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<pre class=metadata>
Title: CSS Counter Styles Level 3
Shortname: css-counter-styles
Level: 3
Status: ED
Work Status: Testing
Group: csswg
ED: https://drafts.csswg.org/css-counter-styles/
TR: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-counter-styles-3/
Previous Version: https://www.w3.org/TR/2015/CR-css-counter-styles-3-20150611/
Previous Version: https://www.w3.org/TR/2014/WD-css-counter-styles-3-20140826/
Previous Version: https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-css-counter-styles-3-20130718/
Previous Version: https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-css-counter-styles-3-20130221/
Previous Version: https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-css-counter-styles-3-20121009/
Editor: Tab Atkins Jr., Google, http://xanthir.com/contact/, w3cid 42199
Abstract: This module introduces the ''@counter-style'' rule, which allows authors to define their own custom counter styles for use with CSS list-marker and generated-content counters [[CSS-LISTS-3]]. It also predefines a set of common counter styles, including the ones present in CSS2 and CSS2.1.
Link Defaults: css-text-3 (dfn) grapheme cluster, css-pseudo-4 (selector) ::marker, dom-ls (dfn) ASCII case-insensitive
Deadline: 2015-05-03
At Risk: the <<image>> value in <<symbol>>
</pre>
<style>
pre.stylesheet { white-space: pre-wrap; }
code.inline { display: inline-block; }
</style>
<pre class=link-defaults>
spec:css-text-3; type:dfn; text: grapheme cluster
spec:css-pseudo-4; type:selector; text: ::marker
spec:dom; type:dfn; text: ASCII case-insensitive
spec:css-values-3; type:dfn; text:identifier
</pre>
<h2 id='intro'>
Introduction</h2>
CSS 1 defined a handful of useful counter styles based on the styles that HTML traditionally allowed on ordered and unordered lists.
While this was expanded slightly by CSS2.1,
it doesn't address the needs of worldwide typography.
This module introduces the ''@counter-style'' rule which allows CSS to address this in an open-ended manner,
by allowing the author to define their own counter styles.
These styles can then be used in the 'list-style-type' property
or in the ''counter()'' and ''counters()'' functions.
It also defines some additional predefined counter styles,
particularly ones which are common but complicated to represent with ''@counter-style''.
<h2 id='counter-styles'>
Counter Styles</h2>
A <dfn export>counter style</dfn> defines how to convert a counter value into a string.
Counter styles are composed of:
<ul>
<li>
a name,
to identify the style
<li>
an algorithm,
which transforms integer counter values into a basic string representation
<li>
a negative sign,
which is prepended or appended to the representation of a negative counter value.
<li>
a prefix,
to prepend to the representation
<li>
a suffix
to append to the representation
<li>
a range,
which limits the values that a counter style handles
<li>
a spoken form,
which describes how to read out the counter style in a speech synthesizer
<li>
and a fallback style,
to render the representation with when the counter value is outside the counter style's range
or the counter style otherwise can't render the counter value
</ul>
When asked to <dfn export lt='generate a counter|generate a counter representation'>generate a counter representation</dfn>
using a particular counter style for a particular counter value,
follow these steps:
<ol>
<li>
If the counter style is unknown,
exit this algorithm and instead <a>generate a counter representation</a>
using the ''decimal'' style and the same counter value.
<li>
If the counter value is outside the 'range' of the counter style,
exit this algorithm and instead <a>generate a counter representation</a>
using the counter style's fallback style and the same counter value.
<li>
Using the counter value and the counter algorithm for the counter style,
generate an <dfn>initial representation for the counter value</dfn>.
If the counter value is negative
and the counter style <a>uses a negative sign</a>,
instead generate an initial representation using the absolute value of the counter value.
<li>
Prepend symbols to the representation as specified in the 'pad' descriptor.
<li>
If the counter value is negative
and the counter style <a>uses a negative sign</a>,
wrap the representation in the counter style's negative sign
as specified in the 'negative' descriptor.
<li>
Return the representation.
</ol>
Note: 'prefix' and 'suffix' don't play a part in this algorithm.
This is intentional;
the prefix and suffix aren't part of the string returned by the counter() or counters() functions.
Instead, the prefix and suffix are added by the algorithm that constructs the value of the 'content' property
for the ''::marker'' pseudo-element.
This also implies that the prefix and suffix always come from the specified counter-style,
even if the actual representation is constructed by a fallback style.
Some values of 'system' (''symbolic'', ''additive'')
and some descriptors ('pad')
can generate representations with size linear to an author-supplied number.
This can potentially be abused to generate excessively large representations
and consume undue amounts of the user's memory or even hang their browser.
User agents must support representations at least 60 Unicode codepoints long,
but they may choose to instead use the fallback style for representations that would be longer than 60 codepoints.
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<h2 id='the-counter-style-rule'>
Defining Custom Counter Styles: the ''@counter-style'' rule</h2>
The <dfn at-rule>@counter-style</dfn> rule allows authors to define a custom <a>counter style</a>.
The components of a <a>counter style</a> are specified by descriptors in the ''@counter-style'' rule.
The algorithm is specified implicitly by a combination of the ''system'', ''symbols'', and ''additive-symbols'' properties.
