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<pre class='metadata'>
Title: CSS Snapshot 2018
Shortname: css-2018
Level: 0
Status: WG-NOTE
Group: CSSWG
Work Status: revising
URL: https://drafts.csswg.org/css-2018/
TR: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS/
Previous Version: https://www.w3.org/TR/2018/NOTE-css-2018-20181115/
Editor: Tab Atkins Jr., Google, http://xanthir.com/, w3cid 42199
Editor: Elika J. Etemad / fantasai, Invited Expert, http://fantasai.inkedblade.net/contact, w3cid 35400
Editor: Florian Rivoal, Invited Expert, https://florian.rivoal.net, w3cid 43241
Abstract: This document collects together into one definition all the specs that
together form the current state of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) as of 2018.
The primary audience is CSS implementers, not CSS authors, as this definition
includes modules by specification stability, not Web browser adoption rate.
Boilerplate: index no
</pre>
<pre class=link-defaults>
spec:css-sizing-3; type:value; for:width; text:min-content
spec:css-sizing-3; type:value; for:width; text:max-content
spec:css-sizing-3; type:value; for:width; text:fit-content
spec:css-ui-3; type:property; text:cursor
spec:css-ui-3; type:property; text:outline
</pre>
<div boilerplate=status>
This document represents the state of CSS as of 2018.
The CSS Working Group does not expect any further changes to this document:
new snapshots will be published at <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS/">https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS/</a> as CSS advances.
</div>
Introduction {#intro}
=====================
When the first CSS specification was published,
all of CSS was contained in one document that defined CSS Level 1.
CSS Level 2 was defined also by a single, multi-chapter document.
However for CSS beyond Level 2,
the CSS Working Group chose to adopt a modular approach,
where each module defines a part of CSS,
rather than to define a single monolithic specification.
This breaks the specification into more manageable chunks
and allows more immediate, incremental improvement to CSS.
Since different CSS modules are at different levels of stability,
the CSS Working Group has chosen to publish this profile
to define the current scope and state of Cascading Style Sheets as of mid 2018.
This profile includes only specifications that we consider stable
<em>and</em> for which we have enough implementation experience that we are sure of that stability.
Note: This is not intended to be a CSS Desktop Browser Profile:
inclusion in this profile is based on feature stability only
and not on expected use or Web browser adoption.
This profile defines CSS in its most complete form.
Note: Although we don't anticipate significant changes to the specifications that form this snapshot,
their inclusion does not mean they are frozen.
The Working Group will continue to address problems as they are found in these specs.
Implementers should monitor <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-style/">www-style</a>
and/or the <a href="http://www.w3.org/blog/CSS">CSS Working Group Blog</a>
for any resulting changes, corrections, or clarifications.
<h3 id="w3c-process">
Background: The W3C Process and CSS</h3>
<em>This section is non-normative.</em>
In the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">W3C Process</a>,
a Recommendation-track document passes through three levels of stability,
summarized below:
<dl>
<dt>Working Draft (WD)
<dd>
This is the design phase of a W3C spec.
The WG iterates the spec in response to internal and external feedback.
The first official Working Draft is designated the “First Public Working Draft” (FPWD).
In the CSSWG, publishing FPWD indicates that the Working Group as a whole has agreed to work on the module,
roughly as scoped out and proposed in the editor's draft.
The transition to the next stage is sometimes called “Last Call Working Draft” (LCWD) phase.
The CSSWG transitions Working Drafts once we have resolved all known issues,
and can make no further progress without feedback from building tests and implementations.
This “Last Call for Comments” sets a deadline for reporting any outstanding issues,
and requires the WG to specially track and address incoming feedback.
The comment-tracking document is the Disposition of Comments (DoC).
It is submitted along with an updated draft for the Director's approval,
to demonstrate wide review and acceptance.
<dt>Candidate Recommendation (CR)
<dd>
This is the testing phase of a W3C spec.
