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Initial architecture commit

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commit 7a01b5b5c94020078b5d9a496e098cb767179513 0 parents
@robhawkes robhawkes authored
4 .gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+node_modules
+build
+
+.DS_Store
113 Gruntfile.js
@@ -0,0 +1,113 @@
+module.exports = function(grunt) {
+ var port = grunt.option('port') || 8000;
+
+ // Project configuration.
+ grunt.initConfig({
+ pkg: grunt.file.readJSON('package.json'),
+ uglify: {
+ options: {
+ banner: '/*! ViziCities <%= grunt.template.today("yyyy-mm-dd") %> */\n'
+ },
+ build: {
+ src: 'build/vizi.js',
+ dest: 'build/vizi.min.js'
+ }
+ },
+ concat: {
+ options: {},
+ dist: {
+ // src: ['src/shared/vendor/underscore.js', 'src/shared/vendor/three.js', 'src/client/*'],
+ src: [
+ 'src/shared/vendor/underscore.js',
+ 'src/shared/vendor/three.js',
+ 'src/client/Vizi.js',
+ 'src/client/Log.js',
+ 'src/client/Mediator.js',
+ 'src/client/City.js',
+ 'src/client/Loop.js',
+ 'src/client/webgl/WebGL.js',
+ 'src/client/webgl/Scene.js',
+ 'src/client/webgl/Camera.js'
+ ],
+ dest: 'build/vizi.js'
+ }
+ },
+ jshint: {
+ options: {
+ curly: false,
+ eqeqeq: true,
+ immed: true,
+ latedef: true,
+ newcap: true,
+ noarg: true,
+ sub: true,
+ undef: true,
+ eqnull: true,
+ browser: true,
+ expr: true,
+ globals: {
+ head: false,
+ module: false,
+ console: false
+ },
+ ignores: ['src/shared/vendor/**']
+ },
+ files: [ 'Gruntfile.js', 'src/**' ]
+ },
+ watch: {
+ main: {
+ files: [ 'Gruntfile.js', 'src/**', 'examples/**' ],
+ tasks: 'default',
+ options: {
+ livereload: true
+ }
+ }
+ },
+ connect: {
+ server: {
+ options: {
+ port: port,
+ base: '.'
+ }
+ }
+ },
+ notify: {
+ connect: {
+ options: {
+ // title: 'Watching files', // optional
+ message: 'Watching for changes' //required
+ }
+ },
+ finish: {
+ options: {
+ // title: 'Watching files', // optional
+ message: 'Build complete' //required
+ }
+ }
+ },
+ notify_hooks: {
+ options: {
+ enabled: true,
+ max_jshint_notifications: 5,
+ title: "ViziCities"
+ }
+ }
+ });
+
+ // Load the plugins
+ grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-uglify');
+ grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-concat');
+ grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-watch');
+ grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-jshint');
+ grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-connect');
+ grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-notify');
+
+ // Default task(s).
+ grunt.registerTask('default', ['jshint', 'concat', 'uglify', 'notify:finish']);
+
+ // Serve examples locally
+ grunt.registerTask('serve', ['connect', 'notify:connect', 'watch']);
+
+ grunt.task.run('notify_hooks');
+
+};
0  README.md
No changes.
28 examples/index.html
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html5>
+
+<html>
+<head>
+ <title>ViziCities Architecture Example</title>
+
+ <link href="reset.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
+ <style type="text/css">
+ html, body {
+ height: 100%;
+ overflow: hidden;
+ }
+
+ body {
+ background: #ccc;
+ }
+ </style>
+</head>
+<body>
+
+ <script src="../build/vizi.js"></script>
+
+ <script>
+ var city = new VIZI.City();
+ </script>
+
+</body>
+</html>
102 examples/reset.css
@@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
+/*
+html5doctor.com Reset Stylesheet
+v1.6.1
+Last Updated: 2010-09-17
+Author: Richard Clark - http://richclarkdesign.com
+Twitter: @rich_clark
+*/
+
+html, body, div, span, object, iframe,
+h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, blockquote, pre,
+abbr, address, cite, code,
+del, dfn, em, img, ins, kbd, q, samp,
+small, strong, sub, sup, var,
+b, i,
+dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li,
+fieldset, form, label, legend,
+table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td,
+article, aside, canvas, details, figcaption, figure,
+footer, header, hgroup, menu, nav, section, summary,
+time, mark, audio, video {
+ margin:0;
+ padding:0;
+ border:0;
+ outline:0;
+ font-size:100%;
+ vertical-align:baseline;
+ background:transparent;
+}
+
+body {
+ line-height:1;
+}
+
+article,aside,details,figcaption,figure,
+footer,header,hgroup,menu,nav,section {
+ display:block;
+}
+
+nav ul {
+ list-style:none;
+}
+
+blockquote, q {
+ quotes:none;
+}
+
+blockquote:before, blockquote:after,
+q:before, q:after {
+ content:'';
+ content:none;
+}
+
+a {
+ margin:0;
+ padding:0;
+ font-size:100%;
+ vertical-align:baseline;
+ background:transparent;
+}
+
+/* change colours to suit your needs */
+ins {
+ background-color:#ff9;
+ color:#000;
+ text-decoration:none;
+}
+
+/* change colours to suit your needs */
+mark {
+ background-color:#ff9;
+ color:#000;
+ font-style:italic;
+ font-weight:bold;
+}
+
+del {
+ text-decoration: line-through;
+}
+
+abbr[title], dfn[title] {
+ border-bottom:1px dotted;
+ cursor:help;
+}
+
+table {
+ border-collapse:collapse;
+ border-spacing:0;
+}
+
+/* change border colour to suit your needs */
+hr {
+ display:block;
+ height:1px;
+ border:0;
+ border-top:1px solid #cccccc;
+ margin:1em 0;
+ padding:0;
+}
+
+input, select {
+ vertical-align:middle;
+}
0  index.js
No changes.