The general form of an ''@counter-style'' rule is:
<pre>@counter-style <<counter-style-name>> { <<declaration-list>> }</pre>
<dfn>&lt;counter-style-name></dfn> is a <<custom-ident>>
that is not an <a>ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for "none".
Additionally, in the context of the prelude of an ''@counter-style'' rule,
an <a>ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for "decimal" or "disc" is also an invalid <<counter-style-name>>
and makes the ''@counter-style'' rule invalid.
Note: Note that <<custom-ident>> also automatically excludes the <a spec=css-values>CSS-wide keywords</a>.
In addition, some names, like ''inside'',
are valid as counter style names,
but conflict with the existing values of properties like 'list-style',
and so won't be usable there.
Counter style names are case-sensitive.
However, the names defined in this specification are ASCII lower-cased on parse
wherever they are used as counter styles, e.g.
in the 'list-style' set of properties,
in the ''@counter-style'' rule,
and in the ''counter()'' functions.
Each ''@counter-style'' rule specifies a value for every counter-style descriptor,
either implicitly or explicitly.
Those not given explicit value in the rule take the initial value listed with each descriptor in this specification.
These descriptors apply solely within the context of the ''@counter-style'' rule in which they are defined,
and do not apply to document language elements.
There is no notion of which elements the descriptors apply to or whether the values are inherited by child elements.
When a given descriptor occurs multiple times in a given ''@counter-style'' rule,
only the last-specified valid value is used;
all prior values for that descriptor must be ignored.
Defining a ''@counter-style'' makes it available to the entire document in which it is included.
If multiple ''@counter-style'' rules are defined with the same name,
only one wins,
according to standard cascade rules.
''@counter-style'' rules cascade "atomically":
if one replaces another of the same name,
it replaces it <em>entirely</em>,
rather than just replacing the specific descriptors it specifies.
Note: Note that even the predefined counter styles can be overridden;
the UA stylesheet occurs before any other stylesheets,
so the predefined ones always lose in the cascade.
This at-rule conforms with the forward-compatible parsing requirement of CSS;
conformant parsers that don't understand these rules will ignore them without error.
Any descriptors that are not recognized or implemented by a given user agent,
or whose value does not match the grammars given here or in a future version of this specification,
must be ignored in their entirety;
they do not make the ''@counter-style'' rule invalid.
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<h3 id='counter-style-system'>
Counter algorithms: the 'system' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: system
For: @counter-style
Value: cyclic | numeric | alphabetic | symbolic | additive | <span class=nobr>[fixed <<integer>>?]</span> | <span class=nobr>[ extends <<counter-style-name>> ]</span>
Initial: symbolic
</pre>
The 'system' descriptor specifies which algorithm will be used to construct
the counter's representation based on the counter value. For example,
''cyclic'' counter styles just cycle through their symbols repeatedly,
while ''system/numeric'' counter styles interpret their symbols as digits and
build their representation accordingly.
The systems are defined in the following subsections.
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<h4 id="cyclic-system">
Cycling Symbols: the ''cyclic'' system</h4>
The <dfn value for="@counter-style/system">cyclic</dfn> counter system cycles repeatedly through its provided symbols,
looping back to the beginning when it reaches the end of the list.
It can be used for simple bullets
(just provide a single <a>counter symbol</a>),
or for cycling through multiple symbols.
The first <a>counter symbol</a> is used as the representation of the value 1,
the second <a>counter symbol</a> (if it exists) is used as the representation of the value 2, etc.
If the system is ''cyclic'',
the 'symbols' descriptor must contain at least one <a>counter symbol</a>,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
This system is defined over all counter values.
<div class=example>
A "triangle bullet" counter style can be defined as:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>triangle</dfn> {
system: cyclic;
symbols: ‣;
suffix: " ";
}
</pre>
It will then produce lists that look like:
<pre>
‣ One
‣ Two
‣ Three
</pre>
</div>
If there are <var>N</var> <a>counter symbols</a>
and a representation is being constructed for the integer <var>value</var>,
the representation is the <a>counter symbol</a>
at index ( (<var>value</var>-1) mod <var>N</var>)
of the list of <a>counter symbols</a> (0-indexed).
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<h4 id="fixed-system">
Exhaustible Symbols: the ''system/fixed'' system</h4>
The <dfn value for="@counter-style/system">fixed</dfn> counter system runs through its list of counter symbols once,
then falls back.
It is useful for representing counter styles that only have a finite number of representations.
For example, Unicode defines several limited-length runs of special characters meant for lists,
such as circled digits.
If the system is ''system/fixed'',
the 'symbols' descriptor must contain at least one <a>counter symbol</a>,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
This system is defined over counter values in a finite range,
starting with the <a>first symbol value</a> and having a length equal to the length of the list of <a>counter symbols</a>.
When this system is specified,
it may optionally have an integer provided after it,
which sets the <dfn export>first symbol value</dfn>.
If it is omitted, the <a>first symbol value</a> is 1.
