Permalink
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
590 lines (471 sloc) 26.9 KB
---
title: "Coping with the TCP TIME-WAIT state on busy Linux servers"
description: |
Do not blindly enable net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle. A full explanation
of TIMEWAIT state in Linux.
uuid: 7ef1dd49-92be-4aea-b96f-f91ab1b84f02
tags:
- network
- linux
---
!!! "TL;DR" Do not enable `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle`.
!!! "Update (2017.09)" `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle` has been [removed][]
from Linux 4.12.
[removed]: https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=4396e46187ca5070219b81773c4e65088dac50cc "tcp: remove tcp_tw_recycle"
---
The Linux kernel documentation is not very helpful about what
`net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle` does:
> Enable fast recycling `TIME-WAIT` sockets. Default value is 0. It
> should not be changed without advice/request of technical experts.
Its sibling, `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse` is a little bit more documented
but the language is about the same:
> Allow to reuse `TIME-WAIT` sockets for new connections when it is
> safe from protocol viewpoint. Default value is 0. It should not be
> changed without advice/request of technical experts.
The mere result of this lack of documentation is that we find numerous
tuning guides advising to set both these settings to 1 to reduce the
number of entries in the `TIME-WAIT` state. However, as stated by
`tcp(7)` manual page, the `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle` option is quite
problematic for public-facing servers as it won't handle connections
from two different computers behind the same NAT device, which is a
problem hard to detect and waiting to bite you:
> Enable fast recycling of `TIME-WAIT` sockets. Enabling this option
> is not recommended since this causes problems when working with NAT
> (Network Address Translation).
I will provide here a more detailed explanation in the hope to teach
people who are wrong on the Internet.
![xkcd illustration]([[!!images/duty_calls.png]] "<a href='https://xkcd.com/386/'>xkcd: Duty Calls</a>—Someone is wrong on the Internet")
As a sidenote, despite the use of `ipv4` in its name, the
`net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle` control also applies to IPv6. Also, keep in
mind we are looking at the TCP stack of Linux. This is completely
unrelated to _Netfilter_ connection tracking which may be tweaked in
other ways.[^netfilter]
[^netfilter]: Notably, fiddling with `net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_time_wait`
won't change anything on how the TCP stack will handle the `TIME-WAIT` state.
[TOC]
# About `TIME-WAIT` state
Let's rewind a bit and have a close look at this `TIME-WAIT` state.
What is it? See the TCP state diagram below:[^source]
![TCP state diagram][tcp-state-diagram]
[tcp-state-diagram]: [[!!images/tcp/tcp-state-diagram-v2.svg]] "TCP state diagram"
[^source]: This diagram is licensed under the [LaTeX Project Public License 1.3][]. The original file is
available on this [page][source].
[source]: http://www.texample.net/tikz/examples/tcp-state-machine/ "Original TCP state diagram by Ivan Griffin"
Only the **end closing the connection first** will reach the
`TIME-WAIT` state. The other end will follow a path which usually
permits to quickly get rid of the connection.
You can have a look at the current state of connections with `ss
-tan`:
::console
$ ss -tan | head -5
LISTEN 0 511 *:80 *:*
SYN-RECV 0 0 192.0.2.145:80 203.0.113.5:35449
SYN-RECV 0 0 192.0.2.145:80 203.0.113.27:53599
ESTAB 0 0 192.0.2.145:80 203.0.113.27:33605
TIME-WAIT 0 0 192.0.2.145:80 203.0.113.47:50685
## Purpose
There are two purposes for the `TIME-WAIT` state:
- The most known one is to **prevent delayed segments** from one
connection being accepted by a later connection relying on the
same quadruplet (source address, source port, destination address,
destination port). The sequence number also needs to be in a
certain range to be accepted. This narrows a bit the problem but
it still exists, especially on fast connections with large receive
windows. [RFC 1337][] explains in details what happens when the
`TIME-WAIT` state is deficient.[^rfc1337] Here is an example of
what could be avoided if the `TIME-WAIT` state wasn't shortened:
![Duplicate segments accepted in another connection][duplicate-segment]
[duplicate-segment]: [[!!images/tcp/duplicate-segment.svg]] "Due to a shortened TIME-WAIT state, a delayed TCP segment has been accepted in an unrelated connection."