20 package.json
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+{
+ "name": "ViziCities",
+ "version": "0.0.0",
+ "description": "3D city visualisation",
+ "main": "index.js",
+ "scripts": {
+ "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
+ },
+ "author": "Robin Hawkes",
+ "license": "All Rights Reserved",
+ "devDependencies": {
+ "grunt": "~0.4.1",
+ "grunt-contrib-jshint": "~0.7.0",
+ "grunt-contrib-uglify": "~0.2.2",
+ "grunt-contrib-concat": "~0.3.0",
+ "grunt-contrib-watch": "~0.5.3",
+ "grunt-contrib-connect": "~0.5.0",
+ "grunt-notify": "https://github.com/robhawkes/grunt-notify/archive/master.tar.gz"
+ }
+}
11 src/client/City.js
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ VIZI.City = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Inititialising city");
+
+ this.loop = new VIZI.Loop();
+ this.webgl = new VIZI.WebGL();
+ };
+}());
9 src/client/Log.js
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ // http://addyosmani.com/resources/essentialjsdesignpatterns/book/#mediatorpatternjavascript
+ VIZI.Log = function(msg) {
+ console.log(msg);
+ };
+}());
34 src/client/Loop.js
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ VIZI.Loop = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Inititialising application loop");
+
+ _.extend(this, VIZI.Mediator);
+
+ this.stopLoop = false;
+ // this.start();
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Loop.prototype.start = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Starting application loop");
+ this.stopLoop = false;
+ this.tick();
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Loop.prototype.stop = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Stopping application loop");
+ this.stopLoop = true;
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Loop.prototype.tick = function() {
+ this.publish("tick");
+
+ if (!this.stopLoop) {
+ // Should probably be a bit more obvious that this comes from Three.js
+ // http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6065169/requestanimationframe-with-this-keyword
+ window.requestAnimationFrame( this.tick.bind(this) );
+ }
+ };
+}());
47 src/client/Mediator.js
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ // http://addyosmani.com/resources/essentialjsdesignpatterns/book/#mediatorpatternjavascript
+ // Apply to other objects using _.extend(newObj, VIZI.Mediator);
+ VIZI.Mediator = (function() {
+ // Storage for topics that can be broadcast or listened to
+ var topics = {};
+
+ // Subscribe to a topic, supply a callback to be executed
+ // when that topic is broadcast to
+ var subscribe = function( topic, fn ){
+
+ if ( !topics[topic] ){
+ topics[topic] = [];
+ }
+
+ topics[topic].push( { context: this, callback: fn } );
+
+ return this;
+ };
+
+ // Publish/broadcast an event to the rest of the application
+ var publish = function( topic ){
+
+ var args;
+
+ if ( !topics[topic] ){
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ args = Array.prototype.slice.call( arguments, 1 );
+ for ( var i = 0, l = topics[topic].length; i < l; i++ ) {
+
+ var subscription = topics[topic][i];
+ subscription.callback.apply( subscription.context, args );
+ }
+ return this;
+ };
+
+ return {
+ publish: publish,
+ subscribe: subscribe
+ };
+ }());
+}());
14 src/client/Vizi.js
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+/* globals window, _ */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ var VIZI = {
+ VERSION: 1.0
+ };
+
+ // List any constants here, like:
+ // https://github.com/mrdoob/three.js/blob/master/src/Three.js
+
+ // Expose VIZI to the window
+ window.VIZI = VIZI;
+}());
51 src/client/webgl/Camera.js
@@ -0,0 +1,51 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI, THREE */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ VIZI.Camera = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Inititialising WebGL camera");
+
+ _.extend(this, VIZI.Mediator);
+
+ this.cameraRadius = 6000;
+ this.theta = 45;
+ this.onMouseDownTheta = 45;
+ this.phi = 60;
+ this.onMouseDownPhi = 60;
+
+ this.target = new THREE.Object3D();
+
+ this.camera = this.createCamera();
+
+ this.publish("addToScene", this.camera);
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Camera.prototype.createCamera = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Creating WebGL camera");
+
+ var camera = new THREE.PerspectiveCamera( 40, window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight, 2, 40000 );
+ camera.position.x = this.cameraRadius * Math.sin( this.theta * Math.PI / 360 ) * Math.cos( this.phi * Math.PI / 360 );
+ camera.position.y = this.cameraRadius * Math.sin( this.phi * Math.PI / 360 );
+ camera.position.z = this.cameraRadius * Math.cos( this.theta * Math.PI / 360 ) * Math.cos( this.phi * Math.PI / 360 );
+
+ return camera;
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Camera.prototype.enableControls = function() {
+ this.subscribe("mouseDown", function(event) {
+ VIZI.Log("Camera mouse down handler");
+ });
+
+ this.subscribe("mouseUp", function(event) {
+ VIZI.Log("Camera mouse up handler");
+ });
+
+ this.subscribe("mouseMove", function(event) {
+ VIZI.Log("Camera mouse move handler");
+ });
+
+ this.subscribe("mouseWheel", function(event) {
+ VIZI.Log("Camera mouse wheel handler");
+ });
+ };
+}());
32 src/client/webgl/Scene.js
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI, THREE */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ VIZI.Scene = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Inititialising WebGL scene");
+
+ _.extend(this, VIZI.Mediator);
+
+ this.scene = this.createScene();
+
+ // Listeners
+ this.subscribe("addToScene", function(object) {
+ VIZI.Log("Scene add object handler");
+ VIZI.Log(object);
+ this.addToScene(object);
+ });
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Scene.prototype.createScene = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Creating WebGL scene");
+
+ var scene = new THREE.Scene();
+ scene.fog = new THREE.Fog(0xffffff, 1, 40000);
+
+ return scene;
+ };
+
+ VIZI.Scene.prototype.addToScene = function(object) {
+ this.scene.add(object);
+ };
+}());
24 src/client/webgl/WebGL.js
@@ -0,0 +1,24 @@
+/* globals window, _, VIZI, THREE */
+(function() {
+ "use strict";
+
+ VIZI.WebGL = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Inititialising WebGL");
+
+ this.domContainer = this.createDOMContainer();
+ this.scene = new VIZI.Scene();
+ this.camera = new VIZI.Camera();
+ this.lights = undefined;
+ };
+
+ VIZI.WebGL.prototype.createDOMContainer = function() {
+ VIZI.Log("Creating WebGL DOM container");
+
+ var container = document.createElement("div");
+ container.id = "webgl-container";
+
+ document.body.appendChild(container);
+
+ return container;
+ };
+}());
36,981 src/shared/vendor/three.js
36,981 additions, 0 deletions not shown
1,282 src/shared/vendor/underscore.js
@@ -0,0 +1,1282 @@
+// Underscore.js 1.5.2
+// http://underscorejs.org
+// (c) 2009-2013 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud and Investigative Reporters & Editors
+// Underscore may be freely distributed under the MIT license.
+
+(function() {
+
+ // Baseline setup
+ // --------------
+
+ // Establish the root object, `window` in the browser, or `exports` on the server.
+ var root = this;
+
+ // Save the previous value of the `_` variable.