Notably, this phase is about using tests and implementations to test the specification:
it is not about testing the implementations.
This process often reveals more problems with the spec,
and so a Candidate Recommendation will morph over time in response to implementation and testing feedback,
though usually less so than during the design phase (WD).
Demonstration of two correct, independent implementations of each feature is required to exit CR,
so in this phase the WG builds a test suite and generates implementation reports.
The transition to the next stage is “Proposed Recommendation” (PR).
During this phase the W3C Advisory Committee must approve the transition to REC.
<dt>Recommendation (REC)
<dd>
This is the completed state of a W3C spec and represents a maintenance phase.
At this point the WG only maintains an errata document
and occasionally publishes an updated edition that incorporates the errata back into the spec.
</dl>
An <dfn export>Editor's Draft</dfn> is effectively a live copy of the editors’ own working copy.
It may or may not reflect Working Group consensus,
and can at times be in a self-inconsistent state.
(Because the publishing process at W3C is time-consuming and onerous,
the <a>Editor's Draft</a> is usually the best (most up-to-date) reference for a spec.
Efforts are currently underway to reduce the friction of publishing,
so that official drafts will be regularly up-to-date
and <a>Editor's Drafts</a> can return to their original function as scratch space.)
<h2 id="css">Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) &mdash; The Official Definition</h2>
As of 2018,
<dfn export>Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)</dfn> is defined by the following
specifications.
<dl>
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/">CSS Level 2, latest revision</a> (including errata)
[[!CSS2]]
<dd>
This defines the core of CSS, parts of which are overridden by later specifications.
We recommend in particular reading <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/intro.html">Chapter 2</a>,
which introduces some of the basic concepts of CSS
and its design principles.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-syntax-3/">CSS Syntax Level 3</a>
[[!CSS-SYNTAX-3]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;4.1, CSS2&sect;4.2, CSS2&sect;4.4, and CSS2&sect;G,
defining how CSS is parsed.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-style-attr/">CSS Style Attributes</a>
[[!CSS-STYLE-ATTR]]
<dd>
Defines how CSS declarations can be embedded in markup attributes.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/">Media Queries Level 3</a>
[[!CSS3-MEDIAQUERIES]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;7.3 and expands on the syntax for media-specific styles.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-conditional/">CSS Conditional Rules Level 3</a>
[[!CSS3-CONDITIONAL]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;7.2, updating the definition of ''@media'' rules to allow nesting,
and introduces ''@supports'' rules for feature-support queries.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-namespace/">CSS Namespaces</a>
[[!CSS3-NAMESPACE]]
<dd>
Introduces an ''@namespace'' rule to allow namespace-prefixed selectors.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-selectors/">Selectors Level 3</a>
[[!SELECT]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;5 and CSS2&sect;6.4.3, defining an extended range of selectors.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-cascade/">CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 3</a>
[[!CSS-CASCADE-3]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;1.4.3 and CSS2&sect;6
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/">CSS Values and Units Level 3</a>
[[!CSS-VALUES-3]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;1.4.2.1, CSS2&sect;4.3, and CSS2&sect;A.2.1&ndash;3,
defining CSS's property definition syntax
and expanding its set of units.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-color/">CSS Color Level 3</a>
[[!CSS3-COLOR]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;4.3.6, CSS2&sect;14.1, and CSS2&sect;18.2,
defining an extended range of color values.
