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1 parent dda8940 commit 3f56954d9625e89471b0553e84620c5ca67bb0ce Ming committed Dec 14, 2012
Showing with 267 additions and 140 deletions.
  1. +77 −1 doc/references.bib
  2. +2 −2 doc/report/eval.tex
  3. +14 −4 doc/report/intro.tex
  4. +49 −28 doc/report/main.aux
  5. +32 −32 doc/report/main.blg
  6. BIN doc/report/main.dvi
  7. +24 −34 doc/report/main.log
  8. +69 −39 doc/report/related.tex
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@@ -255,6 +255,50 @@ @inproceedings{kvworkload_sigmetrics
workload modeling},
}
+@MISC{flashcache,
+ TITLE = "{A Write Back Block Cache for Linux}",
+ NOTE = "\url{https://github.com/facebook/flashcache/}",
+ KEY = "Flashcache"
+}
+
+@MISC{bcache,
+ TITLE = "{A Linux kernel block layer cache}",
+ NOTE = "\url{http://bcache.evilpiepirate.org/}",
+ KEY = "bcache"
+}
+
+@inproceedings{eurosys_12_flashtier,
+ author = "M. Saxena and M. M. Swift and Y. Zhang",
+ title = "{FlashTier: a Lightweight, Consistent and Durable Storage
+ Cache}",
+ booktitle = "Proceedings of the 7th ACM European Conference on Computer
+ Systems",
+ series = {EuroSys '12},
+ year = 2012,
+ location = {Bern, Switzerland},
+ pages = {267--280}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{flashvm,
+ author = "M. Saxena and M. M. Swift",
+ title = {FlashVM: Revisiting the Virtual Memory Hierarchy},
+ BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Hot Topics in
+ Operating Systems",
+ year = 2009,
+}
+
+@INPROCEEDINGS{socc11chisl,
+ AUTHOR = "R. P. Spillane and P. J. Shetty and E. Zadok and S. Archak
+ and S. Dixit",
+ TITLE = "An Efficient Multi-Tier Tablet Server Storage
+ Architecture",
+ BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing
+ (SOCC'11)",
+ YEAR = "2011",
+ MONTH = "October",
+ ADDRESS = "Cascais, Portugal",
+}
+
@article{umbrellafs_gos,
author = {Garrison, John A. and Reddy, A. L. Narasimha},
title = {Umbrella file system: Storage management across heterogeneous
@@ -280,7 +324,8 @@ @article{umbrellafs_gos
@techreport{zhang2012multi,
title={Multi-level Hybrid Cache: Impact and Feasibility},
- author={Zhang, Z. and Kim, Y. and Ma, X. and Shipman, G. and Zhou, Y.}, year={2012},
+ author={Zhang, Z. and Kim, Y. and Ma, X. and Shipman, G. and Zhou, Y.},
+ year={2012},
institution={Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)}
}
@@ -419,3 +464,34 @@ @MISC{memcached
NOTE = "\url{http://memcached.org}",
KEY = "Memcached"
}
+
+@INPROCEEDINGS{sosp09fawn,
+ AUTHOR = "D. G. Andersen and J. Franklin and M. Kaminsky and
+ A. Phanishayee and L. Tan and V. Vasudevan",
+ TITLE = "{FAWN: A Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes}",
+ BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Symposium on Operating Systems
+ Principles (SOSP '2009)",
+ PUBLISHER = "ACM SIGOPS",
+ MONTH = "October",
+ YEAR = 2009,
+ PAGES = "1--14",
+}
+
+@article{vldb_flashup,
+ author = {Koltsidas, Ioannis and Viglas, Stratis D.},
+ title = {Flashing up the storage layer},
+ journal = {Proc. VLDB Endow.},
+ issue_date = {August 2008},
+ volume = {1},
+ number = {1},
+ month = aug,
+ year = {2008},
+ issn = {2150-8097},
+ pages = {514--525},
+ numpages = {12},
+ url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1453856.1453913},
+ doi = {10.1145/1453856.1453913},
+ acmid = {1453913},
+ publisher = {VLDB Endowment},
+}
+
View
@@ -391,8 +391,8 @@ \subsection{MRIS Read}
iostat. The results are shown in Figure~\ref{fig:mrisiostat}. We
observed that the throughput reported by iostat is much larger than
that in Figure~\ref{fig:mrisopssec}. Three factors contribute to the
-extra throughput: 1) the read-ahead in the file system, 2) extra read
-of file system metadata, and 3) extra read of database metadata.
