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vertica-python

PyPI version License Python Version Downloads

vertica-python is a native Python client for the Vertica (http://www.vertica.com) database. vertica-python is the replacement of the deprecated Python client vertica_db_client, which was removed since Vertica server version 9.3.

📢 08/14/2018: vertica-python becomes Vertica’s first officially supported open source database client, see the blog here.

Please check out release notes to learn about the latest improvements.

vertica-python has been tested with Vertica 10.1.1 and Python 2.7/3.5/3.6/3.7/3.8/3.9. Feel free to submit issues and/or pull requests (Read up on our contributing guidelines).

Installation

To install vertica-python with pip:

# Latest release version
pip install vertica-python

# Latest commit on master branch
pip install git+https://github.com/vertica/vertica-python.git@master

To install vertica-python from source, run the following command from the root directory:

python setup.py install

Source code for vertica-python can be found at:

https://github.com/vertica/vertica-python

Using Kerberos authentication

vertica-python has optional Kerberos authentication support for Unix-like systems, which requires you to install the kerberos package:

pip install kerberos

Note that kerberos is a python extension module, which means you need to install python-dev. The command depends on the package manager and will look like

sudo [yum|apt-get|etc] install python-dev

Usage

Create connection

import vertica_python

conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             # autogenerated session label by default,
             'session_label': 'some_label',
             # default throw error on invalid UTF-8 results
             'unicode_error': 'strict',
             # SSL is disabled by default
             'ssl': False,
             # autocommit is off by default
             'autocommit': True,
             # using server-side prepared statements is disabled by default
             'use_prepared_statements': False,
             # connection timeout is not enabled by default
             # 5 seconds timeout for a socket operation (Establishing a TCP connection or read/write operation)
             'connection_timeout': 5}

# simple connection, with manual close
try:
    connection = vertica_python.connect(**conn_info)
    # do things
finally:
    connection.close()

# using with for auto connection closing after usage
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    # do things

You can pass an ssl.SSLContext to ssl to customize the SSL connection options. For example,

import vertica_python
import ssl

ssl_context = ssl.SSLContext(ssl.PROTOCOL_SSLv23)
ssl_context.verify_mode = ssl.CERT_REQUIRED
ssl_context.check_hostname = True
ssl_context.load_verify_locations(cafile='/path/to/ca_file.pem')

conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'ssl': ssl_context}
connection = vertica_python.connect(**conn_info)

See more on SSL options here.

In order to use Kerberos authentication, install dependencies first, and it is the user's responsibility to ensure that an Ticket-Granting Ticket (TGT) is available and valid. Whether a TGT is available can be easily determined by running the klist command. If no TGT is available, then it first must be obtained by running the kinit command or by logging in. You can pass in optional arguments to customize the authentication. The arguments are kerberos_service_name, which defaults to "vertica", and kerberos_host_name, which defaults to the value of argument host. For example,

import vertica_python

conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             # The service name portion of the Vertica Kerberos principal
             'kerberos_service_name': 'vertica_krb',
             # The instance or host name portion of the Vertica Kerberos principal
             'kerberos_host_name': 'vcluster.example.com'}

with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as conn:
    # do things

Logging is disabled by default if you do not pass values to both log_level and log_path. The default value of log_level is logging.WARNING. You can find all levels here. The default value of log_path is 'vertica_python.log', the log file will be in the current execution directory. If log_path is set to '' (empty string) or None, no file handler is set, logs will be processed by root handlers. For example,

import vertica_python
import logging

## Example 1: write DEBUG level logs to './vertica_python.log'
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'log_level': logging.DEBUG}
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    # do things

## Example 2: write WARNING level logs to './path/to/logs/client.log'
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'log_path': 'path/to/logs/client.log'}
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
   # do things

## Example 3: write INFO level logs to '/home/admin/logs/vClient.log'
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'log_level': logging.INFO,
             'log_path': '/home/admin/logs/vClient.log'}
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
   # do things

## Example 4: use root handlers to process logs by setting 'log_path' to '' (empty string) 
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'log_level': logging.DEBUG,
             'log_path': ''}
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    # do things

Connection Failover: Supply a list of backup hosts to backup_server_node for the client to try if the primary host you specify in the connection parameters (host, port) is unreachable. Each item in the list should be either a host string (using default port 5433) or a (host, port) tuple. A host can be a host name or an IP address.