[^rfc1337]: The first workaround proposed in [RFC 1337][] is to
ignore _RST_ segments in the `TIME-WAIT` state. This
behaviour is controlled by `net.ipv4.rfc1337` which is not
enabled by default on Linux because this is not a complete
solution to the problem described in the RFC.
- The other purpose is to ensure **the remote end has closed the
connection**. When the last _ACK_ is lost, the remote end stays in
the `LAST-ACK` state.[^lastack] Without the `TIME-WAIT` state, a
connection could be reopened while the remote end still thinks the
previous connection is valid. When it receives a _SYN_ segment (and
the sequence number matches), it will answer with a _RST_ as it is
not expecting such a segment. The new connection will be aborted
with an error:
![Last ACK lost][last-ack]
[last-ack]: [[!!images/tcp/last-ack.svg]] "If the remote end stays in LAST-ACK state because the last ACK was lost, opening a new connection with the same quadruplet will not work."
[^lastack]: While in the `LAST-ACK` state, a connection will
retransmit the last _FIN_ segment until it gets the
expected _ACK_ segment. Therfore, it is unlikely we stay
long in this state.
[RFC 793][] requires the `TIME-WAIT` state to last twice the time of the
MSL. On Linux, this duration is **not** tunable and is defined in
`include/net/tcp.h` as one minute:
::c
#define TCP_TIMEWAIT_LEN (60*HZ) /* how long to wait to destroy TIME-WAIT
* state, about 60 seconds */
There have been
[propositions to turn this into a tunable value][tcp_tw_interval] but
it has been refused on the ground the `TIME-WAIT` state is a good
thing.
## Problems
Now, let's see why this state can be annoying on a server handling a
lot of connections. There are three aspects of the problem:
- the slot taken in the connection table preventing **new
connections** of the same kind,
- the **memory** occupied by the socket structure in the kernel, and
- the additional **CPU usage**.
The result of `ss -tan state time-wait | wc -l` is not a problem per
se!
### Connection table slot
A connection in the `TIME-WAIT` state is kept for one minute in the
connection table. This means, another connection with the same
_quadruplet_ (source address, source port, destination address,
destination port) cannot exist.
For a web server, the destination address and the destination port are
likely to be constant. If your web server is behind a L7
load-balancer, the source address will also be constant. On Linux, the
client port is by default allocated in a port range of about 30,000
ports (this can be changed by tuning
`net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range`). This means that only 30,000
connections can be established between the web server and the
load-balancer every minute, so about **500 connections per second**.
If the `TIME-WAIT` sockets are on the client side, such a situation is
easy to detect. The call to `connect()` will return `EADDRNOTAVAIL`
and the application will log some error message about that. On the
server side, this is more complex as there is no log and no counter to
rely on. In doubt, you should just try to come with something sensible
to list the number of used quadruplets:
::console
$ ss -tan 'sport = :80' | awk '{print $(NF)" "$(NF-1)}' | \
sed 's/:[^ ]*//g' | sort | uniq -c
696 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.64
1881 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.65
5314 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.66
5293 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.67
3387 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.68
2663 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.69
1129 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.70
10536 10.24.2.30 10.33.1.73
The solution is **more quadruplets**.[^outgoing] This can be done in
several ways (in the order of difficulty to setup):
- use **more client ports** by setting `net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range` to
a wider range,
- use **more server ports** by asking the web server to listen to several
additional ports (81, 82, 83, ...),
- use **more client IP** by configuring additional IP on the load
balancer and use them in a round-robin fashion,[^bind]
- use **more server IP** by configuring additional IP on the web
server.[^others]
[^outgoing]: On the client side, older kernels also have to find a **free
local tuple** (source address and source port) for each
outgoing connection. Increasing the number of server
ports or IP won't help in this case. Linux 3.2 is recent
enough to be able to share the same local tuple for
different destinations. Thanks to Willy Tarreau for his [insight][] on this aspect.
