Create consistent snapshots of all EBS volumes on an Amazon EC2 instance with minimal configuration
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README.md

EC2-snapshot - create snapshots from all mounted EBS volumes

EC2-snapshot is gem that allows you to easily create snapshots for mounted EBS volumes on an EC2 instance.

The idea originated from the wish of automating snapshot creation for EC2 instances and making it easy to integrate it into Chef.

EC2-snapshot was written with the idea of it running only on the EC2 instance for which snapshots need to be created. Because we wanted to use it with Chef, we needed to keep configuration to a minimum. There is no need to provide an instance id or volume ids, as that will already be retrieved on the instance itself. The only necessities are the AWS credentials, region and an option to set which types of volumes need to be snapshotted.

Therefore, the current implementation doesn't support the case of using a snapshotting server that creates snapshots for all volumes. It is meant to run on all servers that require snapshots to be created of its volumes.

Features

  • No need to specify instance id and volume ids while using the gem
  • Recognizes XFS filesystems, and looks up mount points automatically
  • Freezes XFS filesystems while creating the snapshot, resulting in a consistent snapshot
  • Easy integration within Chef, requiring a very simple recipe that only requires (globally defined) AWS credentials and a region
  • Easy integration within your own scripts with either the executable or by instantiating the Ec2Snapshot::Instance class yourself
  • Custom actions that need to be executed before and/or after the snapshot is created can be easily configured

Requirements

There are some requirements for using this gem:

  • The gem only works on Linux, as it has dependencies on files such as /etc/hostname and /proc/mounts
  • wget needs to be installed. This is required to automatically retrieve the current instance id
  • xfs_freeze (included in xfsprogs package) needs to be installed in order to be able to freeze a XFS filesystem to get a consistent snapshot

Getting started

Installing the Gem is pretty straightforward:

gem install ec2-snapshot

Note that /etc/hostname is used to get the name of the current instance. Also /proc/mounts is used to retrieve information on the filesystems to be snapshotted.

Using the executable

An executable has been provided to easily use the gem within your own scripts.

The executable requires a few mandatory details to be able to use your AWS account. These are:

  • AWS Access Key: The access key defaults to ENV["AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID"]. If the environment variable is not set the value should be provided as an option while using the executable, ie. --aws-access-key KEY
  • AWS Secret Access Key: The secret access key defaults to ENV["AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY"]. If the environment variable is not set the value should be provided as an option while using the executable, ie. --aws-secret-access-key KEY
  • AWS Region: The region on which the volumes have been created. Needs to be provided as an option, ie. --aws-region eu-west-1

The gem makes a distinction between root volumes and data volumes. The root volume is the volume on which the OS is installed, while the data volumes are other volumes mounted on the same instance that could for example be used to store application specific data.

By default, EC2-snapshot will attempt to create snapshots of all volumes mounted on the current instance. In case you only need snapshots of the data volumes, which could be a valid case when using Chef, you can easily specify that by using the --volume-type option:

ec2-snapshot --aws-access-key ACCESS_KEY --aws-secret-access-key KEY --aws-region us-west-1 --volume-type data

For a complete list of supported options, please execute

ec2-snapshot -h

Take note that xfs_freeze requires the process to run with root privileges (sudo), otherwise the XFS filesystem cannot be frozen.

Security

The most secure way of using EC2-snapshot is to create a new user with AWS IAM and allow that user to only execute a specific set of actions.

The following actions are required:

  • ec2:CreateSnapshot
  • ec2:CreateTags
  • ec2:DeleteSnapshot
  • ec2:DescribeInstances
  • ec2:DescribeSnapshots

By restricting the user to only these actions, you can make sure that the access keys required for EC2-instance cannot be misused to manipulate the instances themselves.

Inspiration

EC2-snapshot was inspired by ec2-consistent-snapshot and its Ruby port ec2-consistent-snapshot-rb.

About EC2-snapshot

EC2-snapshot was created by Mattijs van Druenen (m.vandruenen at voormedia.com)

Copyright 2011 Voormedia - www.voormedia.com

License

EC2-snapshot is released under the MIT license.