Also introduces the 'opacity' property.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-background/">CSS Backgrounds and Borders Level 3</a>
[[!CSS3-BACKGROUND]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;8.5 and CSS2&sect;14.2,
providing more control of backgrounds and borders,
including layered background images,
image borders,
and drop shadows.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-images/">CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Level 3</a>
[[!CSS3-IMAGES]]
<dd>
Provides a new foundation text for the sizing of replaced elements (such as images),
adds additional controls to their sizing and orientation,
and introduces syntax for gradients as images in CSS.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-fonts-3/">CSS Fonts Level 3</a>
[[!CSS-FONTS-3]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;15
and provides more control over font choice and feature selection.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-multicol/">CSS Multi-column Layout Level 1</a>
[[!CSS3-MULTICOL]]
<dd>
Introduces multi-column flows to CSS layout.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-ui/">CSS User Interface Module Level 3</a>
[[!CSS-UI-3]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;18.1 and CSS2&sect;18.4,
defining 'cursor', 'outline', and several new CSS features that also enhance the user interface.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/compositing-1/">CSS Compositing and Blending Level 1</a>
[[!COMPOSITING]]
<dd>
Defines the compositing and blending of overlaid content
and introduces features to control their modes.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-3/">CSS Writing Modes Level 3</a>
[[!CSS-WRITING-MODES-3]]
<dd>
Defines CSS support for various international writing modes,
such as left-to-right (e.g. Latin or Indic),
right-to-left (e.g. Hebrew or Arabic),
bidirectional (e.g. mixed Latin and Arabic) and vertical (e.g. Asian scripts).
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-flexbox-1/">CSS Flexible Box Module Level 1</a>
[[!CSS-FLEXBOX-1]]
<dd>
Introduces a flexible linear layout model for CSS.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-variables-1/">CSS Custom Properties for Cascading Variables Module Level 1</a>
[[!CSS-VARIABLES-1]]
<dd>
Introduces cascading variables as a new primitive value type that is accepted by all CSS properties,
and custom properties for defining them.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transforms/">CSS Transforms Level 1</a>
[[CSS3-TRANSFORMS]]
<dd>
Introduces graphical transformations to CSS.
</dl>
<div class="note">
The following modules are widely deployed with <a>rough interoperability</a>,
but the details are not fully worked out
and they need more testing and bugfixing.
<dl>
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/">CSS Transitions Level 1</a>
[[CSS3-TRANSITIONS]]
and <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-animations/">CSS Animations Level 1</a>
[[CSS3-ANIMATIONS]],
together with [[CSS-EASING-1]].
<dd>
Define mechanisms for transitioning the computed values of CSS properties over time.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-grid-1/">CSS Grid Layout Module Level 1</a>
[[!CSS-GRID-1]]
<dd>
Defines a two-dimensional grid-based layout system,
optimized for user interface design.
In the grid layout model, the children of a grid container
can be positioned into arbitrary slots in a predefined flexible or fixed-size layout grid.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/">CSS Text Module Level 3</a>
[[CSS-TEXT-3]]
<dd>
Defines properties for text manipulation and specifies their processing model.
It covers line breaking, justification and alignment, white space handling, and text transformation.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-will-change-1/">CSS Will Change Level 1</a>
[[CSS-WILL-CHANGE-1]]
<dd>
Introduces a performance hint property called 'will-change'.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/filter-effects-1/">Filter Effects Module Level 1</a>
[[FILTER-EFFECTS-1]]
<dd>
Filter effects are a way of processing an element’s rendering before it is displayed in the document.