import vertica_python

conn_info = {'host': 'unreachable.server.com',
             'port': 888,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'backup_server_node': ['123.456.789.123', 'invalid.com', ('10.20.82.77', 6000)]}
connection = vertica_python.connect(**conn_info)

Connection Load Balancing helps automatically spread the overhead caused by client connections across the cluster by having hosts redirect client connections to other hosts. Both the server and the client need to enable load balancing for it to function. If the server disables connection load balancing, the load balancing request from client will be ignored.

import vertica_python

conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'port': 5433,
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'vdb',
             'connection_load_balance': True}

# Server enables load balancing
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as conn:
    cur = conn.cursor()
    cur.execute("SELECT NODE_NAME FROM V_MONITOR.CURRENT_SESSION")
    print("Client connects to primary node:", cur.fetchone()[0])
    cur.execute("SELECT SET_LOAD_BALANCE_POLICY('ROUNDROBIN')")

with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as conn:
    cur = conn.cursor()
    cur.execute("SELECT NODE_NAME FROM V_MONITOR.CURRENT_SESSION")
    print("Client redirects to node:", cur.fetchone()[0])

## Output
#  Client connects to primary node: v_vdb_node0003
#  Client redirects to node: v_vdb_node0005

Another way to set connection properties is passing a connection string to the keyword parameter dsn of vertica_python.connect(dsn='...', **kwargs). The connection string is of the form:

vertica://(user):(password)@(host):(port)/(database)?(arg1=val1&arg2=val2&...)

The connection string would be parsed by vertica_python.parse_dsn(connection_str), and the parsing result (a dictionary of keywords and values) would be merged with kwargs. If the same keyword is specified in both the sources, the kwargs value overrides the parsed dsn value. The (arg1=val1&arg2=val2&...) section can handle string/numeric/boolean values, blank and invalid value would be ignored.

import vertica_python

connection_str = ('vertica://admin@localhost:5433/db1?connection_load_balance=True&connection_timeout=1.5&'
                  'session_label=vpclient+123%7E456')
print(vertica_python.parse_dsn(connection_str))
# {'user': 'admin', 'host': 'localhost', 'port': 5433, 'database': 'db1',
#  'connection_load_balance': True, 'connection_timeout': 1.5, 'session_label': 'vpclient 123~456'}

additional_info = {
    'password': 'some_password', 
    'backup_server_node': ['10.6.7.123', ('10.20.82.77', 6000)]  # invalid value to be set in a connection string
    }

with vertica_python.connect(dsn=connection_str, **additional_info) as conn:
   # do things

Stream query results:

cur = connection.cursor()
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table LIMIT 2")

for row in cur.iterate():
    print(row)
# [ 1, 'some text', datetime.datetime(2014, 5, 18, 6, 47, 1, 928014) ]
# [ 2, 'something else', None ]

Streaming is recommended if you want to further process each row, save the results in a non-list/dict format (e.g. Pandas DataFrame), or save the results in a file.

In-memory results as list:

cur = connection.cursor()
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table LIMIT 2")
cur.fetchall()
# [ [1, 'something'], [2, 'something_else'] ]

In-memory results as dictionary:

cur = connection.cursor('dict')
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table LIMIT 2")
cur.fetchall()
# [ {'id': 1, 'value': 'something'}, {'id': 2, 'value': 'something_else'} ]
connection.close()

Query using named parameters or format parameters:

vertica-python can automatically convert Python objects to SQL literals: using this feature your code will be more robust and reliable to prevent SQL injection attacks.

Prerequisites: Only SQL literals (i.e. query values) should be bound via these methods: they shouldn’t be used to merge table or field names to the query (vertica-python will try quoting the table name as a string value, generating invalid SQL as it is actually a SQL Identifier). If you need to generate dynamically SQL queries (for instance choosing dynamically a table name) you have to construct the full query yourself.