<div class=example>
A "box-corner" counter style can be defined as:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>box-corner</dfn> {
system: fixed;
symbols: ◰ ◳ ◲ ◱;
suffix: ': ';
}
</pre>
It will then produce lists that look like:
<pre>
◰: One
◳: Two
◲: Three
◱: Four
5: Five
6: Six
</pre>
</div>
The first <a>counter symbol</a> is the representation for the <a>first symbol value</a>,
and subsequent counter values are represented by subsequent <a>counter symbols</a>.
Once the list of <a>counter symbols</a> is exhausted,
further values cannot be represented by this counter style,
and must instead be represented by the fallback counter style.
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<h4 id="symbolic-system">
Repeating Symbols: the ''symbolic'' system</h4>
The <dfn value for="system">symbolic</dfn> counter system cycles repeatedly through its provided symbols,
doubling, tripling, etc. the symbols on each successive pass through the list.
For example, if the original symbols were "*" and "†",
then on the second pass they would instead be "**" and "††",
while on the third they would be "***"and "†††", etc.
It can be used for footnote-style markers,
and is also sometimes used for alphabetic-style lists for a slightly different presentation than what the ''system/alphabetic'' system presents.
If the system is ''symbolic'',
the 'symbols' descriptor must contain at least one <a>counter symbol</a>,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
This system is defined only over strictly positive counter values.
<div class=example>
An "footnote" counter style can be defined as:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>footnote</dfn> {
system: symbolic;
symbols: '*' ⁑ † ‡;
suffix: " ";
}
</pre>
It will then produce lists that look like:
<pre>
* One
⁑ Two
† Three
‡ Four
** Five
⁑⁑ Six
</pre>
</div>
<div class=example>
Some style guides mandate a list numbering that looks similar to ''upper-alpha'',
but repeats differently after the first 26 values,
instead going "AA", "BB", "CC", etc.
This can be achieved with the symbolic system:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>upper-alpha-legal</dfn> {
system: symbolic;
symbols: A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z;
}
</pre>
This style is identical to ''upper-alpha'' through the first 27 values,
but they diverge after that, with ''upper-alpha'' going "AB", "AC", "AD", etc.
Starting at the 53rd value, ''upper-alpha'' goes "BA", "BB", "BC", etc.,
while this style jumps into triple digits with "AAA", "BBB", "CCC", etc.
</div>
To construct the representation, run the following algorithm:
Let <var>N</var> be the length of the list of <a>counter symbols</a>,
<var>value</var> initially be the counter value,
<var>S</var> initially be the empty string,
and <var>symbol(n)</var> be the nth <a>counter symbol</a> in the list of <a>counter symbols</a> (0-indexed).
<ol>
<li>Let the <var>chosen symbol</var> be <code class='inline'>symbol( (<var>value</var> - 1) mod <var>N</var>)</code>.
<li>Let the <var>representation length</var> be <code class='inline'>ceil( <var>value</var> / <var>N</var> )</code>.
<li>Append the <var>chosen symbol</var> to <var>S</var> a number of times equal to the <var>representation length</var>.
</ol>
Finally, return <var>S</var>.
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<h4 id="alphabetic-system">
Bijective Numerals: the ''alphabetic'' system</h4>
The <dfn value for="@counter-style/system">alphabetic</dfn> counter system interprets the list of <a>counter symbols</a> as digits to an <em>alphabetic</em> numbering system,
similar to the default ''lower-alpha'' counter style,
which wraps from "a", "b", "c", to "aa", "ab", "ac".
Alphabetic numbering systems do not contain a digit representing 0;
so the first value when a new digit is added is composed solely of the first digit.
Alphabetic numbering systems are commonly used for lists,
and also appear in many spreadsheet programs to number columns.
The first <a>counter symbol</a> in the list is interpreted as the digit 1,
the second as the digit 2,
and so on.
If the system is ''system/alphabetic'',
the 'symbols' descriptor must contain at least two <a>counter symbols</a>,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
This system is defined only over strictly positive counter values.
<div class=example>
A counter style using go stones can be defined as:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>go</dfn> {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: url(white.svg) url(black.svg);
suffix: " ";
}
</pre>
It will then produce lists that look like:
<div class='alphabetic-example'>
<span><img src=images/white.svg alt=""></span> One<br>
<span><img src=images/black.svg alt=""></span> Two<br>
<span><img src=images/white.svg alt=""><img src=images/white.svg alt=""></span> Three<br>
<span><img src=images/white.svg alt=""><img src=images/black.svg alt=""></span> Four<br>
<span><img src=images/black.svg alt=""><img src=images/white.svg alt=""></span> Five<br>
<span><img src=images/black.svg alt=""><img src=images/black.svg alt=""></span> Six<br>
<span><img src=images/white.svg alt=""><img src=images/white.svg alt=""><img src=images/white.svg alt=""></span> Seven
</div>
Note: This example requires support for SVG images to display correctly.
</div>
If there are <var>N</var> <a>counter symbols</a>,
the representation is a base <var>N</var> alphabetic number using the <a>counter symbols</a> as digits.
To construct the representation, run the following algorithm:
Let <var>N</var> be the length of the list of <a>counter symbols</a>,
<var>value</var> initially be the counter value,
<var>S</var> initially be the empty string,
and <var>symbol(n)</var> be the nth <a>counter symbol</a> in the list of <a>counter symbols</a> (0-indexed).