</dl>
</div>
<div class="note">
The following modules have completed design work,
and are fairly stable,
but have not received much testing and implementation experience yet:
<dl>
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-counter-styles-3/">CSS Counter Styles Level 3</a>
[[CSS-COUNTER-STYLES-3]]
<dd>
Expands the possible values of <<counter-style>>
and provides an ''@counter-style'' syntax for customized counter styles.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-masking-1/">CSS Masking Level 1</a>
[[CSS-MASKING-1]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;11.1.2
and introduces more powerful ways of clipping and masking content.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-shapes-1/">CSS Shapes Module Level 1</a>
[[CSS-SHAPES-1]]
<dd>
Extends floats to effect non-rectangular wrapping shapes.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-decor-3/">CSS Text Decoration Level 3</a>
[[CSS-TEXT-DECOR-3]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;16.3,
providing more control over text decoration lines
and adding the ability to specify text emphasis marks
and text shadows.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-speech/">CSS Speech Module Level 1</a>
[[CSS3-SPEECH]]
<dd>
Replaces CSS2&sect;A,
overhauling the (non-normative) speech rendering chapter.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-align-3/">CSS Box Alignment Module Level 3</a>
[[CSS-ALIGN-3]]
<dd>
Contains the features of CSS relating to the alignment of boxes
within their containers in the various CSS box layout models:
block layout, table layout, flex layout, and grid layout.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-break-3/">CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3</a>
[[CSS-BREAK-3]]
<dd>
Describes the fragmentation model that partitions a flow into pages, columns, or regions.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-contain-1/">CSS Containment Module Level 1</a>
[[CSS-CONTAIN-1]]
<dd>
Describes the 'contain' property,
which indicates that the element’s subtree is independent of the rest of the page.
This enables heavy optimizations by user agents when used well.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-scroll-snap-1/">CSS Scroll Snap Module Level 1</a>
[[CSS-SCROLL-SNAP-1]]
<dd>
Contains features to control panning and scrolling behavior with “snap positions”.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/mediaqueries-4/">Media Queries Level 4</a>
[[MEDIAQUERIES-4]]
<dd>
Extends and supersedes [[CSS3-MEDIAQUERIES]], expanding the syntax, deprecating most media types,
and introducing new media features.
<dt><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/">CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 4</a>
[[CSS-CASCADE-4]]
<dd>
Extends and supersedes [[CSS-CASCADE-3]],
describing how to collate style rules and assign values to all properties on all elements.
By way of cascading and inheritance, values are propagated for all properties on all elements.
</dl>
We hope to incorporate them into a future snapshot.
</div>
Advisement:
A list of all CSS modules, stable and in-progress,
and their statuses
can be found at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/current-work">CSS Current Work page</a>.
<h3 id="css-levels">
CSS Levels</h3>
Cascading Style Sheets does not have versions in the traditional sense;
instead it has <dfn export>levels</dfn>. Each level of CSS builds on the previous,
refining definitions and adding features. The feature set of each higher
level is a superset of any lower level, and the behavior allowed for a given
feature in a higher level is a subset of that allowed in the lower levels.
A user agent conforming to a higher level of CSS is thus also conformant to
all lower levels.
<dl>
<dt><dfn export>CSS Level 1</dfn>
<dd>
The CSS Working Group considers the
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-CSS1-20080411/">CSS1 specification</a> to be
obsolete. <a>CSS Level 1</a> is defined as all the features defined
in the CSS1 specification (properties, values, at-rules, etc), but using
the syntax and definitions in the
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/">CSS2.1 specification</a>.
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-style-attr/">CSS Style Attributes</a>
defines its inclusion in element-specific style attributes.
<dt><dfn export>CSS Level 2</dfn>
<dd>
Although the <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-CSS2-20080411/">CSS2 specification</a>
is technically a W3C Recommendation, it passed into the Recommendation stage
before the W3C had defined the Candidate Recommendation stage. Over time
implementation experience and further review has brought to light many problems
in the CSS2 specification, so instead of expanding an already <a
href="http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html">unwieldy
errata list</a>, the CSS Working Group chose to define <cite>CSS Level 2
Revision 1</cite> (CSS2.1). In case of any conflict between the two specs
CSS2.1 contains the definitive definition.
Once CSS2.1 became Candidate Recommendation&#8212;effectively though not
officially the same level of stability as CSS2&#8212;obsoleted the CSS2
Recommendation. Features in CSS2 that were dropped from CSS2.1 should be
considered to be at the Candidate Recommendation stage, but note that many
of these have been or will be pulled into a CSS Level 3 working draft, in
which case that specification will, once it reaches CR, obsolete the
definitions in CSS2.