+extra throughput: 1) the read-ahead in the filesystem, 2) extra read
+of filesystem metadata, and 3) extra read of database metadata.
However, it is interesting to notice that the data read from SSD for
the SSD setup is quite stable even when ratio varies dramatically.
This is something we need to further investigate.
View
@@ -29,10 +29,20 @@ \section{Introduction}
popular out-of-place update optimization, as in log-structured
filesystems, by turning small in-place updates to revision logs as
metadata and compacting them into large batched I/O to bottom tiers.
-We implemented a size-tiered object storage system optimized for
-multi-resolution images, named MRIS (Multi-Resolution Image Store).
-MRIS aims at storing large amount of images, as well as their metadata
-and smaller versions (such as thumbnails), efficiently.
+
+Since multimedia files are primarily accessed sequentially, it may not
+be necessary to provide for efficient random access to every large
+file \cite{evans2002study}. Facebook researchers also argued that it
+may even be worthwhile to investigate not caching large objects in the
+memory at all, to increase overall cache hit rates
+\cite{kvworkload_sigmetrics}. We implemented a size-tiered object
+storage system optimized for multi-resolution images, named MRIS
+(Multi-Resolution Image Store). MRIS aims at storing large amount of
+images, as well as their metadata and smaller versions (such as
+thumbnails), efficiently. However, the strageties emploied in MRIS can
+be applied to other storage and web-serving systems as well because
+there also exist salient size characteristics following power-law
+distributions~\cite{kvworkload_sigmetrics}.
%We plan to use KVDB, which can be aware of multi-tier storage
%techniques as indicated in Rick's SOCC11 paper (GTSSL), as the
View
@@ -1,16 +1,19 @@
\relax
+\citation{evans2002study}
+\citation{kvworkload_sigmetrics}
+\citation{kvworkload_sigmetrics}
\citation{leveldb-web}
\citation{chang06osdi}
\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1}Introduction}{1}}
\newlabel{intro}{{1}{1}}
\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {1}{\ignorespaces SSTable}}{1}}
\newlabel{fig:sstable}{{1}{1}}
-\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {2}{\ignorespaces LevelDB Compaction}}{1}}
-\newlabel{fig:compact}{{2}{1}}
+\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {section}{\numberline {2}Implementation}{1}}
+\newlabel{sec:implementation}{{2}{1}}
\citation{lsm}
\citation{level_lifetime}
-\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {section}{\numberline {2}Implementation}{2}}
-\newlabel{sec:implementation}{{2}{2}}
+\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {2}{\ignorespaces LevelDB Compaction}}{2}}
+\newlabel{fig:compact}{{2}{2}}
\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {3}{\ignorespaces Large Space}}{2}}
\newlabel{fig:space}{{3}{2}}
\citation{filebench-web}
@@ -42,48 +45,66 @@
\@writefile{lot}{\contentsline {table}{\numberline {2}{\ignorespaces Speedup of SSD and Hybrid over SATA (ops/sec).}}{5}}
\newlabel{tbl:speedup}{{2}{5}}
\newlabel{eqn:ssdops}{{1}{5}}
-\newlabel{eqn:sataops}{{2}{5}}
-\newlabel{eqn:hybridops}{{3}{5}}
-\citation{eurosys_hfs}
\@writefile{lot}{\contentsline {table}{\numberline {3}{\ignorespaces Costs of read operations in time ($\mu $s). For instance, $t_{SF}$ is the time of reading a Small image from the Flash SSD.}}{6}}