While <var>value</var> is not equal to 0:
<ol>
<li>Set <var>value</var> to <code><var>value</var> - 1</code>.
<li>Prepend <var>symbol( <var>value</var> mod <var>N</var> )</var>
to <var>S</var>.
<li>Set <var>value</var> to <code>floor( <var>value</var> / <var>N</var> )</code>.
</ol>
Finally, return <var>S</var>.
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<h4 id="numeric-system">
Positional Numerals: the ''numeric'' system</h4>
The <dfn value for="@counter-style/system">numeric</dfn> counter system interprets the list of <a>counter symbols</a>
as digits to a "place-value" numbering system,
similar to the default ''decimal'' counter style.
The first <a>counter symbol</a> in the list is interpreted as the digit 0,
the second as the digit 1,
and so on.
If the system is ''system/numeric'',
the 'symbols' descriptor must contain at least two <a>counter symbols</a>,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
This system is defined over all counter values.
<div class=example>
A "trinary" counter style can be defined as:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>trinary</dfn> {
system: numeric;
symbols: '0' '1' '2';
}
</pre>
It will then produce lists that look like:
<pre>
1. One
2. Two
10. Three
11. Four
12. Five
20. Six
</pre>
</div>
If there are <var>N</var> <a>counter symbols</a>,
the representation is a base <var>N</var> number using the <a>counter symbols</a> as digits.
To construct the representation, run the following algorithm:
Let <var>N</var> be the length of the list of <a>counter symbols</a>,
<var>value</var> initially be the counter value,
<var>S</var> initially be the empty string,
and <var>symbol(n)</var> be the nth <a>counter symbol</a> in the list of <a>counter symbols</a> (0-indexed).
<ol>
<li>If <var>value</var> is 0, append <code>symbol(0)</code> to
<var>S</var> and return <var>S</var>.
<li>While <var>value</var> is not equal to 0:
<ol>
<li>Prepend <var>symbol( <var>value</var> mod <var>N</var> )</var>
to <var>S</var>.
<li>Set <var>value</var> to <code>floor( <var>value</var> / <var>N</var> )</code>.
</ol>
<li>Return <var>S</var>.
</ol>
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<h4 id="additive-system">
Accumulating Numerals: the ''additive'' system</h4>
The <dfn value for="@counter-style/system">additive</dfn> counter system is used to represent "sign-value" numbering systems,
which, rather than reusing digits in different positions to change their value,
define additional digits with much larger values,
so that the value of the number can be obtained by adding all the digits together.
This is used in Roman numerals
and other numbering systems around the world.
If the system is ''additive'',
the 'additive-symbols' descriptor must contain at least one <a>additive tuple</a>,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
This system is nominally defined over all counter values
(see algorithm, below, for exact details).
<div class=example>
A "dice" counter style can be defined as:
<pre>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>dice</dfn> {
system: additive;
additive-symbols: 6 ⚅, 5 ⚄, 4 ⚃, 3 ⚂, 2 ⚁, 1 ⚀;
suffix: " ";
}
</pre>
It will then produce lists that look like:
<pre>
⚀ One
⚁ Two
⚂ Three
...
⚅⚄ Eleven
⚅⚅ Twelve
⚅⚅⚀ Thirteen
</pre>
</div>
To construct the representation, run this algorithm:
Let <var>value</var> initially be the counter value,
<var>S</var> initially be the empty string,
and <var>symbol list</var> initially be the list of <a>additive tuples</a>.
<ol>
<li>If <var>value</var> is initially 0, and there is an <a>additive tuple</a> with a weight of 0, append that tuple's <a>counter symbol</a> to S and return S.
<li>While <var>value</var> is greater than 0 and there are elements left in the <var>symbol list</var>:
<ol>
<li>Pop the first <a>additive tuple</a> from the <var>symbol list</var>.
This is the <dfn>current tuple</dfn>.
<li>Append the <a>current tuple</a>’s <a>counter symbol</a> to <var>S</var>
<code>floor( <var>value</var> / <var><a>current tuple</a>’s weight</var> )</code>
times (this may be 0).
<li>Decrement <var>value</var> by the <var><a>current tuple</a>’s weight</var> multiplied
by the number of times the <a>current tuple</a> was appended to <var>S</var>
in the previous step.
</ol>
<li>If the loop ended because <var>value</var> is 0, return S. Otherwise, the given counter value cannot be represented by this counter style, and must instead be represented by the fallback counter style.
</ol>
Note: All of the predefined additive ''@counter-style'' rules in this specification
produce representations for every value in their range,
but it's possible to produce values for ''additive-symbols'' that will fail to find a representation
with the algorithm defined above,
even though theoretically a representation could be found.
For example, if a ''@counter-style'' was defined with ''additive-symbols: 3 "a", 2 "b";'',
the algorithm defined above will fail to find a representation for a counter value of 4,
even though theoretically a "bb" representation would work.
While unfortunate, this is required to maintain the property that the algorithm runs in linear time
relative to the size of the counter value.