The <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/">CSS2.1 specification</a> defines
<a>CSS Level 2</a> and the <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-style-attr/">CSS
Style Attributes specification</a> defines its inclusion in
element-specific style attributes.
<dt><dfn export>CSS Level 3</dfn>
<dd>
<a>CSS Level 3</a> builds on CSS Level 2 module by module, using the CSS2.1
specification as its core. Each module adds functionality and/or
replaces part of the CSS2.1 specification. The CSS Working Group
intends that the new CSS modules will not contradict the CSS2.1
specification: only that they will add functionality and refine
definitions. As each module is completed, it will be plugged in to
the existing system of CSS2.1 plus previously-completed modules.
From this level on modules are levelled independently: for example
Selectors Level 4 may well be completed before CSS Line Module Level 3.
Modules with no <a>CSS Level 2</a> equivalent start at Level 1;
modules that update features that existed in <a>CSS Level 2</a> start at Level 3.
<dt><dfn export>CSS Level 4</dfn> and beyond
<dd>
There is no CSS Level 4.
Independent modules can reach level 4 or beyond,
but CSS the language no longer has levels.
("CSS Level 3" as a term is used only to differentiate it from the previous monolithic versions.)
</dl>
<h3 id="profiles">
CSS Profiles</h3>
Not all implementations will implement all functionality defined in CSS.
In the past, the Working Group published a few Profiles,
which were meant to define the minimal subset of CSS
that various classes of User Agents were expected to support.
This effort has been discontinued,
as the Working Group was not finding it effective or useful,
and the profiles previously defined are now unmaintained.
Note: Partial implementations of CSS, even if that subset is an official profile,
must follow the forward-compatible parsing rules for <a href="#partial">partial implementations</a>.
<h2 id="responsible">
Requirements for Responsible Implementation of CSS</h2>
The following sections define several conformance requirements
for implementing CSS responsibly,
in a way that promotes interoperability in the present and future.
<h3 id="partial">Partial Implementations</h3>
So that authors can exploit the forward-compatible parsing rules to assign fallback values,
<strong>CSS renderers <em>must</em> treat as invalid
(and <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/conform.html#ignore">ignore as appropriate</a>)
any at-rules, properties, property values, keywords, and other syntactic constructs
for which they have no usable level of support</strong>.
In particular, user agents <em>must not</em> selectively ignore
unsupported property values and honor supported values in a single multi-value property declaration:
if any value is considered invalid (as unsupported values must be),
CSS requires that the entire declaration be ignored.
<h3 id="future-proofing">Implementations of Unstable and Proprietary Features</h3>
To avoid clashes with future stable CSS features,
the CSSWG recommends the following best practices for the implementation of
<a>unstable</a> features and <a>proprietary extensions</a> to CSS:
<h4 id="experimental">
Experimentation and Unstable Features</h4>
Implementations of <a>unstable</a> features
that are described in W3C specifications
but are not interoperable
should not be released broadly for general use;
but may be released for limited, experimental use in controlled environments.
<details class=why>
<summary>Why?</summary>
We want to allow both authors and implementors to experiment with the feature and give feedback,
but prevent authors from relying on them in production websites
and thereby accidentally "locking in" (through content dependence)
certain syntax or behavior that might change later.
</details>
<div class="example">
For example,
a UA could release an <a>unstable</a> features for experimentation
through beta or other testing-stage builds;
behind a hidden configuration flag;
behind a switch enabled only for specific testing partners;
or through some other means of limiting dependent use.
</div>
A CSS feature is considered <dfn>unstable</dfn> until
its specification has reached the Candidate Recommendation (CR) stage in the W3C process.
In exceptional cases,
the CSSWG may additionally, by an officially-recorded resolution,
add pre-CR features to the set that are considered safe to release for broad use.
See [[#CR-exceptions]].
Note: Vendors should consult the WG explicitly and not make assumptions on this point,
as a pre-CR spec that hasn't changed in awhile is usually more out-of-date than stable.