\newlabel{tbl:variable}{{3}{6}}
\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {10}{\ignorespaces Modeled and benchmarked performance (ops/sec).}}{6}}
\newlabel{fig:opspred}{{10}{6}}
+\newlabel{eqn:sataops}{{2}{6}}
+\newlabel{eqn:hybridops}{{3}{6}}
+\newlabel{eqn:opsize}{{4}{6}}
+\newlabel{eqn:hybridthput}{{5}{6}}
\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {11}{\ignorespaces MRIS Read Performance (mb/sec).}}{6}}
\newlabel{fig:mrismbsec}{{11}{6}}
-\newlabel{eqn:opsize}{{4}{6}}
\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {12}{\ignorespaces Predicted and benchmarked read performance (mb/sec).}}{6}}
\newlabel{fig:thputpred}{{12}{6}}
\@writefile{lot}{\contentsline {table}{\numberline {4}{\ignorespaces Speedup of SSD and Hybrid over SATA (mb/sec).}}{6}}
\newlabel{tbl:spdupmb}{{4}{6}}
-\newlabel{eqn:hybridthput}{{5}{6}}
+\citation{eurosys_hfs}
+\citation{conquest_tos}
+\citation{umbrellafs_gos}
\citation{tablefs}
-\citation{Seltzer09hfad}
-\citation{evans2002study}
-\citation{kvworkload_sigmetrics}
-\citation{kvworkload_sigmetrics}
+\citation{socc11chisl}
+\citation{vldb_flashup}
+\citation{sosp09fawn}
+\citation{zhang2012multi}
+\citation{flashvm}
+\citation{eurosys_12_flashtier}
+\citation{flashcache}
+\citation{bcache}
\citation{Forney2002fast}
\bibstyle{plain}
\bibdata{../references}
-\bibcite{kvworkload_sigmetrics}{1}
-\bibcite{beaver2010finding}{2}
-\bibcite{chang06osdi}{3}
-\bibcite{evans2002study}{4}
-\bibcite{filebench-web}{5}
-\bibcite{Forney2002fast}{6}
-\bibcite{leveldb-web}{7}
-\bibcite{memcached}{8}
-\bibcite{lsm}{9}
-\bibcite{tablefs}{10}
+\bibcite{sosp09fawn}{1}
+\bibcite{kvworkload_sigmetrics}{2}
+\bibcite{bcache}{3}
+\bibcite{beaver2010finding}{4}
+\bibcite{chang06osdi}{5}
+\bibcite{evans2002study}{6}
\@writefile{lof}{\contentsline {figure}{\numberline {13}{\ignorespaces MRIS Read Performance (mb/sec) by iostat}}{7}}
\newlabel{fig:mrisiostat}{{13}{7}}
\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {section}{\numberline {4}Related Work}{7}}
\newlabel{sec:related}{{4}{7}}
+\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {paragraph}{(1) Hybrid Filesystems.}{7}}
+\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {paragraph}{(2) Multi-tier Storage.}{7}}
+\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {paragraph}{(3) Multi-level Caching.}{7}}
\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {section}{\numberline {5}Conclusions}{7}}
\newlabel{sec:conc}{{5}{7}}
\@writefile{toc}{\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.1}Future work}{7}}
-\bibcite{Seltzer09hfad}{11}
-\bibcite{level_lifetime}{12}
-\bibcite{wikimedia-foundation}{13}
-\bibcite{wikipedia-web}{14}
-\bibcite{eurosys_hfs}{15}
+\bibcite{filebench-web}{7}
+\bibcite{flashcache}{8}
+\bibcite{Forney2002fast}{9}
+\bibcite{umbrellafs_gos}{10}
+\bibcite{vldb_flashup}{11}
+\bibcite{leveldb-web}{12}
+\bibcite{memcached}{13}
+\bibcite{lsm}{14}
+\bibcite{tablefs}{15}
+\bibcite{flashvm}{16}
+\bibcite{eurosys_12_flashtier}{17}
+\bibcite{level_lifetime}{18}
+\bibcite{socc11chisl}{19}
+\bibcite{conquest_tos}{20}
+\bibcite{wikimedia-foundation}{21}
+\bibcite{wikipedia-web}{22}
+\bibcite{zhang2012multi}{23}
+\bibcite{eurosys_hfs}{24}
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The top-level auxiliary file: main.aux
The style file: plain.bst
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