[^bind]: To avoid `EADDRINUSE` errors, the load balancer needs to use
the `SO_REUSEADDR` option before
calling [`bind()`, then `connect()`][11].
[^others]: This last solution may seem a bit dumb since you could just
use more ports but some servers are not able to be
configured this way. The before last solution can also be
quite cumbersome to setup, depending on the load-balancing
software, but uses less IP than the last solution.
[insight]: http://marc.info/?l=haproxy&m=139315382127339&w=2
[11]: https://idea.popcount.org/2014-04-03-bind-before-connect/ "Bind before connect"
A last solution is to tweak `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse` and
`net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle`. Don't do that yet, we will cover these
settings later.
### Memory
With many connections to handle, leaving a socket open for one
additional minute may cost your server some memory. For example, if
you want to handle about 10,000 new connections per second, you will
have about 600,000 sockets in the `TIME-WAIT` state. How much memory
does it represent? Not that much!
First, from the application point of view, a `TIME-WAIT` socket does
not consume any memory: the socket has been closed. In the kernel, a
`TIME-WAIT` socket is present in three structures (for three different
purposes):
1. A **hash table of connections**, named the "TCP established hash
table" (despite containing connections in other states) is used to
locate an existing connection, for example when receiving a new
segment.
Each bucket of this hash table contains both a list of connections
in the `TIME-WAIT` state and a list of regular active
connections. The size of the hash table depends on the system
memory and is printed at boot:
::console
$ dmesg | grep "TCP established hash table"
[ 0.169348] TCP established hash table entries: 65536 (order: 8, 1048576 bytes)
It is possible to override it by specifying the number of entries
on the kernel command line with the `thash_entries` parameter.
Each element of the list of connections in the `TIME-WAIT` state
is a `struct tcp_timewait_sock`, while the type for other
states is `struct tcp_sock`:[^tcptimewaitsock]
::c
struct tcp_timewait_sock {
struct inet_timewait_sock tw_sk;
u32 tw_rcv_nxt;
u32 tw_snd_nxt;
u32 tw_rcv_wnd;
u32 tw_ts_offset;
u32 tw_ts_recent;
long tw_ts_recent_stamp;
};
struct inet_timewait_sock {
struct sock_common __tw_common;
int tw_timeout;
volatile unsigned char tw_substate;
unsigned char tw_rcv_wscale;
__be16 tw_sport;
unsigned int tw_ipv6only : 1,
tw_transparent : 1,
tw_pad : 6,
tw_tos : 8,
tw_ipv6_offset : 16;
unsigned long tw_ttd;
struct inet_bind_bucket *tw_tb;
struct hlist_node tw_death_node;
};
2. A **set of lists of connections**, called the "death row", is used
to expire the connections in the `TIME-WAIT` state. They are
ordered by how much time left before expiration.
It uses the same memory space as for the entries in the hash table
of connections. This is the `struct hlist_node tw_death_node`
member of `struct inet_timewait_sock`.[^deathrow]
3. A **hash table of bound ports**, holding the locally bound ports
and the associated parameters, is used to determine if it is safe
to listen to a given port or to find a free port in the case of
dynamic bind. The size of this hash table is the same as the size
of the hash table of connections:
::console
$ dmesg | grep "TCP bind hash table"
[ 0.169962] TCP bind hash table entries: 65536 (order: 8, 1048576 bytes)
Each element is a `struct inet_bind_socket`. There is
one element for each locally bound port. A `TIME-WAIT` connection
to a web server is locally bound to the port 80 and shares the
same entry as its sibling `TIME-WAIT` connections. On the other
hand, a connection to a remote service is locally bound to some
random port and does not share its entry.
[^tcptimewaitsock]: The use of a dedicated memory structure for sockets
in the `TIME-WAIT` is here since Linux 2.6.14.
The [`struct sock_common` structure][sock_common] is a
bit more verbose and I won't copy it here.
[^deathrow]: Since [Linux 4.1][dr], the way `TIME-WAIT` sockets are
tracked has been modified to increase performance and
parallelism. The death row is now just a hash table.
