lldpd: implementation of IEEE 802.1ab (LLDP)
LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) is an industry standard protocol designed to supplant proprietary Link-Layer protocols such as Extreme's EDP (Extreme Discovery Protocol) and CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). The goal of LLDP is to provide an inter-vendor compatible mechanism to deliver Link-Layer notifications to adjacent network devices.
lldpd implements both reception and sending. It also implements an SNMP subagent for net-snmp to get local and remote LLDP information. The LLDP-MIB is partially implemented but the most useful tables are here. lldpd also partially implements LLDP-MED.
lldpd supports bridge, vlan and bonding.
The following OS are supported:
- OS X
Windows is not supported but you can use WinLLDPService as a transmit-only agent.
For general instructions see the website.
To compile lldpd from sources, use the following:
./configure make sudo make install
lldpd uses privilege separation to increase its security. Two
processes, one running as root and doing minimal stuff and the other
running as an unprivileged user into a chroot doing most of the stuff,
are cooperating. You need to create a user called
_lldpd in a group
_lldpd (this can be change with
./configure). You also need to
create an empty directory
/usr/local/var/run/lldpd (it needs to be
owned by root, not
_lldpd!). If you get fuzzy timestamps from
/etc/locatime into the chroot.
lldpcli lets one query information collected through the command
line. If you don't want to run it as root, just install it setuid or
Installation (OS X)
The same procedure as above applies for OS X. However, there are simpler alternatives:
brew install lldpd # Or, for the latest version: brew install https://raw.github.com/vincentbernat/lldpd/master/osx/lldpd.rb
Build an OS X installer package which should work on the same version of OS X:
mkdir build && cd build ../configure --prefix=/usr/local --localstatedir=/var --sysconfdir=/private/etc --with-embedded-libevent \ --without-json --without-snmp make -C osx pkg
If you want to compile for an older version of OS X, you need to find the right SDK and issues commands like those:
SDK=/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.6.sdk mkdir build && cd build ../configure --prefix=/usr/local --localstatedir=/var --sysconfdir=/private/etc --with-embedded-libevent \ --without-json --without-snmp \ CFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=10.6 -isysroot $SDK" \ LDFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=10.6 -isysroot $SDK" make -C osx pkg
With recent SDK, you don't need to specify an alternate SDK. They are organized in a way that should enable compatibility with older versions of OSX:
mkdir build && cd build ../configure --prefix=/usr/local --localstatedir=/var --sysconfdir=/private/etc --with-embedded-libevent \ --without-json --without-snmp \ CFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=10.9" \ LDFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=10.9" make -C osx pkg
You can check with
otool -lthat you got what you expected in term of supported versions.
If you don't follow the above procedures, you will have to create the
_lldpd. Have a look at how this is done in
You need to download Android NDK. Once unpacked, you can generate a toolchain using the following command:
./build/tools/make-standalone-toolchain.sh \ --platform=android-9 \ --arch=arm \ --install-dir=../android-toolchain export TOOLCHAIN=$PWD/../android-toolchain
Then, you can build
lldpd with the following commands:
mkdir build && cd build export PATH=$PATH:$TOOLCHAIN/bin ../configure \ --host=arm-linux-androideabi \ --with-sysroot=$TOOLCHAIN/sysroot
lldpd also implements CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol), FDP (Foundry
Discovery Protocol), SONMP (Nortel Discovery Protocol) and EDP
(Extreme Discovery Protocol). However, recent versions of IOS should
support LLDP and most Extreme stuff support LLDP. When a EDP, CDP or
SONMP frame is received on a given interface, lldpd starts sending
EDP, CDP, FDP or SONMP frame on this interface. Informations collected
through EDP/CDP/FDP/SONMP are integrated with other informations and
can be queried with
lldpcli or through SNMP.
Compatibility with older kernels
If you have a kernel older than Linux 2.6.39, you need to compile
--enable-oldies to enable some compatibility functions:
otherwise, lldpd will only rely on Netlink to receive bridge, bond and
For bonding, you need 2.6.24 (in previous version, PACKET_ORIGDEV affected only non multicast packets). See:
Otherwise, a packet received on a bond will be affected to all interfaces of the bond. In this case, lldpd will affect a received randomly to one of the interface (so a neighbor may be affected to the wrong interface).