+ var previousUnderscore = root._;
+
+ // Establish the object that gets returned to break out of a loop iteration.
+ var breaker = {};
+
+ // Save bytes in the minified (but not gzipped) version:
+ var ArrayProto = Array.prototype, ObjProto = Object.prototype, FuncProto = Function.prototype;
+
+ //use the faster Date.now if available.
+ var getTime = (Date.now || function() {
+ return new Date().getTime();
+ });
+
+ // Create quick reference variables for speed access to core prototypes.
+ var
+ push = ArrayProto.push,
+ slice = ArrayProto.slice,
+ concat = ArrayProto.concat,
+ toString = ObjProto.toString,
+ hasOwnProperty = ObjProto.hasOwnProperty;
+
+ // All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
+ // are declared here.
+ var
+ nativeForEach = ArrayProto.forEach,
+ nativeMap = ArrayProto.map,
+ nativeReduce = ArrayProto.reduce,
+ nativeReduceRight = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
+ nativeFilter = ArrayProto.filter,
+ nativeEvery = ArrayProto.every,
+ nativeSome = ArrayProto.some,
+ nativeIndexOf = ArrayProto.indexOf,
+ nativeLastIndexOf = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
+ nativeIsArray = Array.isArray,
+ nativeKeys = Object.keys,
+ nativeBind = FuncProto.bind;
+
+ // Create a safe reference to the Underscore object for use below.
+ var _ = function(obj) {
+ if (obj instanceof _) return obj;
+ if (!(this instanceof _)) return new _(obj);
+ this._wrapped = obj;
+ };
+
+ // Export the Underscore object for **Node.js**, with
+ // backwards-compatibility for the old `require()` API. If we're in
+ // the browser, add `_` as a global object via a string identifier,
+ // for Closure Compiler "advanced" mode.
+ if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
+ if (typeof module !== 'undefined' && module.exports) {
+ exports = module.exports = _;
+ }
+ exports._ = _;
+ } else {
+ root._ = _;
+ }
+
+ // Current version.
+ _.VERSION = '1.5.2';
+
+ // Collection Functions
+ // --------------------
+
+ // The cornerstone, an `each` implementation, aka `forEach`.
+ // Handles objects with the built-in `forEach`, arrays, and raw objects.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `forEach` if available.
+ var each = _.each = _.forEach = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ if (obj == null) return;
+ if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach) {
+ obj.forEach(iterator, context);
+ } else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
+ for (var i = 0, length = obj.length; i < length; i++) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
+ }
+ } else {
+ var keys = _.keys(obj);
+ for (var i = 0, length = keys.length; i < length; i++) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, obj[keys[i]], keys[i], obj) === breaker) return;
+ }
+ }
+ };
+
+ // Return the results of applying the iterator to each element.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `map` if available.
+ _.map = _.collect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var results = [];
+ if (obj == null) return results;
+ if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ results.push(iterator.call(context, value, index, list));
+ });
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ var reduceError = 'Reduce of empty array with no initial value';
+
+ // **Reduce** builds up a single result from a list of values, aka `inject`,
+ // or `foldl`. Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduce` if available.
+ _.reduce = _.foldl = _.inject = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
+ var initial = arguments.length > 2;
+ if (obj == null) obj = [];
+ if (nativeReduce && obj.reduce === nativeReduce) {
+ if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
+ return initial ? obj.reduce(iterator, memo) : obj.reduce(iterator);
+ }
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (!initial) {
+ memo = value;
+ initial = true;
+ } else {
+ memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
+ }
+ });
+ if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);
+ return memo;
+ };
+
+ // The right-associative version of reduce, also known as `foldr`.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduceRight` if available.
+ _.reduceRight = _.foldr = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
+ var initial = arguments.length > 2;
+ if (obj == null) obj = [];
+ if (nativeReduceRight && obj.reduceRight === nativeReduceRight) {
+ if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
+ return initial ? obj.reduceRight(iterator, memo) : obj.reduceRight(iterator);
+ }
+ var length = obj.length;
+ if (length !== +length) {
+ var keys = _.keys(obj);
+ length = keys.length;
+ }
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ index = keys ? keys[--length] : --length;
+ if (!initial) {
+ memo = obj[index];
+ initial = true;
+ } else {
+ memo = iterator.call(context, memo, obj[index], index, list);
+ }
+ });
+ if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);
+ return memo;
+ };
+
+ // Return the first value which passes a truth test. Aliased as `detect`.
+ _.find = _.detect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var result;
+ any(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) {
+ result = value;
+ return true;
+ }
+ });
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // Return all the elements that pass a truth test.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `filter` if available.
+ // Aliased as `select`.
+ _.filter = _.select = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var results = [];
+ if (obj == null) return results;
+ if (nativeFilter && obj.filter === nativeFilter) return obj.filter(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results.push(value);
+ });
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // Return all the elements for which a truth test fails.
+ _.reject = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ return _.filter(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ return !iterator.call(context, value, index, list);
+ }, context);
+ };
+
+ // Determine whether all of the elements match a truth test.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `every` if available.
+ // Aliased as `all`.
+ _.every = _.all = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
+ var result = true;
+ if (obj == null) return result;
+ if (nativeEvery && obj.every === nativeEvery) return obj.every(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (!(result = result && iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
+ });
+ return !!result;
+ };
+
+ // Determine if at least one element in the object matches a truth test.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `some` if available.
+ // Aliased as `any`.
+ var any = _.some = _.any = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
+ var result = false;
+ if (obj == null) return result;
+ if (nativeSome && obj.some === nativeSome) return obj.some(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (result || (result = iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
+ });
+ return !!result;
+ };
+
+ // Determine if the array or object contains a given value (using `===`).
+ // Aliased as `include`.
+ _.contains = _.include = function(obj, target) {
+ if (obj == null) return false;
+ if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;
+ return any(obj, function(value) {
+ return value === target;
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Invoke a method (with arguments) on every item in a collection.
+ _.invoke = function(obj, method) {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
+ var isFunc = _.isFunction(method);
+ return _.map(obj, function(value) {
+ return (isFunc ? method : value[method]).apply(value, args);
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Convenience version of a common use case of `map`: fetching a property.
+ _.pluck = function(obj, key) {
+ return _.map(obj, function(value){ return value[key]; });
+ };
+
+ // Convenience version of a common use case of `filter`: selecting only objects
+ // containing specific `key:value` pairs.