Variables can be specified with named (:name) placeholders.

cur = connection.cursor()
data = {'propA': 1, 'propB': 'stringValue'}
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE a = :propA AND b = :propB", data)
# converted into a SQL command similar to: "SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE a = 1 AND b = 'stringValue'"

cur.fetchall()
# [ [1, 'stringValue'] ]

Variables can also be specified with positional format (%s) placeholders. The placeholder must always be a %s, even if a different placeholder (such as a %d for integers or %f for floats) may look more appropriate. Never use Python string concatenation (+) or string parameters interpolation (%) to pass variables to a SQL query string.

cur = connection.cursor()
data = (1, "O'Reilly")
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE a = %s AND b = %s" % data) # WRONG: % operator
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE a = %d AND b = %s", data)  # WRONG: %d placeholder
cur.execute("SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE a = %s AND b = %s", data)  # correct
# converted into a SQL command similar to: "SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE a = 1 AND b = 'O''Reilly'"

cur.fetchall()
# [ [1, "O'Reilly"] ]

The placeholder must not be quoted. vertica-python will add quotes where needed.

>>> cur.execute("INSERT INTO table VALUES (':propA')", {'propA': "someString"}) # WRONG
>>> cur.execute("INSERT INTO table VALUES (:propA)", {'propA': "someString"})   # correct
>>> cur.execute("INSERT INTO table VALUES ('%s')", ("someString",)) # WRONG
>>> cur.execute("INSERT INTO table VALUES (%s)", ("someString",))   # correct

vertica-python supports default mapping for many standard Python types. It is possible to adapt new Python types to SQL literals via Cursor.register_sql_literal_adapter(py_class_or_type, adapter_function) function. Example:

class Point(object):
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

# Adapter should return a string value
def adapt_point(point):
    return "STV_GeometryPoint({},{})".format(point.x, point.y)

cur = conn.cursor()
cur.register_sql_literal_adapter(Point, adapt_point)

cur.execute("INSERT INTO geom_data (geom) VALUES (%s)", [Point(1.23, 4.56)])
cur.execute("select ST_asText(geom) from geom_data")
cur.fetchall()
# [['POINT (1.23 4.56)']]

To help you debug the binding process during Cursor.execute*(), Cursor.object_to_sql_literal(py_object) function can be used to inspect the SQL literal string converted from a Python object.

cur = conn.cursor
cur.object_to_sql_literal("O'Reilly")  # "'O''Reilly'"
cur.object_to_sql_literal(None)  # "NULL"
cur.object_to_sql_literal(True)  # "True"
cur.object_to_sql_literal(Decimal("10.00000"))  # "10.00000"
cur.object_to_sql_literal(datetime.date(2018, 9, 7))  # "'2018-09-07'"
cur.object_to_sql_literal(Point(-71.13, 42.36))  # "STV_GeometryPoint(-71.13,42.36)" if you registered in previous step

Query using server-side prepared statements:

Vertica server-side prepared statements let you define a statement once and then run it many times with different parameters. Placeholders in the statement are represented by question marks (?). Server-side prepared statements are useful for preventing SQL injection attacks.

import vertica_python

# Enable using server-side prepared statements at connection level
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'use_prepared_statements': True,
             }

with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    cur = connection.cursor()
    cur.execute("CREATE TABLE tbl (a INT, b VARCHAR)")
    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?)", [1, 'aa'])
    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?)", [2, 'bb'])
    cur.executemany("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?)", [(3, 'foo'), (4, 'xx'), (5, 'bar')])
    cur.execute("COMMIT")

    cur.execute("SELECT * FROM tbl WHERE a>=? AND a<=? ORDER BY a", (2,4))
    cur.fetchall()
    # [[2, 'bb'], [3, 'foo'], [4, 'xx']]

Vertica does not support executing a command string containing multiple statements using server-side prepared statements. You can set use_prepared_statements option in cursor.execute*() functions to override the connection level setting.

import vertica_python

# Enable using server-side prepared statements at connection level
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             'use_prepared_statements': True,
             }

with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    cur = connection.cursor()
    cur.execute("CREATE TABLE tbl (a INT, b VARCHAR)")

    # Executing compound statements
    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?); COMMIT", [1, 'aa'])
    # Error message: Cannot insert multiple commands into a prepared statement

    # Disable prepared statements but forget to change placeholders (?)
    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?); COMMIT;", [1, 'aa'], use_prepared_statements=False)
    # TypeError: not all arguments converted during string formatting

    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (%s, %s); COMMIT;", [1, 'aa'], use_prepared_statements=False)
    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (:a, :b); COMMIT;", {'a': 2, 'b': 'bb'}, use_prepared_statements=False)