<h4 id="proprietary">
Proprietary and Non-standardized Features</h4>
To avoid clashes with future CSS features,
the CSS2.1 specification reserves a
<dfn export lt="vendor prefix | vendor-prefixed | prefixed | unprefixed"><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/syndata.html#vendor-keywords">prefixed syntax</a></dfn> [[!CSS2]]
for proprietary and experimental extensions to CSS.
A CSS feature is a <dfn>proprietary extension</dfn> if it is meant for use
in a closed environment accessible only to a single vendor's user agent(s).
A UA should support such <a>proprietary extensions</a>
only through a vendor-<a>prefixed</a> syntax
and not expose them to open (multi-UA) environments such as the World Wide Web.
<details class=why>
<summary>Why?</summary>
The prefixing requirement allows shipping specialized features in closed environments
without conflicting with future additions to standard CSS.
The restriction on exposure to open systems is to prevent
accidentally causing the public CSS environment
to depend on an unstandardized <a>proprietary extensions</a>.
</details>
<div class="example">
For example,
Firefox's XUL-based UI, Apple's iTunes UI, and Microsoft's Universal Windows Platform app
use extensions to CSS implemented by their respective UAs.
So long as these UAs do not allow Web content to access these features,
they do not provide an opportunity for such content
to become dependent on their <a>proprietary extensions</a>.
</div>
Even if a feature is intended to eventually be used in the Web,
if it hasn't yet been standardized
it should still not be exposed to the Web.
<h4 id="de-facto">
Market Pressure and De Facto Standards</h4>
If a feature is <a>unstable</a> (i.e. the spec has not stabilized yet), yet
* at least three UAs implement the feature
(<em>or</em> a UA has broken the other rules and shipped for broad use
an <a>unstable</a> or otherwise non-standard feature in a production release),
* <em>and</em> the implementations have rough interoperability,
* <em>and</em> the CSS Working Group has recorded consensus
that this feature should exist and be released,
implementers may ship that feature <a>unprefixed</a> in broad-release builds.
<dfn>Rough interoperability</dfn> is satisfied by a subjective judgment
that even though there may be differences,
the implementations are sufficiently similar
to be used in production websites for a substantial number of use cases.
<p class="note">Note that the CSSWG must still be consulted to ensure coordination across vendors
and to ensure sanity review by the CSS experts from each vendor.
Note also that <a>rough interoperability</a> still usually means
painful lack of interop in edge (or not-so-edge) cases,
particularly because details have not been ironed out through the standards review process.
<details class=why>
<summary>Why?</summary>
If a feature is sufficiently popular that three or more browsers have implemented it before it's finished standardization,
this clause allows releasing the pressure to ship.
Also, if a feature has already escaped into the wild and sites have started depending on it,
pretending it's still “experimental” doesn't help anyone.
Allowing others to ship unprefixed recognizes that the feature is now de facto standardized
and encourages authors to write cross-platform code.
</details>
<h5 id="unstable-syntax" class="no-toc">
Vendor-prefixing Unstable Features</h5>
<p>When exposing such a standards-track <a>unstable</a> feature to the Web in a production release,
implementations should support <em>both</em> <a>vendor-prefixed</a> and unprefixed syntaxes
for the feature.
Once the feature has stabilized and the implementation is updated to match interoperable behavior,
support for the <a>vendor-prefixed</a> syntax should be removed.
<details class=why>
<summary>Why?</summary>
This is recommended so that authors can use the unprefixed syntax to target all implementations,
but when necessary, can target specific implementations
to work around incompatibilities among implementations
as they get ironed out through the standards/bugfixing process.
The lack of a phase
where only the prefixed syntax is supported
greatly reduces the risk of stylesheets
being written with only the vendor-prefixed syntax.
This in turn allows UA vendors to retire
their prefixed syntax once the feature is stable,
with a lower risk of breaking existing content.
It also reduces the need occasionally felt by by some vendors
to support a feature with the prefix of another vendor,
due to content depending on that syntax.
</details>
Anyone promoting <a>unstable</a> features to authors
should document them using their standard unprefixed syntax,
and avoid encouraging the use of the <a>vendor-prefixed</a> syntax
for any purpose other than working around implementation differences.
<h5 id="open-technology" class="no-toc">
Preserving the Openness of CSS</h5>
In order to preserve the open nature of CSS as a technology,
vendors should make it possible for other implementors
to freely implement any features that they do ship.
To this end, they should provide spec-editing and testing resources
to complete standardization of such features,
and avoid other obstacles (e.g., platform dependency, licensing restrictions)
to their competitors shipping the feature.
<h3 id="testing">Implementations of CR-level Features</h3>
Once a specification reaches the Candidate Recommendation stage,
implementers should release an <a>unprefixed</a> implementation
of any CR-level feature they can demonstrate
to be correctly implemented according to spec,
and should avoid exposing a prefixed variant of that feature.
To establish and maintain the interoperability of CSS across
implementations, the CSS Working Group requests that non-experimental
CSS renderers submit an implementation report (and, if necessary, the
testcases used for that implementation report) to the W3C before
releasing an unprefixed implementation of any CSS features. Testcases
submitted to W3C are subject to review and correction by the CSS
Working Group.
Further information on submitting testcases and implementation reports
can be found from on the CSS Working Group's website at
<a href="http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/Test/">http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/Test/</a>.
Questions should be directed to the
<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-css-testsuite">public-css-testsuite@w3.org</a>
mailing list.
<h2 id="CR-exceptions">
Safe to Release pre-CR Exceptions</h2>
The following features have been explicitly and proactively cleared
by the CSS Working Group for broad release
prior to the spec reaching Candidate Recommendation:
<ul>
<li>The flow-relative equivalents of
the sizing properties ('width', 'height', etc.),
the border properties,
the margin and padding properties.
See <a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-style/2015Jul/0040.html">explanation</a>
and <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-logical-1/">specification</a>.
<li>The ''min-content'' and ''max-content'' keywords of the sizing properties.
See <a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-style/2015Aug/0109.html">decision</a>
and <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#sizing-values">specification</a>.
<li>The ''conic-gradient()'' gradient notation. See <a href="https://github.com/w3c/csswg-drafts/issues/2383#issuecomment-371340088">decision</a>.
</ul>
The following features have been explicitly and retroactively cleared
by the CSS Working Group for broad release
prior to the spec reaching Candidate Recommendation:
<ul>
<li>Everything in
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-animations-1/">CSS Animations Level 1</a>,
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-transitions-1/">CSS Transitions Level 1</a>,
and
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-transforms-1/">CSS Transforms Level 1</a>.
<li>The '':dir()'', '':lang()'', and '':focus-within'' pseudo-classes from [[SELECTORS-4]].
</ul>
<h2 id="indices">Indices</h2>
<em>These sections are non-normative.</em>
<h3 id="terms">Terms Index</h3>
<index type="dfn" status="TR" spec="
css2,
css-syntax-3,
css-style-attr-1,
mediaqueries-3,
mediaqueries-4,
css-conditional-3,
css-namespaces-3,
selectors-3,
css-cascade-3,
css-cascade-4,
css-values-3,
css-color-3,
css-backgrounds-3,
css-images-3,
css-fonts-3,
css-multicol-1,
css-ui-3,
compositing-1,
css-writing-modes-3,
css-transitions-1,
css-animations-1,
css-easing-1,
css-flexbox-1,
css-transforms-1,
css-variables-1,
css-text-3,
css-counter-styles-3,
css-masking-1,
css-shapes-1,
css-text-decor-3,
css-will-change-1,
css-speech-1,
css-align-3,
css-grid-1,
filter-effects-1,
css-break-3,
css-contain-1,
css-scroll-snap-1"></index>
<h3 id="selectors">Selector Index</h3>
<index type="selector" status="TR" spec="
css2,
css-syntax-3,
css-style-attr-1,
mediaqueries-3,
mediaqueries-4,
css-conditional-3,
css-namespaces-3,
selectors-3,
css-cascade-3,
css-cascade-4,
css-values-3,
css-color-3,
css-backgrounds-3,
css-images-3,
css-fonts-3,
css-multicol-1,
css-ui-3,
compositing-1,
css-writing-modes-3,
css-transitions-1,
css-animations-1,
css-easing-1,
css-flexbox-1,
css-transforms-1,
css-variables-1,
css-text-3,
css-counter-styles-3,
css-masking-1,
css-shapes-1,
css-text-decor-3,
css-will-change-1,
css-speech-1,
css-align-3,
css-grid-1,
filter-effects-1,
css-break-3,
css-contain-1,
css-scroll-snap-1"></index>
<h3 id="at-rules">
At-Rule Index</h3>
<index type="at-rule" status="TR" spec="
css2,
css-syntax-3,
css-style-attr-1,
mediaqueries-3,
mediaqueries-4,
css-conditional-3,
css-namespaces-3,
selectors-3,
css-cascade-3,
css-cascade-4,
css-values-3,
css-color-3,
css-backgrounds-3,
css-images-3,
css-fonts-3,
css-multicol-1,
css-ui-3,
compositing-1,
css-writing-modes-3,
css-transitions-1,
css-animations-1,
css-easing-1,
css-flexbox-1,
css-transforms-1,
css-variables-1,
css-text-3,
css-counter-styles-3,
css-masking-1,
css-shapes-1,
css-text-decor-3,
css-will-change-1,
css-speech-1,
css-align-3,
css-grid-1,
filter-effects-1,
css-break-3,
css-contain-1,
css-scroll-snap-1"></index>
<h3 id="properties">Property Index</h3>
<index type="property" status="TR" spec="
css2,
css-syntax-3,
css-style-attr-1,
mediaqueries-3,
mediaqueries-4,
css-conditional-3,
css-namespaces-3,
selectors-3,
css-cascade-3,
css-cascade-4,
css-values-3,
css-color-3,
css-backgrounds-3,
css-images-3,
css-fonts-3,
css-multicol-1,
css-ui-3,
compositing-1,
css-writing-modes-3,
css-transitions-1,
css-animations-1,
css-easing-1,
css-flexbox-1,
css-transforms-1,
css-variables-1,
css-text-3,
css-counter-styles-3,
css-masking-1,
css-shapes-1,
css-text-decor-3,
css-will-change-1,
css-speech-1,
css-align-3,
css-grid-1,
filter-effects-1,
css-break-3,
css-contain-1,
css-scroll-snap-1"></index>
<h3 id="values">Values Index</h3>
<index type="value" status="TR" spec="
css2,
css-syntax-3,
css-style-attr-1,
mediaqueries-3,
mediaqueries-4,
css-conditional-3,
css-namespaces-3,
selectors-3,
css-cascade-3,
css-cascade-4,
css-values-3,
css-color-3,
css-backgrounds-3,
css-images-3,
css-fonts-3,
css-multicol-1,
css-ui-3,
compositing-1,
css-writing-modes-3,
css-transitions-1,
css-animations-1,
css-easing-1,
css-flexbox-1,
css-transforms-1,
css-variables-1,
css-text-3,
css-counter-styles-3,
css-masking-1,
css-shapes-1,
css-text-decor-3,
css-will-change-1,
css-speech-1,
css-align-3,
css-grid-1,
filter-effects-1,
css-break-3,
css-contain-1,
css-scroll-snap-1"></index>
Acknowledgements {#acks}
========================
Special thanks to Florian Rivoal for creating the initial draft of the [[#experimental]] recommendations.