We are only concerned by the space occupied by `struct
tcp_timewait_sock` and `struct inet_bind_socket`. There is one `struct
tcp_timewait_sock` for each connection in the `TIME-WAIT` state,
inbound or outbound. There is one dedicated `struct inet_bind_socket`
for each outbound connection and none for an inbound connection.
A `struct tcp_timewait_sock` is only 168 bytes while a `struct
inet_bind_socket` is 48 bytes:
::console
$ sudo apt-get install linux-image-$(uname -r)-dbg
[...]
$ gdb /usr/lib/debug/boot/vmlinux-$(uname -r)
(gdb) print sizeof(struct tcp_timewait_sock)
$1 = 168
(gdb) print sizeof(struct tcp_sock)
$2 = 1776
(gdb) print sizeof(struct inet_bind_bucket)
$3 = 48
If you have about 40,000 inbound connections in the `TIME-WAIT`
state, it should eat less than 10MB of memory. If you have about
40,000 outbound connections in the `TIME-WAIT` state, you need to
account for 2.5MB of additional memory. Let's check that by looking
at the output of `slabtop`. Here is the result on a server with about
50,000 connections in the `TIME-WAIT` state, 45,000 of which are
outbound connections:
::console
$ sudo slabtop -o | grep -E '(^ OBJS|tw_sock_TCP|tcp_bind_bucket)'
OBJS ACTIVE USE OBJ SIZE SLABS OBJ/SLAB CACHE SIZE NAME
50955 49725 97% 0.25K 3397 15 13588K tw_sock_TCP
44840 36556 81% 0.06K 760 59 3040K tcp_bind_bucket
There is nothing to change here: the memory used by `TIME-WAIT`
connections is **really small**. If your server need to handle
thousands of new connections per second, you need far more memory to
be able to efficiently push data to clients. The overhead of
`TIME-WAIT` connections is negligible.
### CPU
On the CPU side, searching for a free local port can be a bit
expensive. The work is done by the
[`inet_csk_get_port()` function][inet_csk_get_port] which uses a lock
and iterate on locally bound ports until a free port is found. A large
number of entries in this hash table is usually not a problem if you
have a lot of outbound connections in the `TIME-WAIT` state (like
ephemeral connections to a _memcached_ server): the connections
usually share the same profile, the function will quickly find a free
port as it iterates on them sequentially.
# Other solutions
If you still think you have a problem with `TIME-WAIT`
connections after reading the previous section, there are three
additional solutions to solve them:
- disable socket lingering,
- `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse`, and
- `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle`.
## Socket lingering
When `close()` is called, any remaining data in the kernel buffers
will be sent in the background and the socket will eventually
transition to the `TIME-WAIT` state. The application can continue to
work immediatly and assume that all data will eventually be safely
delivered.
However, an application can choose to disable this behaviour, known as
_socket lingering_. There are two flavors:
1. In the first one, **any remaining data will be discarded** and
instead of closing the connection with the normal four-packet
connection termination sequence, the connection will be closed
with a _RST_ (and therefore, the peer will detect an error) and
will be immediatly destroyed. No `TIME-WAIT` state in this
case.
2. With the second flavor, if there is any data still remaining in
the socket send buffer, the process will sleep when calling
`close()` until either all the data is sent and acknowledged by
the peer or the configured linger timer expires. It is possible
for a process to not sleep by setting the socket as
non-blocking. In this case, the same process happens in the
background. It permits the remaining data to be sent during a
configured timeout but if the data is succesfully sent, the normal
close sequence is run and you get a `TIME-WAIT` state. And on the
other case, you'll get the connection close with a _RST_ and the
remaining data is discarded.
In both cases, **disabling socket lingering is not a one-size-fits-all
solution**. It may be used by some applications like [HAProxy][] or
[Nginx][] when it is safe to use from the upper protocol point of
view. There are good reasons to not disable it unconditionnaly.
## `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse`
The `TIME-WAIT` state prevents delayed segments to be accepted in an
unrelated connection. However, on certain conditions, it is possible
to assume a new connection's segment cannot be misinterpreted with an
old connection's segment.