# Disable using server-side prepared statements at connection level
conn_info['use_prepared_statements'] = False
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    cur = connection.cursor()

    # Try using prepared statements
    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?)", [3, 'foo'])
    # TypeError: not all arguments converted during string formatting

    cur.execute("INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (?, ?)", [3, 'foo'], use_prepared_statements=True)

    # Query using named parameters
    cur.execute("SELECT * FROM tbl WHERE a>=:n1 AND a<=:n2 ORDER BY a", {'n1': 2, 'n2': 4})
    cur.fetchall()
    # [[2, 'bb'], [3, 'foo']]

Note: In other drivers, the batch insert is converted into a COPY statement by using prepared statements. vertica-python currently does not support that.

Insert and commits:

cur = connection.cursor()

# inline commit (when 'use_prepared_statements' is False)
cur.execute("INSERT INTO a_table (a, b) VALUES (1, 'aa'); commit;")

# commit in execution
cur.execute("INSERT INTO a_table (a, b) VALUES (1, 'aa')")
cur.execute("INSERT INTO a_table (a, b) VALUES (2, 'bb')")
cur.execute("commit;")

# connection.commit()
cur.execute("INSERT INTO a_table (a, b) VALUES (1, 'aa')")
connection.commit()

# connection.rollback()
cur.execute("INSERT INTO a_table (a, b) VALUES (0, 'bad')")
connection.rollback()

Autocommit:

Session parameter AUTOCOMMIT can be configured by the connection option and the Connection.autocommit read/write attribute:

import vertica_python

# Enable autocommit at startup
conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             # autocommit is off by default
             'autocommit': True,
             }
             
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    # Check current session autocommit setting
    print(connection.autocommit)    # should be True
    # If autocommit is True, statements automatically commit their transactions when they complete.
    
    # Set autocommit setting with attribute
    connection.autocommit = False
    print(connection.autocommit)    # should be False
    # If autocommit is False, the methods commit() or rollback() must be manually invoked to terminate the transaction.

To set AUTOCOMMIT to a new value, vertica-python uses Cursor.execute() to execute a command internally, and that would clear your previous query results, so be sure to call Cursor.fetch*() to save your results before you set autocommit.

Copy:

There are 2 methods to do copy:

Method 1: "COPY FROM STDIN" sql with Cursor.copy()

cur = connection.cursor()
cur.copy("COPY test_copy (id, name) from stdin DELIMITER ',' ",  csv)

Where csv is either a string or a file-like object (specifically, any object with a read() method). If using a file, the data is streamed (in chunks of buffer_size bytes, which defaults to 128 * 2 ** 10).

with open("/tmp/binary_file.csv", "rb") as fs:
    cursor.copy("COPY table(field1, field2) FROM STDIN DELIMITER ',' ENCLOSED BY '\"'",
                fs, buffer_size=65536)

Method 2: "COPY FROM LOCAL" sql with Cursor.execute()

import sys
import vertica_python

conn_info = {'host': '127.0.0.1',
             'user': 'some_user',
             'password': 'some_password',
             'database': 'a_database',
             # False by default
             #'disable_copy_local': True,
             # Don't support executing COPY LOCAL operations with prepared statements
             'use_prepared_statements': False
             }

with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as connection:
    cur = connection.cursor()
    
    # Copy from local file
    cur.execute("COPY table(field1, field2) FROM LOCAL"
                " 'data_Jan_*.csv','data_Feb_01.csv' DELIMITER ','"
                " REJECTED DATA 'path/to/write/rejects.txt'"
                " EXCEPTIONS 'path/to/write/exceptions.txt'",
                buffer_size=65536
    )
    print("Rows loaded:", cur.fetchall())
    
    # Copy from local stdin
    cur.execute("COPY table(field1, field2) FROM LOCAL STDIN DELIMITER ','", copy_stdin=sys.stdin)
    print("Rows loaded:", cur.fetchall())

    # Copy from local stdin (compound statements)
    with open('f1.csv', 'r') as fs1, open('f2.csv', 'r') as fs2:
        cur.execute("COPY tlb1(field1, field2) FROM LOCAL STDIN DELIMITER ',';"
                    "COPY tlb2(field1, field2) FROM LOCAL STDIN DELIMITER ',';",
                    copy_stdin=[fs1, fs2], buffer_size=65536)
    print("Rows loaded 1:", cur.fetchall())
    cur.nextset()
    print("Rows loaded 2:", cur.fetchall())

When connection option disable_copy_local set to True, disables COPY LOCAL operations, including copying data from local files/stdin and using local files to store data and exceptions. You can use this property to prevent users from writing to and copying from files on a Vertica host, including an MC host. Note that this property doesn't apply to Cursor.copy().

