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Simple DataMapper ORM for PHP 5.3+

README.md

Spot PHP ORM

For RDBMS (Currently has a MySQL and Sqlite adapter)

Using Spot In Your Project

Spot is a standalone ORM that can be used in any project. Follow the instructions below to get Spot setup in your project, or use a pre-coded plugin for the framework you are using:

Silex provider by @psamatt

Connecting to a Database

The Spot\Config object stores and references database connections by name. Create a new instance of Spot\Config and add database connections with DSN strings so Spot can establish a database connection.

$cfg = new \Spot\Config();
// MySQL
$adapter = $cfg->addConnection('test_mysql', 'mysql://user:password@localhost/database_name');
// Sqlite
$adapter = $cfg->addConnection('test_sqlite', 'sqlite://path/to/database.sqlite');

If you are using Sqlite, the Sqlite filename must be the name of your database followed by the extension e.g blogs.sqlite

Accessing the Mapper

Since Spot follows the DataMapper design pattern, you will need a mapper instance for working with object Entities and database tables.

$mapper = new \Spot\Mapper($cfg);

Since you have to have access to your mapper anywhere you use the database, most people create a helper method to create a mapper instance once and then return the same instance when required again. Such a helper method might look something like this:

function get_mapper() {
    static $mapper;
    if($mapper === null) {
        $mapper = new \Spot\Mapper($cfg);
    }
    return $mapper;
}

Creating Entities

Entity classes can be named and namespaced however you want to set them up within your project structure. For the following examples, the Entities will just be prefixed with an Entity namespace for easy psr-0 compliant autoloading.

namespace Entity;

class Post extends \Spot\Entity
{
    protected static $_datasource = 'posts';

    public static function fields()
    {
        return array(
            'id' => array('type' => 'int', 'primary' => true, 'serial' => true),
            'title' => array('type' => 'string', 'required' => true),
            'body' => array('type' => 'text', 'required' => true),
            'status' => array('type' => 'int', 'default' => 0, 'index' => true),
            'date_created' => array('type' => 'datetime')
        );
    }

    public static function relations()
    {
        return array(
            // Each post entity 'hasMany' comment entites
            'comments' => array(
                'type' => 'HasMany',
                'entity' => 'Entity_Post_Comment',
                'where' => array('post_id' => ':entity.id'),
                'order' => array('date_created' => 'ASC')
            )
        );
    }
}

Built-in Field Types

All the basic field types are built-in with all the default functionality provided for you:

  • string
  • int
  • float/double/decimal
  • boolean
  • text
  • date
  • datetime
  • timestamp
  • year
  • month
  • day

Registering Custom Field Types

If you want to register your own custom field type with custom functionality on get/set, have a look at the clases in the Spot\Type namespace, make your own, and register it in Spot\Config:

$config->typeHandler('string', '\Spot\Type\String');

Migrations / Creating and Updating Tables

Spot comes with a method for running migrations on Entities that will automatically CREATE and ALTER tables based on the current Entity's fields definition.

$mapper->migrate('Post');

Your database should now have the posts table in it, with all the fields you described in your Post entity.

Finders (Mapper)

The main finders used most are all to return a collection of entities, and first or get to return a single entity matching the conditions.

all(entityName, [conditions])

Find all entityName that matches the given conditions and return a Spot\Entity\Collection of loaded Spot\Entity objects.

// Conditions can be the second argument
$posts = $mapper->all('Entity\Post', array('status' => 1));

// Or chained using the returned `Spot\Query` object - results identical to above
$posts = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')->where(array('status' => 1));

Since a Spot\Query object is returned, conditions and other statements can be chained in any way or order you want. The query will be lazy-executed on interation or count, or manually by ending the chain with a call to execute().

first(entityName, [conditions])

Find and return a single Spot\Entity object that matches the criteria.

$post = $mapper->first('Entity\Post', array('title' => "Test Post"));

Or first can be used on a previous query with all to fetch only the first matching record.

$post = $mapper->all('Entity\Post', array('title' => "Test Post"))->first();

Conditional Queries

# All posts with a 'published' status, descending by date_created
$posts = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')
    ->where(array('status' => 'published'))
    ->order(array('date_created' => 'DESC'));

# All posts created before today
$posts = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')
    ->where(array('date_created <' => new \DateTime()));

# Posts with 'id' of 1, 2, 5, 12, or 15 - Array value = automatic "IN" clause
$posts = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')
    ->where(array('id' => array(1, 2, 5, 12, 15)));

Searches

Spot supports search queries using LIKE, REGEX, and FULLTEXT searches (if your adapter supports it).