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<h4 id="extends-system">
Building from Existing Counter Styles: the ''extends'' system
<span id='override-system'></span></h4>
The <dfn value for="@counter-style/system">extends</dfn> system allows an author to use the algorithm of another counter style,
but alter other aspects,
such as the negative sign or the suffix.
If a counter style uses the ''extends'' system,
any unspecified descriptors must be taken from the extended counter style specified,
rather than taking their initial values.
If a @counter-style uses the ''extends'' system,
it must not contain a 'symbols' or 'additive-symbols' descriptor,
or else the ''@counter-style'' rule is invalid.
If the specified counter style name isn't the name of any currently-defined counter style,
it must be treated as if it was extending the ''decimal'' counter style.
If one or more ''@counter-style'' rules form a cycle with their ''extends'' values,
all of the counter styles participating in the cycle
must be treated as if they were extending the ''decimal'' counter style instead.
<div class='example'>
For example, if you wanted a counter style that was identical to decimal,
but used a parenthesis rather than a period after it, like:
<pre>
1) first item
2) second item
3) third item
</pre>
Rather than writing up an entirely new counter style,
this can be done by just extending ''decimal'':
<pre>
@counter-style decimal-paren {
system: extends decimal;
suffix: ") ";
}
</pre>
</div>
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<h3 id='counter-style-negative'>
Formatting negative values: the 'negative' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: negative
For: @counter-style
Value: <<symbol>> <<symbol>>?
Initial: "\2D" ("-" hyphen-minus)
</pre>
The 'negative' descriptor defines how to alter the representation when
the counter value is negative.
The first <<symbol>> in the value is prepended to the representation when the
counter value is negative. The second <<symbol>>, if specified, is appended
to the representation when the counter value is negative.
<div class='example'>
For example, specifying ''negative: "(" ")";'' will make negative
values be wrapped in parentheses, which is sometimes used in financial
contexts, like "(2) (1) 0 1 2 3...".
</div>
Not all 'system' values use a negative sign.
In particular, a counter style <dfn export lt="use a negative sign|uses a negative sign">uses a negative sign</dfn>
if its 'system' value is
''symbolic'',
''system/alphabetic'',
''system/numeric'',
''additive'',
or ''extends'' if the extended counter style itself <a>uses a negative sign</a>.
If a counter style does not <a>use a negative sign</a>,
it ignores the negative sign when <a lt="generate a counter representation">generating a counter representation</a>.
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<h3 id='counter-style-prefix'>
Symbols before the marker: the 'prefix' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: prefix
For: @counter-style
Value: <<symbol>>
Initial: "" (the empty string)
</pre>
The 'prefix' descriptor specifies a <<symbol>>
that is prepended to the marker representation.
Prefixes come before any negative sign.
Note: Prefixes are only added by the algorithm for constructing
the default contents of the ''::marker'' pseudo-element; the prefix is not
added automatically when the ''counter()'' or ''counters()'' functions are used.
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<h3 id='counter-style-suffix'>
Symbols after the marker: the 'suffix' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: suffix
For: @counter-style
Value: <<symbol>>
Initial: "\2E\20" ("." full stop followed by a space)
</pre>
The 'suffix' descriptor specifies a <<symbol>>
that is appended to the marker representation.
Suffixes are added to the representation after negative signs.
Note: Suffixes are only added by the algorithm for constructing
the default contents of the ''::marker'' pseudo-element; the suffix is not
added automatically when the counter() or counters() functions are used.
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<h3 id='counter-style-range'>
Limiting the counter scope: the 'range' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: range
For: @counter-style
Value: [ [ <<integer>> | infinite ]{2} ]# | auto
Initial: auto
</pre>
The 'range' descriptor defines the ranges over which the counter style is defined.
If a counter style is used to represent a counter value outside of its ranges,
the counter style instead drops down to its fallback counter style.
<dl dfn-for="@counter-style/range">
<dt><dfn value>auto</dfn>
<dd>
The range depends on the counter system:
<ul>
<li>
For ''cyclic'', ''system/numeric'', and ''system/fixed'' systems,
the range is negative infinity to positive infinity.
<li>
For ''system/alphabetic'' and ''symbolic'' systems,
the range is 1 to positive infinity.
<li>
For ''additive'' systems,
the range is 0 to positive infinity.
<li>
For ''extends'' systems,
the range is whatever ''range/auto'' would produce for the extended system;
if extending a complex predefined style (<a section href="#complex-predefined-counters"></a>),
the range is the style's defined range.
</ul>
<dt>[ [ <<integer>> | infinite ]{2} ]#
<dd>
This defines a comma-separated list of ranges.
For each individual range,
the first value is the lower bound
and the second value is the upper bound.
This range is inclusive - it contains both the lower and upper bound numbers.
If ''range/infinite'' is used as the first value in a range,
it represents negative infinity;
if used as the second value,
it represents positive infinity.
The range of the counter style is the union of all the ranges defined in the list.
If the lower bound of any range is higher than the upper bound,
the entire descriptor is invalid and must be ignored.
</dl>
Implementations must support ranges with a lower bound of at least -2<sup>15</sup>
and an upper bound of at least 2<sup>15</sup>-1
(the range of a signed 2-byte int).
They may support higher ranges.
