP 2xx. Some API endpoints, however, may intentionally return an ‘error’ status that in fact should not be considered an error at all. Take for example the following GitHub API endpoint:

GET /repos/:owner/:repo

This returns the repository object if it exists and HTTP 404 if it does not. By convention, a wrapper function should probably return nil instead to indicate there was nothing there. This is where the :condition-case keyword argument comes in:

(defapiget-my-github-wrapper "/repos/:owner/:repo"
  "Get a specific repository object."
  "repos/#get"
  (repo) "/repos/:repo.owner.login/:repo.name"
  :condition-case
  ((ghub-404 nil)))

Now, on receiving the ghub-404 signal, my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo will return nil instead of passing that error back up to the caller.

It’s recommended that this configuration is not used at the apiwrap-new-backend level and instead left to each specific endpoint per that endpoint’s documentation. Errors should still be errors – think twice before you add any ‘fancy’ error-handling here.

Other configuration

API-Wrap.el aims to be configurable enough to suit all kinds of needs. Each call to defapi*-my-github-wrapper can take optional keyword arguments as well. These keyword arguments can override the default values given in apiwrap-new-backend.

Using Macro-Generated Wrappers

This is the fun part! The wrappers are a joy to use:

;;; GET /issues
(my-github-wrapper-get-issues)

;;; GET /issues?state=closed
(my-github-wrapper-get-issues :state 'closed)

(let ((repo (ghub-get "/repos/magit/magit")))
  (list
   ;; Magit's issues
   ;; GET /repos/magit/magit/issues
   (my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues repo)

   ;; Magit's closed issues labeled 'easy'
   ;; GET /repos/magit/magit/issues?state=closed&labels=easy
   (my-github-wrapper-get-repos-owner-repo-issues repo
     :state 'closed :labels "easy")))

As an exercise, how would you wrap (ghub-get "/repos/magit/magit")?

I hope you enjoy using API-Wrap.el as much as I’ve enjoyed writing it!

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