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from __future__ import division
from .mesh import MeshVisual
import numpy as np
from numpy.linalg import norm
from ..util.transforms import rotate
from ..color import ColorArray
class TubeVisual(MeshVisual):
"""Displays a tube around a piecewise-linear path.
The tube mesh is corrected following its Frenet curvature and
torsion such that it varies smoothly along the curve, including if
the tube is closed.
points : ndarray
An array of (x, y, z) points describing the path along which the
tube will be extruded.
radius : float
The radius of the tube. Defaults to 1.0.
closed : bool
Whether the tube should be closed, joining the last point to the
first. Defaults to False.
color : Color | ColorArray
The color(s) to use when drawing the tube. The same color is
applied to each vertex of the mesh surrounding each point of
the line. If the input is a ColorArray, the argument will be
cycled; for instance if 'red' is passed then the entire tube
will be red, or if ['green', 'blue'] is passed then the points
will alternate between these colours. Defaults to 'purple'.
tube_points : int
The number of points in the circle-approximating polygon of the
tube's cross section. Defaults to 8.
shading : str | None
Same as for the `MeshVisual` class. Defaults to 'smooth'.
vertex_colors: ndarray | None
Same as for the `MeshVisual` class.
face_colors: ndarray | None
Same as for the `MeshVisual` class.
mode : str
Same as for the `MeshVisual` class. Defaults to 'triangles'.
def __init__(self, points, radius=1.0,
points = np.array(points)
tangents, normals, binormals = _frenet_frames(points, closed)
segments = len(points) - 1
# get the positions of each vertex
grid = np.zeros((len(points), tube_points, 3))
for i in range(len(points)):
pos = points[i]
normal = normals[i]
binormal = binormals[i]
# Add a vertex for each point on the circle
v = np.arange(tube_points,
dtype=np.float) / tube_points * 2 * np.pi
cx = -1. * radius * np.cos(v)
cy = radius * np.sin(v)
grid[i] = (pos + cx[:, np.newaxis]*normal +
cy[:, np.newaxis]*binormal)
# construct the mesh
indices = []
for i in range(segments):
for j in range(tube_points):
ip = (i+1) % segments if closed else i+1
jp = (j+1) % tube_points
index_a = i*tube_points + j
index_b = ip*tube_points + j
index_c = ip*tube_points + jp
index_d = i*tube_points + jp
indices.append([index_a, index_b, index_d])
indices.append([index_b, index_c, index_d])
vertices = grid.reshape(grid.shape[0]*grid.shape[1], 3)
color = ColorArray(color)
if vertex_colors is None:
point_colors = np.resize(color.rgba,
(len(points), 4))
vertex_colors = np.repeat(point_colors, tube_points, axis=0)
indices = np.array(indices, dtype=np.uint32)
MeshVisual.__init__(self, vertices, indices,
def _frenet_frames(points, closed):
'''Calculates and returns the tangents, normals and binormals for
the tube.'''
tangents = np.zeros((len(points), 3))
normals = np.zeros((len(points), 3))
epsilon = 0.0001
# Compute tangent vectors for each segment
tangents = np.roll(points, -1, axis=0) - np.roll(points, 1, axis=0)
if not closed:
tangents[0] = points[1] - points[0]
tangents[-1] = points[-1] - points[-2]
mags = np.sqrt(np.sum(tangents * tangents, axis=1))
tangents /= mags[:, np.newaxis]
# Get initial normal and binormal
t = np.abs(tangents[0])
smallest = np.argmin(t)
normal = np.zeros(3)
normal[smallest] = 1.
vec = np.cross(tangents[0], normal)
normals[0] = np.cross(tangents[0], vec)
# Compute normal and binormal vectors along the path
for i in range(1, len(points)):
normals[i] = normals[i-1]
vec = np.cross(tangents[i-1], tangents[i])
if norm(vec) > epsilon:
vec /= norm(vec)
theta = np.arccos(np.clip(tangents[i-1].dot(tangents[i]), -1, 1))
normals[i] = rotate(-np.degrees(theta),
vec)[:3, :3].dot(normals[i])
if closed:
theta = np.arccos(np.clip(normals[0].dot(normals[-1]), -1, 1))
theta /= len(points) - 1
if tangents[0].dot(np.cross(normals[0], normals[-1])) > 0:
theta *= -1.
for i in range(1, len(points)):
normals[i] = rotate(-np.degrees(theta*i),
tangents[i])[:3, :3].dot(normals[i])
binormals = np.cross(tangents, normals)
return tangents, normals, binormals