If any specified bound is outside of the implementation's supported bounds,
it must be treated as the closest bound that the implementation does support.
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<h3 id='counter-style-pad'>
Zero-Padding and Constant-Width Representations: the 'pad' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: pad
For: @counter-style
Value: <<integer>> && <<symbol>>
Initial: 0 ""
</pre>
The 'pad' descriptor allows an author to specify a "fixed-width" counter style,
where representations shorter than the pad value are padded with a particular <<symbol>>.
Representations larger than the specified pad value are constructed as normal.
<dl>
<dt><<integer>> &amp;&amp; <<symbol>>
<dd>
The <<integer>> specifies a minimum length that all counter representations must reach.
Let <var>difference</var> be the provided <<integer>>
minus the number of <a>grapheme clusters</a> in the <a>initial representation for the counter value</a>.
<span class='note'>(Note that, per the algorithm to <a>generate a counter representation</a>,
this occurs before adding prefixes/suffixes/negatives.)</span>
If the counter value is negative
and the counter style <a>uses a negative sign</a>,
further reduce <var>difference</var>
by the number of <a>grapheme clusters</a> in the counter style’s 'negative' descriptor’s <<symbol>>(s).
If <var>difference</var> is greater than zero,
prepend <var>difference</var> copies of the specified <<symbol>> to the representation.
The <<integer>> must be non-negative.
A negative value is a syntax error.
</dl>
<div class='example'>
The most common example of "fixed-width" numbering is zero-padded decimal numbering.
If an author knows that the numbers used will be less than a thousand, for example,
it can be zero-padded with a simple ''pad: 3 "0";'' descriptor,
ensuring that all of the representations are 3 digits wide.
This will cause, for example,
1 to be represented as "001",
20 to be represented as "020",
300 to be represented as "300",
4000 to be represented as "4000",
and -5 to be represented as "-05".
</div>
Note: The 'pad' descriptor counts the number of <a>grapheme clusters</a> in the representation,
but pads it with <<symbol>>s.
If the specified 'pad' <<symbol>> is multi-character,
this will likely not have the desired effect.
Unfortunately, there's no way to use the number of <a>grapheme clusters</a> in the 'pad' <<symbol>>
without violating useful constraints.
It is recommended that authors only specify <<symbol>>s of a single <a>grapheme cluster</a>
in the 'pad' descriptor.
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<h3 id='counter-style-fallback'>
Defining fallback: the 'fallback' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: fallback
For: @counter-style
Value: <<counter-style-name>>
Initial: decimal
</pre>
The 'fallback' descriptor specifies a fallback counter style to be used
when the current counter style can't create a representation for a given
counter value. For example, if a counter style defined with a range of 1-10
is asked to represent a counter value of 11, the counter value's representation
is instead constructed with the fallback counter style (or possibly the
fallback style's fallback style, if the fallback style can't represent that
value, etc.).
If the value of the 'fallback' descriptor isn't the name of any
currently-defined counter style, the used value of the 'fallback' descriptor
is ''decimal'' instead. Similarly, while following fallbacks to find
a counter style that can render the given counter value, if a loop in the
specified fallbacks is detected, the ''decimal'' style must be used instead.
<p class='note'>Note that it is not necessarily an error to specify fallback
loops. For example, if an author desires a counter style with significantly
different representations for even and odd counter values, they may find it
easiest to define one style that can only represent odd values and one that
can only represent even values, and specify each as the fallback for the
other one. Though the fallback graph is circular, at no point do you encounter
a loop while following these fallbacks - every counter value is represented
by one or the other counter style.
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<h3 id='counter-style-symbols'>
Marker characters: the 'symbols' and 'additive-symbols' descriptors</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: symbols
For: @counter-style
Value: <<symbol>>+
Initial: n/a
</pre>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: additive-symbols
For: @counter-style
Value: [ <<integer>> &amp;&amp; <<symbol>> ]#
Initial: n/a
</pre>
<pre class='prod'><dfn>&lt;symbol></dfn> = <<string>> | <<image>> | <<custom-ident>></pre>
The 'symbols' and 'additive-symbols' descriptors specify the symbols
used by the marker-construction algorithm specified by the 'system' descriptor.
The ''@counter-style'' rule must have a valid 'symbols' descriptor
if the counter system is
''cyclic'', ''system/numeric'', ''system/alphabetic'', ''symbolic'', or ''system/fixed'',
or a valid 'additive-symbols' descriptor
if the counter system is ''additive'';
otherwise, the ''@counter-style'' does not define a <a>counter style</a>
(but is still a valid <a>at-rule</a>).
Some counter systems specify that the 'symbols' descriptor must have at least two entries.
If the counter style's system is such,
and the 'symbols' descriptor has only a single entry,
the descriptor is invalid and must be ignored.
Each entry in the 'symbols' descriptor's value defines a <dfn export>counter symbol</dfn>,
which is interpreted differently based on the counter style's system.
Each entry in the 'additive-symbols' descriptor's value defines an <dfn export>additive tuple</dfn>,
which consists of a <a>counter symbol</a> and a non-negative integer weight.
Each weight must be a non-negative integer,
and the <a>additive tuples</a> must be specified in order of strictly descending weight;
otherwise, the declaration is invalid and must be ignored.
<a>Counter symbols</a> may be strings, images, or identifiers,
and the three types can be mixed in a single descriptor.
Counter representations are constructed by concatenating counter symbols together.
Identifiers are rendered as strings containing the same characters.
Images are rendered as inline replaced elements.
The <a>default object size</a> of an image <a>counter symbol</a>
is a 1em by 1em square.
Note: The <<image>> syntax in <<symbol>> is currently at-risk.
No implementations have plans to implement it currently,
and it complicates some usages of ''counter()''
in ways that haven't been fully handled.
Note: If using identifiers rather than strings to define the symbols,
be aware of the syntax of identifiers.
In particular, ascii non-letters like "*" are not identifiers,
and so must be quoted in a string.
Hex escapes,
used in several of the counter styles defined in this specification,
"eat" the following space
(to allow a digit to follow a hex escape without ambiguity),
so two spaces must be put after a hex escape
to separate it from the following one,
or else they'll be considered adjacent,
and part of the same identifier.
For example, ''symbols: \660 \661;'' only defines a single symbol,
consisting of the U+0660 and U+0661 characters,
rather than the two that were intended;
either quote the escapes in strings,
like ''symbols: "\660" "\661"'',
or put two spaces between the escapes.
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<h3 id='counter-style-speak-as'>
Speech Synthesis: the '@counter-style/speak-as' descriptor</h3>
<pre class='descdef'>
Name: speak-as
For: @counter-style
Value: auto | bullets | numbers | words | spell-out | <<counter-style-name>>
Initial: auto
</pre>
A counter style can be constructed with a meaning that is obvious visually,
but impossible to meaningfully represent via a speech synthesizer,
or possible but nonsensical when naively read out.
The '@counter-style/speak-as' descriptor describes how to synthesize the spoken form of a counter formatted with the given counter style.
Values have the following meanings:
<dl dfn-for="@counter-style/speak-as" dfn-type=value>
<dt><dfn>auto</dfn>
<dd>
If the counter style's 'system' is ''alphabetic'',
this value has the same effect as ''spell-out''.
If the 'system' is ''cyclic'',
this value has the same effect as ''bullets''.
If the 'system' is ''extends'',
this value has the same effect as ''speak-as/auto'' would have for the extended style.
Otherwise, this value has the same effect as ''numbers''.
<dt><dfn>bullets</dfn>
<dd>
The UA speaks a UA-defined phrase or audio cue that represents an unordered list item being read out.
<dt><dfn>numbers</dfn>
<dd>
The counter's value is spoken as a number in the <a>content language</a>.
<dt><dfn>words</dfn>
<dd>
<a>Generate a counter representation</a> for the value as normal,
then speak it as normal text in the <a>content language</a>.
<dt><dfn>spell-out</dfn>
<dd>
<a>Generate a counter representation</a> for the value as normal,
then spell it out letter-by-letter in the <a>content language</a>.
If the UA does not know how to pronounce the symbols,
it may handle it as ''numbers''.
For example, ''lower-greek'' in English would be read out as "alpha", "beta", "gamma", etc.
Conversely, ''upper-latin'' in French would be read out as (in phonetic notation) /a/, /be/, /se/, etc.
<dt><dfn><<counter-style-name>></dfn>
<dd>
The counter's value is instead spoken out in the specified style
(similar to the behavior of the 'fallback' descriptor when generating representations for a counter value).
If the specified style does not exist,
this value is treated as ''speak-as/auto''.
If a loop is detected when following '@counter-style/speak-as' references,
this value is treated as ''speak-as/auto''
for the counter styles participating in the loop.
</dl>
<div class='example'>
The ability to defer pronunciation to another counter style can help when the symbols being used aren't actually letters.
For example, here's a possible definition of a ''circled-lower-latin'' counter-style, using some special Unicode characters:
<pre class='stylesheet'>
@counter-style <dfn noexport>circled-lower-latin</dfn> {
system: alphabetic;
speak-as: lower-latin;
symbols: ⓐ ⓑ ⓒ ⓓ ⓔ ⓕ ⓖ ⓗ ⓘ ⓙ ⓚ ⓛ ⓜ ⓝ ⓞ ⓟ ⓠ ⓡ ⓢ ⓣ ⓤ ⓥ ⓦ ⓧ ⓨ ⓩ;
suffix: " ";
}
</pre>
Setting its 'system' to ''system/alphabetic'' would normally make the UA try to read out the names of the characters,
but in this case that might be something like "Circled Letter A",
which is unlikely to make sense.
Instead, explicitly setting '@counter-style/speak-as' to ''lower-latin'' ensures that they get read out as their corresponding latin letters, as intended.
</div>
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<h2 id='symbols-function'>
Defining Anonymous Counter Styles: the ''symbols()'' function</h2>
The ''symbols()'' function allows a <a>counter style</a> to be defined inline in a property value,
for when a style is used only once in a stylesheet and defining a full ''@counter-style'' rule would be overkill.
It does not provide the full feature-set of the ''@counter-style'' rule,
but provides a sufficient subset to still be useful.