+ _.where = function(obj, attrs, first) {
+ if (_.isEmpty(attrs)) return first ? void 0 : [];
+ return _[first ? 'find' : 'filter'](obj, function(value) {
+ for (var key in attrs) {
+ if (attrs[key] !== value[key]) return false;
+ }
+ return true;
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Convenience version of a common use case of `find`: getting the first object
+ // containing specific `key:value` pairs.
+ _.findWhere = function(obj, attrs) {
+ return _.where(obj, attrs, true);
+ };
+
+ // Return the maximum element or (element-based computation).
+ // Can't optimize arrays of integers longer than 65,535 elements.
+ // See [WebKit Bug 80797](https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=80797)
+ _.max = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
+ return Math.max.apply(Math, obj);
+ }
+ if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return -Infinity;
+ var result = {computed : -Infinity, value: -Infinity};
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
+ computed > result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
+ });
+ return result.value;
+ };
+
+ // Return the minimum element (or element-based computation).
+ _.min = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
+ return Math.min.apply(Math, obj);
+ }
+ if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return Infinity;
+ var result = {computed : Infinity, value: Infinity};
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
+ computed < result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
+ });
+ return result.value;
+ };
+
+ // Shuffle an array, using the modern version of the
+ // [Fisher-Yates shuffle](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisher–Yates_shuffle).
+ _.shuffle = function(obj) {
+ var rand;
+ var index = 0;
+ var shuffled = [];
+ each(obj, function(value) {
+ rand = _.random(index++);
+ shuffled[index - 1] = shuffled[rand];
+ shuffled[rand] = value;
+ });
+ return shuffled;
+ };
+
+ // Sample **n** random values from a collection.
+ // If **n** is not specified, returns a single random element.
+ // The internal `guard` argument allows it to work with `map`.
+ _.sample = function(obj, n, guard) {
+ if (n == null || guard) {
+ if (obj.length !== +obj.length) obj = _.values(obj);
+ return obj[_.random(obj.length - 1)];
+ }
+ return _.shuffle(obj).slice(0, Math.max(0, n));
+ };
+
+ // An internal function to generate lookup iterators.
+ var lookupIterator = function(value) {
+ return _.isFunction(value) ? value : function(obj){ return obj[value]; };
+ };
+
+ // Sort the object's values by a criterion produced by an iterator.
+ _.sortBy = function(obj, value, context) {
+ var iterator = value == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(value);
+ return _.pluck(_.map(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ return {
+ value: value,
+ index: index,
+ criteria: iterator.call(context, value, index, list)
+ };
+ }).sort(function(left, right) {
+ var a = left.criteria;
+ var b = right.criteria;
+ if (a !== b) {
+ if (a > b || a === void 0) return 1;
+ if (a < b || b === void 0) return -1;
+ }
+ return left.index - right.index;
+ }), 'value');
+ };
+
+ // An internal function used for aggregate "group by" operations.
+ var group = function(behavior) {
+ return function(obj, value, context) {
+ var result = {};
+ var iterator = value == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(value);
+ each(obj, function(value, index) {
+ var key = iterator.call(context, value, index, obj);
+ behavior(result, key, value);
+ });
+ return result;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Groups the object's values by a criterion. Pass either a string attribute
+ // to group by, or a function that returns the criterion.
+ _.groupBy = group(function(result, key, value) {
+ (_.has(result, key) ? result[key] : (result[key] = [])).push(value);
+ });
+
+ // Indexes the object's values by a criterion, similar to `groupBy`, but for
+ // when you know that your index values will be unique.
+ _.indexBy = group(function(result, key, value) {
+ result[key] = value;
+ });
+
+ // Counts instances of an object that group by a certain criterion. Pass
+ // either a string attribute to count by, or a function that returns the
+ // criterion.
+ _.countBy = group(function(result, key) {
+ _.has(result, key) ? result[key]++ : result[key] = 1;
+ });
+
+ // Use a comparator function to figure out the smallest index at which
+ // an object should be inserted so as to maintain order. Uses binary search.
+ _.sortedIndex = function(array, obj, iterator, context) {
+ iterator = iterator == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(iterator);
+ var value = iterator.call(context, obj);
+ var low = 0, high = array.length;
+ while (low < high) {
+ var mid = (low + high) >>> 1;
+ iterator.call(context, array[mid]) < value ? low = mid + 1 : high = mid;
+ }
+ return low;
+ };
+
+ // Safely create a real, live array from anything iterable.
+ _.toArray = function(obj) {
+ if (!obj) return [];
+ if (_.isArray(obj)) return slice.call(obj);
+ if (obj.length === +obj.length) return _.map(obj, _.identity);
+ return _.values(obj);
+ };
+
+ // Return the number of elements in an object.
+ _.size = function(obj) {
+ if (obj == null) return 0;
+ return (obj.length === +obj.length) ? obj.length : _.keys(obj).length;
+ };
+
+ // Array Functions
+ // ---------------
+
+ // Get the first element of an array. Passing **n** will return the first N
+ // values in the array. Aliased as `head` and `take`. The **guard** check
+ // allows it to work with `_.map`.
+ _.first = _.head = _.take = function(array, n, guard) {
+ if (array == null) return void 0;
+ return (n == null) || guard ? array[0] : slice.call(array, 0, n);
+ };
+
+ // Returns everything but the last entry of the array. Especially useful on
+ // the arguments object. Passing **n** will return all the values in
+ // the array, excluding the last N. The **guard** check allows it to work with
+ // `_.map`.
+ _.initial = function(array, n, guard) {
+ return slice.call(array, 0, array.length - ((n == null) || guard ? 1 : n));
+ };
+
+ // Get the last element of an array. Passing **n** will return the last N
+ // values in the array. The **guard** check allows it to work with `_.map`.
+ _.last = function(array, n, guard) {
+ if (array == null) return void 0;
+ if ((n == null) || guard) {
+ return array[array.length - 1];
+ } else {
+ return slice.call(array, Math.max(array.length - n, 0));
+ }
+ };
+
+ // Returns everything but the first entry of the array. Aliased as `tail` and `drop`.
+ // Especially useful on the arguments object. Passing an **n** will return
+ // the rest N values in the array. The **guard**
+ // check allows it to work with `_.map`.
+ _.rest = _.tail = _.drop = function(array, n, guard) {
+ return slice.call(array, (n == null) || guard ? 1 : n);
+ };
+
+ // Trim out all falsy values from an array.
+ _.compact = function(array) {
+ return _.filter(array, _.identity);
+ };
+
+ // Internal implementation of a recursive `flatten` function.