The data for copying from/writing to local files is streamed in chunks of buffer_size bytes, which defaults to 128 * 2 ** 10.

When executing "COPY FROM LOCAL STDIN", copy_stdin should be a file-like object or a list of file-like objects (specifically, any object with a read() method).

Cancel the current database operation:

Connection.cancel() interrupts the processing of the current operation. Interrupting query execution will cause the cancelled method to raise a vertica_python.errors.QueryCanceled. If no query is being executed, it does nothing. You can call this function from a different thread/process than the one currently executing a database operation.

from multiprocessing import Process
import time
import vertica_python

def cancel_query(connection, timeout=5):
    time.sleep(timeout)
    connection.cancel()

# Example 1: Cancel the query before Cursor.execute() return.
#            The query stops executing in a shorter time after the cancel message is sent.
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as conn:
    cur = conn.cursor()

    # Call cancel() from a different process
    p1 = Process(target=cancel_query, args=(conn,))
    p1.start()

    try:
        cur.execute("<Long running query>")
    except vertica_python.errors.QueryCanceled as e:
        pass

    p1.join()
    
# Example 2: Cancel the query after Cursor.execute() return.
#            Less number of rows read after the cancel message is sent.
with vertica_python.connect(**conn_info) as conn:
    cur = conn.cursor()
    cur.execute("SELECT id, time FROM large_table")
    nCount = 0
    try:
        while cur.fetchone():
            nCount += 1
            if nCount == 100:
                conn.cancel()
    except vertica_python.errors.QueryCanceled as e:
        pass
        # nCount is less than the number of rows in large_table

Rowcount oddities

vertica_python behaves a bit differently than dbapi when returning rowcounts.

After a select execution, the rowcount will be -1, indicating that the row count is unknown. The rowcount value will be updated as data is streamed.

cur.execute('SELECT 10 things')

cur.rowcount == -1  # indicates unknown rowcount

cur.fetchone()
cur.rowcount == 1
cur.fetchone()
cur.rowcount == 2
cur.fetchall()
cur.rowcount == 10

After an insert/update/delete, the rowcount will be returned as a single element row:

cur.execute("DELETE 3 things")

cur.rowcount == -1  # indicates unknown rowcount
cur.fetchone()[0] == 3

Nextset

If you execute multiple statements in a single call to execute(), you can use cursor.nextset() to retrieve all of the data.

cur.execute('SELECT 1; SELECT 2;')

cur.fetchone()
# [1]
cur.fetchone()
# None

cur.nextset()
# True

cur.fetchone()
# [2]
cur.fetchone()
# None

cur.nextset()
# None

UTF-8 encoding issues

While Vertica expects varchars stored to be UTF-8 encoded, sometimes invalid strings get into the database. You can specify how to handle reading these characters using the unicode_error connection option. This uses the same values as the unicode type (https://docs.python.org/2/library/functions.html#unicode)

cur = vertica_python.Connection({..., 'unicode_error': 'strict'}).cursor()
cur.execute(r"SELECT E'\xC2'")
cur.fetchone()
# caught 'utf8' codec can't decode byte 0xc2 in position 0: unexpected end of data

cur = vertica_python.Connection({..., 'unicode_error': 'replace'}).cursor()
cur.execute(r"SELECT E'\xC2'")
cur.fetchone()
# �

cur = vertica_python.Connection({..., 'unicode_error': 'ignore'}).cursor()
cur.execute(r"SELECT E'\xC2'")
cur.fetchone()
# 

License

Apache 2.0 License, please see LICENSE for details.

Contributing guidelines

Have a bug or an idea? Please see CONTRIBUTING.md for details.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the contributors to the Ruby Vertica gem (https://github.com/sprsquish/vertica), as this project gave us inspiration and help in understanding Vertica's wire protocol. These contributors are: