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<div class='mp'>
<h1>Globals</h1>
<p> As we have learnt, node's module system discourages the use of globals; however node provides a few important globals for use to utilize. The first and most important is the <code>process</code> global, which exposes process manipulation such as signalling, exiting, the process id (pid), and more. Other globals, such as the <code>console</code> object, are provided to those used to writing JavaScript for web browsers.</p>
<h2 id="console">console</h2>
<p>The <code>console</code> object contains several methods which are used to output information to <em>stdout</em> or <em>stderr</em>. Let's take a look at what each method does:</p>
<h3 id="console-log-">console.log()</h3>
<p>The most frequently used console method is <code>console.log()</code>, which simply writes to <em>stdout</em> and appends a line feed (<code>\n</code>). Currently aliased as <code>console.info()</code>.</p>
<pre><code>console.log('wahoo');
// =&gt; wahoo
console.log({ foo: 'bar' });
// =&gt; [object Object]
</code></pre>
<h3 id="console-error-">console.error()</h3>
<p>Identical to <code>console.log()</code>, however writes to <em>stderr</em>. Aliased as <code>console.warn()</code> as well.</p>
<pre><code>console.error('database connection failed');
</code></pre>
<h3 id="console-dir-">console.dir()</h3>
<p>Utilizes the <em>sys</em> module's <code>inspect()</code> method to pretty-print the object to
<em>stdout</em>.</p>
<pre><code>console.dir({ foo: 'bar' });
// =&gt; { foo: 'bar' }
</code></pre>
<h3 id="console-assert-">console.assert()</h3>
<p>Asserts that the given expression is truthy, or throws an exception.</p>
<pre><code>console.assert(connected, 'Database connection failed');
</code></pre>
<h2 id="process">process</h2>
<p>The <code>process</code> object is plastered with goodies. First we will take a look
at some properties that provide information about the node process itself:</p>
<h3 id="process-version">process.version</h3>
<p>The node version string, for example "v0.1.103".</p>
<h3 id="process-installPrefix">process.installPrefix</h3>
<p>The installation prefix. In my case "<em>/usr/local</em>", as node's binary was installed to "<em>/usr/local/bin/node</em>".</p>
<h3 id="process-execPath">process.execPath</h3>
<p>The path to the executable itself "<em>/usr/local/bin/node</em>".</p>
<h3 id="process-platform">process.platform</h3>
<p>The platform you are running on. For example, "darwin".</p>
<h3 id="process-pid">process.pid</h3>
<p>The process id.</p>
<h3 id="process-cwd-">process.cwd()</h3>
<p>Returns the current working directory. For example:</p>
<pre><code>cd ~ &amp;&amp; node
node&gt; process.cwd()
"/Users/tj"
</code></pre>
<h3 id="process-chdir-">process.chdir()</h3>
<p>Changes the current working directory to the path passed.</p>
<pre><code>process.chdir('/foo');
</code></pre>
<h3 id="process-getuid-">process.getuid()</h3>
<p>Returns the numerical user id of the running process.</p>
<h3 id="process-setuid-">process.setuid()</h3>
<p>Sets the effective user id for the running process. This method accepts both a numerical id, as well as a string. For example both <code>process.setuid(501)</code>, and <code>process.setuid('tj')</code> are valid.</p>
<h3 id="process-getgid-">process.getgid()</h3>
<p>Returns the numerical group id of the running process.</p>
<h3 id="process-setgid-">process.setgid()</h3>
<p>Similar to <code>process.setuid()</code> however operates on the group, also accepting a numerical value or string representation. For example, <code>process.setgid(20)</code> or <code>process.setgid('www')</code>.</p>
<h3 id="process-env">process.env</h3>
<p>An object containing the user's environment variables. For example:</p>
<pre><code>{ PATH: '/Users/tj/.gem/ruby/1.8/bin:/Users/tj/.nvm/current/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/X11/bin'
, PWD: '/Users/tj/ebooks/masteringnode'
, EDITOR: 'mate'
, LANG: 'en_CA.UTF-8'
, SHLVL: '1'
, HOME: '/Users/tj'
, LOGNAME: 'tj'
, DISPLAY: '/tmp/launch-YCkT03/org.x:0'
, _: '/usr/local/bin/node'
, OLDPWD: '/Users/tj'
}
</code></pre>
<h3 id="process-argv">process.argv</h3>
<p>When executing a file with the <code>node</code> executable <code>process.argv</code> provides access to the argument vector, the first value being the node executable, second being the filename, and remaining values being the arguments passed.</p>
<p>For example, our source file <em>./src/process/misc.js</em> can be executed by running:</p>
<pre><code>$ node src/process/misc.js foo bar baz
</code></pre>
<p>in which we call <code>console.dir(process.argv)</code>, outputting the following:</p>
<pre><code>[ 'node'
, '/Users/tj/EBooks/masteringnode/src/process/misc.js'
, 'foo'
, 'bar'
, 'baz'
]
</code></pre>
<h3 id="process-exit-">process.exit()</h3>
<p>The <code>process.exit()</code> method is synonymous with the C function <code>exit()</code>, in which an exit code > 0 is passed to indicate failure, or 0 is passed to indicate success. When invoked, the <em>exit</em> event is emitted, allowing a short time for arbitrary processing to occur before <code>process.reallyExit()</code> is called with the given status code.</p>
<h3 id="process-on-">process.on()</h3>
<p>The process itself is an <code>EventEmitter</code>, allowing you to do things like listen for uncaught exceptions via the <em>uncaughtException</em> event:</p>
<pre><code>process.on('uncaughtException', function(err){
console.log('got an error: %s', err.message);
process.exit(1);
});
setTimeout(function(){
throw new Error('fail');
}, 100);
</code></pre>
<h3 id="process-kill-">process.kill()</h3>
<p><code>process.kill()</code> method sends the signal passed to the given <em>pid</em>, defaulting to <strong>SIGINT</strong>. In the example below, we send the <strong>SIGTERM</strong> signal to the same node process to illustrate signal trapping, after which we output "terminating" and exit. Note that the second timeout of 1000 milliseconds is never reached.</p>
<pre><code>process.on('SIGTERM', function(){
console.log('terminating');
process.exit(1);
});
setTimeout(function(){
console.log('sending SIGTERM to process %d', process.pid);
process.kill(process.pid, 'SIGTERM');
}, 500);
setTimeout(function(){
console.log('never called');
}, 1000);
</code></pre>
<h3 id="errno">errno</h3>
<p>The <code>process</code> object is host of the error numbers, which reference what you would find in C-land. For example, <code>process.EPERM</code> represents a permission based error, while <code>process.ENOENT</code> represents a missing file or directory. Typically these are used within bindings to bridge the gap between C++ and JavaScript, but they're useful for handling exceptions as well:</p>
<pre><code>if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) {
// Display a 404 "Not Found" page
} else {
// Display a 500 "Internal Server Error" page
}
</code></pre>
</div>
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