+ var flatten = function(input, shallow, output) {
+ if (shallow && _.every(input, _.isArray)) {
+ return concat.apply(output, input);
+ }
+ each(input, function(value) {
+ if (_.isArray(value) || _.isArguments(value)) {
+ shallow ? push.apply(output, value) : flatten(value, shallow, output);
+ } else {
+ output.push(value);
+ }
+ });
+ return output;
+ };
+
+ // Flatten out an array, either recursively (by default), or just one level.
+ _.flatten = function(array, shallow) {
+ return flatten(array, shallow, []);
+ };
+
+ // Return a version of the array that does not contain the specified value(s).
+ _.without = function(array) {
+ return _.difference(array, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ };
+
+ // Produce a duplicate-free version of the array. If the array has already
+ // been sorted, you have the option of using a faster algorithm.
+ // Aliased as `unique`.
+ _.uniq = _.unique = function(array, isSorted, iterator, context) {
+ if (_.isFunction(isSorted)) {
+ context = iterator;
+ iterator = isSorted;
+ isSorted = false;
+ }
+ var initial = iterator ? _.map(array, iterator, context) : array;
+ var results = [];
+ var seen = [];
+ each(initial, function(value, index) {
+ if (isSorted ? (!index || seen[seen.length - 1] !== value) : !_.contains(seen, value)) {
+ seen.push(value);
+ results.push(array[index]);
+ }
+ });
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // Produce an array that contains the union: each distinct element from all of
+ // the passed-in arrays.
+ _.union = function() {
+ return _.uniq(_.flatten(arguments, true));
+ };
+
+ // Produce an array that contains every item shared between all the
+ // passed-in arrays.
+ _.intersection = function(array) {
+ var rest = slice.call(arguments, 1);
+ return _.filter(_.uniq(array), function(item) {
+ return _.every(rest, function(other) {
+ return _.indexOf(other, item) >= 0;
+ });
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Take the difference between one array and a number of other arrays.
+ // Only the elements present in just the first array will remain.
+ _.difference = function(array) {
+ var rest = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !_.contains(rest, value); });
+ };
+
+ // Zip together multiple lists into a single array -- elements that share
+ // an index go together.
+ _.zip = function() {
+ var length = _.max(_.pluck(arguments, "length").concat(0));
+ var results = new Array(length);
+ for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+ results[i] = _.pluck(arguments, '' + i);
+ }
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // Converts lists into objects. Pass either a single array of `[key, value]`
+ // pairs, or two parallel arrays of the same length -- one of keys, and one of
+ // the corresponding values.
+ _.object = function(list, values) {
+ if (list == null) return {};
+ var result = {};
+ for (var i = 0, length = list.length; i < length; i++) {
+ if (values) {
+ result[list[i]] = values[i];
+ } else {
+ result[list[i][0]] = list[i][1];
+ }
+ }
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // If the browser doesn't supply us with indexOf (I'm looking at you, **MSIE**),
+ // we need this function. Return the position of the first occurrence of an
+ // item in an array, or -1 if the item is not included in the array.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `indexOf` if available.
+ // If the array is large and already in sort order, pass `true`
+ // for **isSorted** to use binary search.
+ _.indexOf = function(array, item, isSorted) {
+ if (array == null) return -1;
+ var i = 0, length = array.length;
+ if (isSorted) {
+ if (typeof isSorted == 'number') {
+ i = (isSorted < 0 ? Math.max(0, length + isSorted) : isSorted);
+ } else {
+ i = _.sortedIndex(array, item);
+ return array[i] === item ? i : -1;
+ }
+ }
+ if (nativeIndexOf && array.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return array.indexOf(item, isSorted);
+ for (; i < length; i++) if (array[i] === item) return i;
+ return -1;
+ };
+
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `lastIndexOf` if available.
+ _.lastIndexOf = function(array, item, from) {
+ if (array == null) return -1;
+ var hasIndex = from != null;
+ if (nativeLastIndexOf && array.lastIndexOf === nativeLastIndexOf) {
+ return hasIndex ? array.lastIndexOf(item, from) : array.lastIndexOf(item);
+ }
+ var i = (hasIndex ? from : array.length);
+ while (i--) if (array[i] === item) return i;
+ return -1;
+ };
+
+ // Generate an integer Array containing an arithmetic progression. A port of
+ // the native Python `range()` function. See
+ // [the Python documentation](http://docs.python.org/library/functions.html#range).
+ _.range = function(start, stop, step) {
+ if (arguments.length <= 1) {
+ stop = start || 0;
+ start = 0;
+ }
+ step = arguments[2] || 1;
+
+ var length = Math.max(Math.ceil((stop - start) / step), 0);
+ var idx = 0;
+ var range = new Array(length);
+
+ while(idx < length) {
+ range[idx++] = start;
+ start += step;
+ }
+
+ return range;
+ };
+
+ // Function (ahem) Functions
+ // ------------------
+
+ // Reusable constructor function for prototype setting.
+ var ctor = function(){};
+
+ // Create a function bound to a given object (assigning `this`, and arguments,
+ // optionally). Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Function.bind` if
+ // available.
+ _.bind = function(func, context) {
+ var args, bound;
+ if (nativeBind && func.bind === nativeBind) return nativeBind.apply(func, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ if (!_.isFunction(func)) throw new TypeError;
+ args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
+ return bound = function() {
+ if (!(this instanceof bound)) return func.apply(context, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
+ ctor.prototype = func.prototype;
+ var self = new ctor;
+ ctor.prototype = null;
+ var result = func.apply(self, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
+ if (Object(result) === result) return result;
+ return self;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Partially apply a function by creating a version that has had some of its
+ // arguments pre-filled, without changing its dynamic `this` context.
+ _.partial = function(func) {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments, 1);
+ return function() {
+ return func.apply(this, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Bind all of an object's methods to that object. Useful for ensuring that
+ // all callbacks defined on an object belong to it.
+ _.bindAll = function(obj) {
+ var funcs = slice.call(arguments, 1);
+ if (funcs.length === 0) throw new Error("bindAll must be passed function names");
+ each(funcs, function(f) { obj[f] = _.bind(obj[f], obj); });
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Memoize an expensive function by storing its results.
+ _.memoize = function(func, hasher) {
+ var memo = {};
+ hasher || (hasher = _.identity);
+ return function() {
+ var key = hasher.apply(this, arguments);
+ return _.has(memo, key) ? memo[key] : (memo[key] = func.apply(this, arguments));
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Delays a function for the given number of milliseconds, and then calls
+ // it with the arguments supplied.