On 2.6.27, we are able to receive packets on real interface for enslaved devices. This allows one to get neighbor information on active/backup bonds. Without the 2.6.27, lldpd won't receive any information on inactive slaves. Here are the patchs (thanks to Joe Eykholt):
On FreeBSD, only a recent 9 kernel (9.1 or more recent) will allow to send LLDP frames on enslaved devices. See this bug report for more information:
Some devices (notably Cisco IOS) send frames tagged with the native
VLAN while they should send them untagged. If your network card does
not support accelerated VLAN, you will receive those frames as long as
the corresponding interface exists (see below). However, if your
network card handles VLAN encapsulation/decapsulation (check with
ethtool -k), you need a recent kernel to be able to receive those
frames without listening on all available VLAN. Starting from Linux
2.6.27, lldpd is able to capture VLAN frames when VLAN acceleration is
supported by the network card. Here is the patch:
On some other versions, frames are sent on VLAN 1. If this is not the native VLAN and if your network card support accelerated VLAN, you need to subscribe to this VLAN as well. The Linux kernel does not provide any interface for this. The easiest way is to create the VLAN for each port:
ip link add link eth0 name eth0.1 type vlan id 1 ip link set up dev eth0.1
You can check both cases using tcpdump:
tcpdump -epni eth0 ether host 01:80:c2:00:00:0e tcpdump -eni eth0 ether host 01:80:c2:00:00:0e
If the first command does not display received LLDP packets but the second one does, LLDP packets are likely encapsulated into a VLAN:
10:54:06.431154 f0:29:29:1d:7c:01 > 01:80:c2:00:00:0e, ethertype 802.1Q (0x8100), length 363: vlan 1, p 7, ethertype LLDP, LLDP, name SW-APP-D07.VTY, length 345
In this case, just create VLAN 1 will fix the situation. There are other solutions:
- Disable VLAN acceleration on the receive side (
ethtool -K eth0 rxvlan off) but this may or may not work. Check if there are similar properties that could apply with
ethtool -k eth0.
- Put the interface in promiscuous mode with
ip link set promisc on dev eth0.
The last solution can be done directly by
lldpd (on Linux only) by
using the option
configure system interface promiscuous.
On modern networks, the performance impact should be nonexistent.
During development, you may want to execute lldpd at its current
location instead of doing
make install. The correct way to do this is
to issue the following command:
sudo libtool execute src/daemon/lldpd -L $PWD/src/client/lldpcli -d
You can append any further arguments. If lldpd is unable to find
lldpcli it will start in an unconfigured mode and won't send or
accept LLDP frames.
You can use afl to test some aspects of lldpd. To test frame decoding, you can do something like that:
export AFL_USE_ASAN=1 # only on 32bit arch ./configure CC=afl-gcc make clean check cd tests mkdir inputs mv *.pcap inputs afl-fuzz -i inputs -o outputs ./decode @@
There is a general test suite with
make check. It's also possible to
run integration tests. They need py.test
and rely on Linux containers to be executed.
To enable code coverage, use:
../configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var \ --enable-sanitizers --enable-gcov --with-snmp \ CFLAGS="-O0 -g" make make check # maybe, run integration tests lcov --base-directory $PWD/src/lib \ --directory src --capture --output-file gcov.info genhtml gcov.info --output-directory coverage
To embed lldpd into an existing system, there are two point of entries:
If your system does not use standard Linux interface, you can support additional interfaces by implementing the appropriate
struct lldpd_ops. You can look at
src/daemon/interfaces-linux.cfor examples. Also, have a look at
interfaces_update()which is responsible for discovering and registering interfaces.
lldpcliprovides a convenient way to query
lldpd. It also comes with various outputs, including XML which allows one to parse its output for integration and automation purpose. Another way is to use SNMP support. A third way is to write your own controller using
liblldpctl.so. Its API is described in
src/lib/lldpctl.h. The custom binary protocol between
lldpdis not stable. Therefore, the library should always be shipped with
lldpd. On the other hand, programs using
liblldpctl.socan rely on the classic ABI rules.
You can use
tcpdump to look after the packets received and send by
lldpd. To look after LLDPU, use:
tcpdump -s0 -vv -pni eth0 ether dst 01:80:c2:00:00:0e
lldpd is distributed under the ISC license:
Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
lldpcli will be linked to GNU Readline (which is GPL licensed)
if available. To avoid this, use
--without-readline as a configure