Query#search(text)

The search method on Spot\Query will use a LIKE search, or a FULLTEXT search if enabled. The wiki page on searching has more details about using FULLTEXT searches.

$q = "walrus"; // Text to search for
$results = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')
    ->search('body', $q)
    ->order(array('date_created' => 'DESC'));

LIKE searches

You can use the :like query operator to perform a LIKE search:

$results = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')
    ->where('body :like', 'walrus%')
    ->order(array('date_created' => 'DESC'));

REGEX searches

You can use the :regex or ~= query operator to perform a REGEX search:

$results = $mapper->all('Entity\Post')
    ->where('body ~=', 'walrus.+')
    ->order(array('date_created' => 'DESC'));

NOTE: Most REGEX searches are very slow, so use this sparingly.

Relations

Relations are convenient ways to access related, parent, and child entities from another loaded entity object. An example might be $post->comments to query for all the comments related to the current $post object.

Relation Types

Entity relation types are:

  • HasOne
  • HasMany
  • HasManyThrough

HasOne

HasOne is the simplest relation - an example might be Post has one Author.

class Entity\Post extends \Spot\Entity
{
    protected static $_datasource = 'posts';

    public static function fields()
    {
        return array(
            'id' => array('type' => 'int', 'primary' => true, 'serial' => true),
            'author_id' => array('type' => 'int', 'required' => true),
            'title' => array('type' => 'string', 'required' => true),
            'body' => array('type' => 'text', 'required' => true),
            'status' => array('type' => 'int', 'default' => 0, 'index' => true),
            'date_created' => array('type' => 'datetime')
        );
    }

    public static function relations()
    {
        return array(
            // Each post 'hasOne' author
            'author' => array(
                'type' => 'HasOne',
                'entity' => 'Entity\Author',
                'where' => array('id' => ':entity.author_id')
            )
        );
    }
}

HasMany

HasMany is used where a single record relates to multiple other records - an example might be Post has many Comments.

We start by adding a comments relation to our Post object:

class Entity\Post extends \Spot\Entity
{
    protected static $_datasource = 'posts';

    public static function fields()
    {
        return array(
            'id' => array('type' => 'int', 'primary' => true, 'serial' => true),
            'author_id' => array('type' => 'int', 'required' => true),
            'title' => array('type' => 'string', 'required' => true),
            'body' => array('type' => 'text', 'required' => true),
            'status' => array('type' => 'int', 'default' => 0, 'index' => true),
            'date_created' => array('type' => 'datetime')
        );
    }

    public static function relations()
    {
        return array(
            // Each post 'hasMany' comments
            'comments' => array(
                'type' => 'HasMany',
                'entity' => 'Entity\Post\Comment',
                'where' => array('post_id' => ':entity.id'),
                'order' => array('date_created' => 'ASC')
            )
        );
    }
}

And add a Entity\Post\Comment object with a 'hasOne' relation back to the post:

class Entity\Post\Comment extends \Spot\Entity
{
    // ... snip ...

    public static function relations() {
      return array(
          // Comment 'hasOne' post (belongs to a post)
          'post' => array(
              'type' => 'HasOne',
              'entity' => 'Entity\Post',
              'where' => array('id' => ':entity.post_id')
          )
      );
    }
}

HasManyThrough

HasManyThrough is used for many-to-many relationships. An good example is tagging. A post has many tags, and a tag has many posts. This relation is a bit more complex than the others, because a HasManyThrough requires a join table and model.

We need to add the tags relation to our Post entity, specifying query conditions for both sides of the relation.

class Entity\Post extends \Spot\Entity
{
    // ... snip ...

    public static function relations()
    {
        return array(
            // Each post 'hasMany' tags `Through` a post_tags table
            'tags' => array(
                'type' => 'HasManyThrough',
                'entity' => 'Entity_Tag',
                'throughEntity' => 'Entity_PostTag',
                'throughWhere' => array('post_id' => ':entity.id'),
                'where' => array('id' => ':throughEntity.tag_id'),
            )
        );
    }
}

Explanation

The result we want is a collection of Entity\Tag objects where the id equals the post_tags.tag_id column. We get this by going through the Entity\Post\Tags entity, using the current loaded post id matching post_tags.post_id.

Another scenario and more detailed explanation is on the HasManyThrough wiki page.

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