+ _.delay = function(func, wait) {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
+ return setTimeout(function(){ return func.apply(null, args); }, wait);
+ };
+
+ // Defers a function, scheduling it to run after the current call stack has
+ // cleared.
+ _.defer = function(func) {
+ return _.delay.apply(_, [func, 1].concat(slice.call(arguments, 1)));
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function, that, when invoked, will only be triggered at most once
+ // during a given window of time. Normally, the throttled function will run
+ // as much as it can, without ever going more than once per `wait` duration;
+ // but if you'd like to disable the execution on the leading edge, pass
+ // `{leading: false}`. To disable execution on the trailing edge, ditto.
+ _.throttle = function(func, wait, options) {
+ var context, args, result;
+ var timeout = null;
+ var previous = 0;
+ options || (options = {});
+ var later = function() {
+ previous = options.leading === false ? 0 : getTime();
+ timeout = null;
+ result = func.apply(context, args);
+ };
+ return function() {
+ var now = getTime();
+ if (!previous && options.leading === false) previous = now;
+ var remaining = wait - (now - previous);
+ context = this;
+ args = arguments;
+ if (remaining <= 0) {
+ clearTimeout(timeout);
+ timeout = null;
+ previous = now;
+ result = func.apply(context, args);
+ } else if (!timeout && options.trailing !== false) {
+ timeout = setTimeout(later, remaining);
+ }
+ return result;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function, that, as long as it continues to be invoked, will not
+ // be triggered. The function will be called after it stops being called for
+ // N milliseconds. If `immediate` is passed, trigger the function on the
+ // leading edge, instead of the trailing.
+ _.debounce = function(func, wait, immediate) {
+ var timeout, args, context, timestamp, result;
+ return function() {
+ context = this;
+ args = arguments;
+ timestamp = getTime();
+ var later = function() {
+ var last = getTime() - timestamp;
+ if (last < wait) {
+ timeout = setTimeout(later, wait - last);
+ } else {
+ timeout = null;
+ if (!immediate) result = func.apply(context, args);
+ }
+ };
+ var callNow = immediate && !timeout;
+ if (!timeout) {
+ timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
+ }
+ if (callNow) result = func.apply(context, args);
+ return result;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function that will be executed at most one time, no matter how
+ // often you call it. Useful for lazy initialization.
+ _.once = function(func) {
+ var ran = false, memo;
+ return function() {
+ if (ran) return memo;
+ ran = true;
+ memo = func.apply(this, arguments);
+ func = null;
+ return memo;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns the first function passed as an argument to the second,
+ // allowing you to adjust arguments, run code before and after, and
+ // conditionally execute the original function.
+ _.wrap = function(func, wrapper) {
+ return function() {
+ var args = [func];
+ push.apply(args, arguments);
+ return wrapper.apply(this, args);
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function that is the composition of a list of functions, each
+ // consuming the return value of the function that follows.
+ _.compose = function() {
+ var funcs = arguments;
+ return function() {
+ var args = arguments;
+ for (var i = funcs.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+ args = [funcs[i].apply(this, args)];
+ }
+ return args[0];
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function that will only be executed after being called N times.
+ _.after = function(times, func) {
+ return function() {
+ if (--times < 1) {
+ return func.apply(this, arguments);
+ }
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Object Functions
+ // ----------------
+
+ // Retrieve the names of an object's properties.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Object.keys`
+ _.keys = nativeKeys || function(obj) {
+ if (obj !== Object(obj)) throw new TypeError('Invalid object');
+ var keys = [];
+ for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) keys.push(key);
+ return keys;
+ };
+
+ // Retrieve the values of an object's properties.
+ _.values = function(obj) {
+ var keys = _.keys(obj);
+ var length = keys.length;
+ var values = new Array(length);
+ for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+ values[i] = obj[keys[i]];
+ }
+ return values;
+ };
+
+ // Convert an object into a list of `[key, value]` pairs.
+ _.pairs = function(obj) {
+ var keys = _.keys(obj);
+ var length = keys.length;
+ var pairs = new Array(length);
+ for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+ pairs[i] = [keys[i], obj[keys[i]]];
+ }
+ return pairs;
+ };
+
+ // Invert the keys and values of an object. The values must be serializable.
+ _.invert = function(obj) {
+ var result = {};
+ var keys = _.keys(obj);
+ for (var i = 0, length = keys.length; i < length; i++) {
+ result[obj[keys[i]]] = keys[i];
+ }
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // Return a sorted list of the function names available on the object.
+ // Aliased as `methods`
+ _.functions = _.methods = function(obj) {
+ var names = [];
+ for (var key in obj) {
+ if (_.isFunction(obj[key])) names.push(key);
+ }
+ return names.sort();
+ };
+
+ // Extend a given object with all the properties in passed-in object(s).
+ _.extend = function(obj) {
+ each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
+ if (source) {
+ for (var prop in source) {
+ obj[prop] = source[prop];
+ }
+ }
+ });
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Return a copy of the object only containing the whitelisted properties.
+ _.pick = function(obj) {
+ var copy = {};
+ var keys = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ each(keys, function(key) {
+ if (key in obj) copy[key] = obj[key];
+ });
+ return copy;
+ };
+
+ // Return a copy of the object without the blacklisted properties.
+ _.omit = function(obj) {
+ var copy = {};
+ var keys = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ for (var key in obj) {
+ if (!_.contains(keys, key)) copy[key] = obj[key];
+ }
+ return copy;
+ };
+
+ // Fill in a given object with default properties.
+ _.defaults = function(obj) {
+ each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
+ if (source) {
+ for (var prop in source) {
+ if (obj[prop] === void 0) obj[prop] = source[prop];
+ }
+ }
+ });
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Create a (shallow-cloned) duplicate of an object.
+ _.clone = function(obj) {
+ if (!_.isObject(obj)) return obj;
+ return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.slice() : _.extend({}, obj);
+ };
+
+ // Invokes interceptor with the obj, and then returns obj.
+ // The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain, in
+ // order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.
+ _.tap = function(obj, interceptor) {
+ interceptor(obj);
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Internal recursive comparison function for `isEqual`.
+ var eq = function(a, b, aStack, bStack) {
+ // Identical objects are equal. `0 === -0`, but they aren't identical.
+ // See the [Harmony `egal` proposal](http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:egal).
+ if (a === b) return a !== 0 || 1 / a == 1 / b;
+ // A strict comparison is necessary because `null == undefined`.