[RFC 1323][] presents a set of TCP extensions to improve performance
over high-bandwidth paths. Among other things, it defines a new TCP
option carrying two four-byte **timestamp fields**. The first one is
the current value of the timestamp clock of the TCP sending the option
while the second one is the most recent timestamp received from the
remote host.
By enabling `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse`, Linux will reuse an existing
connection in the `TIME-WAIT` state for a new **outgoing connection**
if the new timestamp is strictly bigger than the most recent timestamp
recorded for the previous connection: an outgoing connection in the
`TIME-WAIT` state can be reused after just one second.
How is it safe? The first purpose of the `TIME-WAIT` state was to
avoid duplicate segments to be accepted in an unrelated
connection. Thanks to the use of timestamps, such a duplicate segments
will come with an outdated timestamp and therefore be discarded.
The second purpose was to ensure the remote end is not in the
`LAST-ACK` state because of the lost of the last _ACK_. The remote end
will retransmit the _FIN_ segment until:
1. it gives up (and tear down the connection), or
2. it receives the _ACK_ it is waiting (and tear down the connection), or
3. it receives a _RST_ (and tear down the connection).
If the _FIN_ segments are received in a timely manner, the local end
socket will still be in the `TIME-WAIT` state and the expected _ACK_
segments will be sent.
Once a new connection replaces the `TIME-WAIT` entry, the _SYN_
segment of the new connection is ignored (thanks to the timestamps)
and won't be answered by a _RST_ but only by a retransmission of the
_FIN_ segment. The _FIN_ segment will then be answered with a _RST_
(because the local connection is in the `SYN-SENT` state) which will
allow the transition out of the `LAST-ACK` state. The initial _SYN_
segment will eventually be resent (after one second) because there was
no answer and the connection will be established without apparent
error, except a slight delay:
![Last ACK lost and timewait reuse][last-ack-reuse]
[last-ack-reuse]: [[!!images/tcp/last-ack-reuse.svg]] "If the remote end stays in LAST-ACK state because the last ACK was lost, the remote connection will be reset when the local end transition to the SYN-SENT state."
It should be noted that when a connection is reused, the _TWRecycled_
counter is increased (despite its name).
## `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle`
This mechanism also relies on the timestamp option but affects **both
incoming and outgoing connections** which is handy when the server
usually closes the connection first.[^serverfirst]
[^serverfirst]: When the server closes the connection first, it gets
the `TIME-WAIT` state while the client will consider
the corresponding quadruplet free and hence may reuse
it for a new connection.
The `TIME-WAIT` state is scheduled to expire sooner: it will be
removed after the retransmission timeout (_RTO_) interval which is
computed from the RTT and its variance. You can spot the appropriate
values for a living connection with the `ss` command:
::console
$ ss --info sport = :2112 dport = :4057
State Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port
ESTAB 0 1831936 10.47.0.113:2112 10.65.1.42:4057
cubic wscale:7,7 rto:564 rtt:352.5/4 ato:40 cwnd:386 ssthresh:200 send 4.5Mbps rcv_space:5792
To keep the same guarantees the `TIME-WAIT` state was providing, while
reducing the expiration timer, when a connection enters the
`TIME-WAIT` state, the latest timestamp is remembered in a dedicated
structure containing various metrics for previous known
destinations. Then, Linux will drop any segment from the remote host
whose timestamp is not strictly bigger than the latest recorded
timestamp, unless the `TIME-WAIT` state would have expired:
::c
if (tmp_opt.saw_tstamp &&
tcp_death_row.sysctl_tw_recycle &&
(dst = inet_csk_route_req(sk, &fl4, req, want_cookie)) != NULL &&
fl4.daddr == saddr &&
(peer = rt_get_peer((struct rtable *)dst, fl4.daddr)) != NULL) {
inet_peer_refcheck(peer);
if ((u32)get_seconds() - peer->tcp_ts_stamp < TCP_PAWS_MSL &&
(s32)(peer->tcp_ts - req->ts_recent) >
TCP_PAWS_WINDOW) {
NET_INC_STATS_BH(sock_net(sk), LINUX_MIB_PAWSPASSIVEREJECTED);
goto drop_and_release;
}
}
When the remote host is in fact a **NAT device**, the condition on
timestamps will forbid all the hosts except one behind the NAT
device to connect during one minute because they do not share the same
timestamp clock. In doubt, this is far better to disable this option
since it leads to **difficult to detect** and **difficult to
diagnose** problems.