+ if (a == null || b == null) return a === b;
+ // Unwrap any wrapped objects.
+ if (a instanceof _) a = a._wrapped;
+ if (b instanceof _) b = b._wrapped;
+ // Compare `[[Class]]` names.
+ var className = toString.call(a);
+ if (className != toString.call(b)) return false;
+ switch (className) {
+ // Strings, numbers, dates, and booleans are compared by value.
+ case '[object String]':
+ // Primitives and their corresponding object wrappers are equivalent; thus, `"5"` is
+ // equivalent to `new String("5")`.
+ return a == String(b);
+ case '[object Number]':
+ // `NaN`s are equivalent, but non-reflexive. An `egal` comparison is performed for
+ // other numeric values.
+ return a != +a ? b != +b : (a == 0 ? 1 / a == 1 / b : a == +b);
+ case '[object Date]':
+ case '[object Boolean]':
+ // Coerce dates and booleans to numeric primitive values. Dates are compared by their
+ // millisecond representations. Note that invalid dates with millisecond representations
+ // of `NaN` are not equivalent.
+ return +a == +b;
+ // RegExps are compared by their source patterns and flags.
+ case '[object RegExp]':
+ return a.source == b.source &&
+ a.global == b.global &&
+ a.multiline == b.multiline &&
+ a.ignoreCase == b.ignoreCase;
+ }
+ if (typeof a != 'object' || typeof b != 'object') return false;
+ // Assume equality for cyclic structures. The algorithm for detecting cyclic
+ // structures is adapted from ES 5.1 section 15.12.3, abstract operation `JO`.
+ var length = aStack.length;
+ while (length--) {
+ // Linear search. Performance is inversely proportional to the number of
+ // unique nested structures.
+ if (aStack[length] == a) return bStack[length] == b;
+ }
+ // Objects with different constructors are not equivalent, but `Object`s
+ // from different frames are.
+ var aCtor = a.constructor, bCtor = b.constructor;
+ if (aCtor !== bCtor && !(_.isFunction(aCtor) && (aCtor instanceof aCtor) &&
+ _.isFunction(bCtor) && (bCtor instanceof bCtor))) {
+ return false;
+ }
+ // Add the first object to the stack of traversed objects.
+ aStack.push(a);
+ bStack.push(b);
+ var size = 0, result = true;
+ // Recursively compare objects and arrays.
+ if (className == '[object Array]') {
+ // Compare array lengths to determine if a deep comparison is necessary.
+ size = a.length;
+ result = size == b.length;
+ if (result) {
+ // Deep compare the contents, ignoring non-numeric properties.
+ while (size--) {
+ if (!(result = eq(a[size], b[size], aStack, bStack))) break;
+ }
+ }
+ } else {
+ // Deep compare objects.
+ for (var key in a) {
+ if (_.has(a, key)) {
+ // Count the expected number of properties.
+ size++;
+ // Deep compare each member.
+ if (!(result = _.has(b, key) && eq(a[key], b[key], aStack, bStack))) break;
+ }
+ }
+ // Ensure that both objects contain the same number of properties.
+ if (result) {
+ for (key in b) {
+ if (_.has(b, key) && !(size--)) break;
+ }
+ result = !size;
+ }
+ }
+ // Remove the first object from the stack of traversed objects.
+ aStack.pop();
+ bStack.pop();
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // Perform a deep comparison to check if two objects are equal.
+ _.isEqual = function(a, b) {
+ return eq(a, b, [], []);
+ };
+
+ // Is a given array, string, or object empty?
+ // An "empty" object has no enumerable own-properties.
+ _.isEmpty = function(obj) {
+ if (obj == null) return true;
+ if (_.isArray(obj) || _.isString(obj)) return obj.length === 0;
+ for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) return false;
+ return true;
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a DOM element?
+ _.isElement = function(obj) {
+ return !!(obj && obj.nodeType === 1);
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value an array?
+ // Delegates to ECMA5's native Array.isArray
+ _.isArray = nativeIsArray || function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object Array]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given variable an object?
+ _.isObject = function(obj) {
+ return obj === Object(obj);
+ };
+
+ // Add some isType methods: isArguments, isFunction, isString, isNumber, isDate, isRegExp.
+ each(['Arguments', 'Function', 'String', 'Number', 'Date', 'RegExp'], function(name) {
+ _['is' + name] = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object ' + name + ']';
+ };
+ });
+
+ // Define a fallback version of the method in browsers (ahem, IE), where
+ // there isn't any inspectable "Arguments" type.
+ if (!_.isArguments(arguments)) {
+ _.isArguments = function(obj) {
+ return !!(obj && _.has(obj, 'callee'));
+ };
+ }
+
+ // Optimize `isFunction` if appropriate.
+ if (typeof (/./) !== 'function') {
+ _.isFunction = function(obj) {
+ return typeof obj === 'function';
+ };
+ }
+
+ // Is a given object a finite number?
+ _.isFinite = function(obj) {
+ return isFinite(obj) && !isNaN(parseFloat(obj));
+ };
+
+ // Is the given value `NaN`? (NaN is the only number which does not equal itself).
+ _.isNaN = function(obj) {
+ return _.isNumber(obj) && obj != +obj;
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a boolean?
+ _.isBoolean = function(obj) {
+ return obj === true || obj === false || toString.call(obj) == '[object Boolean]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value equal to null?
+ _.isNull = function(obj) {
+ return obj === null;
+ };
+
+ // Is a given variable undefined?
+ _.isUndefined = function(obj) {
+ return obj === void 0;
+ };
+
+ // Shortcut function for checking if an object has a given property directly
+ // on itself (in other words, not on a prototype).
+ _.has = function(obj, key) {
+ return hasOwnProperty.call(obj, key);
+ };
+
+ // Utility Functions
+ // -----------------
+
+ // Run Underscore.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `_` variable to its
+ // previous owner. Returns a reference to the Underscore object.
+ _.noConflict = function() {
+ root._ = previousUnderscore;
+ return this;
+ };
+
+ // Keep the identity function around for default iterators.
+ _.identity = function(value) {
+ return value;
+ };
+
+ // Run a function **n** times.
+ _.times = function(n, iterator, context) {
+ var accum = Array(Math.max(0, n));
+ for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) accum[i] = iterator.call(context, i);
+ return accum;
+ };
+
+ // Return a random integer between min and max (inclusive).
+ _.random = function(min, max) {
+ if (max == null) {
+ max = min;
+ min = 0;
+ }
+ return min + Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1));
+ };
+
+ // List of HTML entities for escaping.
+ var entityMap = {
+ escape: {
+ '&': '&amp;',
+ '<': '&lt;',
+ '>': '&gt;',
+ '"': '&quot;',
+ "'": '&#x27;'
+ }
+ };
+ entityMap.unescape = _.invert(entityMap.escape);
+
+ // Regexes containing the keys and values listed immediately above.
+ var entityRegexes = {
+ escape: new RegExp('[' + _.keys(entityMap.escape).join('') + ']', 'g'),
+ unescape: new RegExp('(' + _.keys(entityMap.unescape).join('|') + ')', 'g')
+ };
+
+ // Functions for escaping and unescaping strings to/from HTML interpolation.
+ _.each(['escape', 'unescape'], function(method) {
+ _[method] = function(string) {
+ if (string == null) return '';
+ return ('' + string).replace(entityRegexes[method], function(match) {
+ return entityMap[method][match];
+ });
+ };
+ });
+
+ // If the value of the named `property` is a function then invoke it with the
+ // `object` as context; otherwise, return it.
+ _.result = function(object, property) {
+ if (object == null) return void 0;
+ var value = object[property];
+ return _.isFunction(value) ? value.call(object) : value;
+ };
+
+ // Add your own custom functions to the Underscore object.
+ _.mixin = function(obj) {
+ each(_.functions(obj), function(name) {
+ var func = _[name] = obj[name];
+ _.prototype[name] = function() {
+ var args = [this._wrapped];
+ push.apply(args, arguments);
+ return result.call(this, func.apply(_, args));
+ };
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Generate a unique integer id (unique within the entire client session).
+ // Useful for temporary DOM ids.
+ var idCounter = 0;
+ _.uniqueId = function(prefix) {
+ var id = ++idCounter + '';
+ return prefix ? prefix + id : id;
+ };
+
+ // By default, Underscore uses ERB-style template delimiters, change the
+ // following template settings to use alternative delimiters.
+ _.templateSettings = {
+ evaluate : /<%([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
+ interpolate : /<%=([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
+ escape : /<%-([\s\S]+?)%>/g
+ };
+
+ // When customizing `templateSettings`, if you don't want to define an
+ // interpolation, evaluation or escaping regex, we need one that is
+ // guaranteed not to match.
+ var noMatch = /(.)^/;
+
+ // Certain characters need to be escaped so that they can be put into a
+ // string literal.
+ var escapes = {
+ "'": "'",
+ '\\': '\\',
+ '\r': 'r',
+ '\n': 'n',
+ '\t': 't',
+ '\u2028': 'u2028',
+ '\u2029': 'u2029'
+ };
+
+ var escaper = /\\|'|\r|\n|\t|\u2028|\u2029/g;
+
+ // JavaScript micro-templating, similar to John Resig's implementation.
+ // Underscore templating handles arbitrary delimiters, preserves whitespace,
+ // and correctly escapes quotes within interpolated code.
+ _.template = function(text, data, settings) {
+ var render;
+ settings = _.defaults({}, settings, _.templateSettings);
+
+ // Combine delimiters into one regular expression via alternation.
+ var matcher = new RegExp([
+ (settings.escape || noMatch).source,
+ (settings.interpolate || noMatch).source,
+ (settings.evaluate || noMatch).source
+ ].join('|') + '|$', 'g');
+
+ // Compile the template source, escaping string literals appropriately.
+ var index = 0;
+ var source = "__p+='";
+ text.replace(matcher, function(match, escape, interpolate, evaluate, offset) {
+ source += text.slice(index, offset)
+ .replace(escaper, function(match) { return '\\' + escapes[match]; });
+
+ if (escape) {
+ source += "'+\n((__t=(" + escape + "))==null?'':_.escape(__t))+\n'";
+ }
+ if (interpolate) {
+ source += "'+\n((__t=(" + interpolate + "))==null?'':__t)+\n'";
+ }
+ if (evaluate) {
+ source += "';\n" + evaluate + "\n__p+='";
+ }
+ index = offset + match.length;
+ return match;
+ });
+ source += "';\n";
+
+ // If a variable is not specified, place data values in local scope.
+ if (!settings.variable) source = 'with(obj||{}){\n' + source + '}\n';
+
+ source = "var __t,__p='',__j=Array.prototype.join," +
+ "print=function(){__p+=__j.call(arguments,'');};\n" +
+ source + "return __p;\n";
+
+ try {
+ render = new Function(settings.variable || 'obj', '_', source);
+ } catch (e) {
+ e.source = source;
+ throw e;
+ }
+
+ if (data) return render(data, _);
+ var template = function(data) {
+ return render.call(this, data, _);
+ };
+
+ // Provide the compiled function source as a convenience for precompilation.
+ template.source = 'function(' + (settings.variable || 'obj') + '){\n' + source + '}';
+
+ return template;
+ };
+
+ // Add a "chain" function, which will delegate to the wrapper.
+ _.chain = function(obj) {
+ return _(obj).chain();
+ };
+
+ // OOP
+ // ---------------
+ // If Underscore is called as a function, it returns a wrapped object that
+ // can be used OO-style. This wrapper holds altered versions of all the
+ // underscore functions. Wrapped objects may be chained.
+
+ // Helper function to continue chaining intermediate results.
+ var result = function(obj) {
+ return this._chain ? _(obj).chain() : obj;
+ };
+
+ // Add all of the Underscore functions to the wrapper object.
+ _.mixin(_);
+
+ // Add all mutator Array functions to the wrapper.
+ each(['pop', 'push', 'reverse', 'shift', 'sort', 'splice', 'unshift'], function(name) {
+ var method = ArrayProto[name];
+ _.prototype[name] = function() {
+ var obj = this._wrapped;
+ method.apply(obj, arguments);
+ if ((name == 'shift' || name == 'splice') && obj.length === 0) delete obj[0];
+ return result.call(this, obj);
+ };
+ });
+
+ // Add all accessor Array functions to the wrapper.
+ each(['concat', 'join', 'slice'], function(name) {
+ var method = ArrayProto[name];
+ _.prototype[name] = function() {
+ return result.call(this, method.apply(this._wrapped, arguments));
+ };
+ });
+
+ _.extend(_.prototype, {
+
+ // Start chaining a wrapped Underscore object.
+ chain: function() {
+ this._chain = true;
+ return this;
+ },
+
+ // Extracts the result from a wrapped and chained object.
+ value: function() {
+ return this._wrapped;
+ }
+
+ });
+
+}).call(this);
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