!!! "Update (2017.09)" Starting from Linux 4.10 (commit
[95a22caee396][]), Linux will randomize timestamp offsets for each
connection, making this option completely broken, with or without NAT.
The `LAST-ACK` state is handled in the exact same way as for
`net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle`.
# Summary
The universal solution is to **increase the number of possible
quadruplets** by using, for example, more server ports. This will
allow you to not exhaust the possible connections with `TIME-WAIT`
entries.
On the **server side**, do not enable `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle` <del>unless
you are pretty sure you will never have NAT devices in the
mix</del>. Enabling `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse` is useless for incoming
connections.
On the **client side**, enabling `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse` is another
almost-safe solution. Enabling `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle` in addition
to `net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse` is mostly useless.
Moreover, when designing protocols, **don't let clients close
first**. Clients won't have to deal with the `TIME-WAIT` state pushing
the responsability to servers which are better suited to handle this.
And a final quote by [W. Richard Stevens][], in [Unix Network Programming][]:
> The `TIME_WAIT` state is our friend and is there to help us (i.e.,
> to let old duplicate segments expire in the network). Instead of
> trying to avoid the state, we should understand it.
*[NAT]: Network Address Translation
*[MSL]: Maximum Segment Lifetime
*[TCB]: Transmission Control Block
*[DCCP]: Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
*[PAWS]: Protect Against Wrapped Sequences
*[RTO]: Retransmission Timeout
*[RTT]: Round-Trip Time
[Creative-Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0]: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en "Creative-Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 unported"
[LaTeX Project Public License 1.3]: https://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt "LaTeX Project Public License 1.3"
[RFC 793]: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc793 "RFC 793: Transmission Control Protocol"
[RFC 1323]: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1323 "RFC 1323: TCP Extensions for High Performance"
[RFC 1337]: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1337 "RFC 1337: TIME-WAIT Assassination Hazards in TCP"
[RFC 6191]: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6191 "RFC 6191: Reducing the TIME-WAIT State Using TCP Timestamps"
[serverfault]: http://serverfault.com/questions/342741/what-are-the-ramifications-of-setting-tcp-tw-recycle-reuse-to-1 "Server Fault: What are the ramifications of setting tcp_tw_recycle/reuse to 1?"
[tcp_tw_interval]: http://web.archive.org/web/2014/http://comments.gmane.org/gmane.linux.network/244411 "[RFC PATCH net-next] tcp: introduce tcp_tw_interval to specifiy the time of TIME-WAIT"
[sock_common]: https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v3.12/source/include/net/sock.h#L157 "Definition of struct sock_common"
[inet_csk_get_port]: https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v3.12/source/net/ipv4/inet_connection_sock.c#L104 "Definition of inet_csk_get_port()"
[twemproxy]: https://github.com/twitter/twemproxy "twemproxy: fast, light-weight proxy for memcached and redis"
[HAProxy]: https://www.haproxy.org/ "HAProxy: The Reliable, High Performance TCP/HTTP Load Balancer"
[Nginx]: http://nginx.org "Nginx"
[W. Richard Stevens]: http://www.kohala.com/start/ "W. Richard Stevens' Home Page"
[Unix Network Programming]: https://www.amazon.com/Unix-Network-Programming-Volume-Networking/dp/0131411551 "Unix Network Programming, Volume 1: The Sockets Networking API"
[dr]: https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=789f558cfb3680aeb52de137418637f6b04b7d22 "Commit modifying tracking of timewait sockets"
[95a22caee396]: https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=95a22caee396cef0bb2ca8fafdd82966a49367bb "tcp: randomize tcp timestamp offsets for each connection"
{# Local Variables: #}
{# mode: markdown #}
{# indent-tabs-mode: nil #}
{# End: #}