The syntax of the ''symbols()'' rule is:
<pre class='prod'>
<dfn>symbols()</dfn> = symbols( <<symbols-type>>? [ <<string>> | <<image>> ]+ );
<dfn>&lt;symbols-type></dfn> = cyclic | numeric | alphabetic | symbolic | fixed;
</pre>
The ''symbols()'' function defines an anonymous counter style
with no name,
a 'prefix' of ''""'' (empty string)
and 'suffix' of ''" "'' (U+0020 SPACE),
a 'range' of ''range/auto'',
a 'fallback' of ''decimal'',
a 'negative' of ''"\2D"'' ("-" hyphen-minus),
a 'pad' of ''0 ""'',
and a '@counter-style/speak-as' of ''speak-as/auto''.
The counter style's algorithm is constructed
by consulting the previous chapter using the provided system&nbsp;&mdash;
or ''symbolic'' if the system was omitted&nbsp;&mdash;
and the provided <<string>>s and <<image>>s as the value of the 'symbols' property.
If the system is ''system/fixed'', the <a>first symbol value</a> is ''1''.
If the system is ''system/alphabetic'' or ''system/numeric'',
there must be at least two <<string>>s or <<image>>s,
or else the function is invalid.
<div class='example'>
This code:
<pre>ol { list-style: symbols("*" "\2020" "\2021" "\A7"); }</pre>
will produce lists that look like:
<pre>
* One
† Two
‡ Three
§ Four
** Five
†† Six
‡‡ Seven
</pre>
On the other hand, specifying the system of counter, like so:
<pre>ol { list-style: symbols(cyclic "*" "\2020" "\2021" "\A7"); }</pre>
will produce lists that look like:
<pre>
* One
† Two
‡ Three
§ Four
* Five
† Six
‡ Seven
</pre>
</div>
Note: the ''symbols()'' function only allows strings and images,
while the 'symbols' descriptor of a ''@counter-style'' rule also allows identifiers.
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<h2 id='extending-css2'>
Extending 'list-style-type', ''counter()'', and ''counters()''</h2>
In CSS Level 2 [[!CSS21]] the 'list-style-type' property and the ''counter()'' and ''counters()'' notations
accept various pre-defined keywords, each identifying a counter style.
This module extends these features to take instead the <<counter-style>> type, defined below:
<pre class='prod'>
<dfn type>&lt;counter-style></dfn> = <<counter-style-name>> | <a>symbols()</a>;
</pre>
If a <<counter-style-name>> is used that does not refer to any existing counter style,
it must act identically to the ''decimal'' counter style
(but does not <em>[=computed value|compute=]</em> to ''decimal'').
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<h2 id='predefined-counters'>
Simple Predefined Counter Styles</h2>
The following stylesheet uses the ''@counter-style'' rule
to redefine all of the counter styles defined in CSS 2 and CSS 2.1.
This stylesheet is normative--
UAs must include it in their UA stylesheet
(or at least act as if these rules were defined at that level).
<h3 id='simple-numeric'>
Numeric: ''decimal'', ''decimal-leading-zero'', ''arabic-indic'', ''armenian'', ''upper-armenian'', ''lower-armenian'', ''bengali'', ''cambodian'', ''khmer'', ''cjk-decimal'', ''devanagari'', ''georgian'', ''gujarati'', ''gurmukhi'', ''hebrew'', ''kannada'', ''lao'', ''malayalam'', ''mongolian'', ''myanmar'', ''oriya'', ''persian'', ''lower-roman'', ''upper-roman'', ''tamil'', ''telugu'', ''thai'', ''tibetan''</h3>
<dl dfn-type=value dfn-for="<counter-style-name>">
<dt><dfn id=decimal>decimal</dfn>
<dd>
Western decimal numbers
(e.g., 1, 2, 3, ..., 98, 99, 100).
<dt><dfn id=decimal-leading-zero>decimal-leading-zero</dfn>
<dd>
Decimal numbers padded by initial zeros
(e.g., 01, 02, 03, ..., 98, 99, 100).
<dt><dfn>arabic-indic</dfn>
<dd>
Arabic-indic numbering
(e.g., ١&lrm;, ٢&lrm;, ٣&lrm;, ٤&lrm;, ..., ٩٨&lrm;, ٩٩&lrm;, ١٠٠&lrm;).
<dt><dfn id=armenian>armenian</dfn>
<dt><dfn>upper-armenian</dfn>
<dd>
Traditional uppercase Armenian numbering
(e.g., Ա, Բ, Գ, ..., ՂԸ, ՂԹ, Ճ).
<dt><dfn>lower-armenian</dfn>
<dd>
Lowercase Armenian numbering
(e.g., ա, բ, գ, ..., ղը, ղթ, ճ).
<dt><dfn>bengali</dfn>
<dd>
Bengali numbering
(e.g., ১, ২, ৩, ..., ৯৮, ৯৯, ১০০).
<dt><dfn>cambodian</dfn>
<dt><dfn>khmer</dfn>
<dd>
Cambodian/Khmer numbering
(e.g., ១, ២, ៣, ..., ៩៨, ៩៩, ១០០).
<dt><dfn id=cjk-decimal>cjk-decimal</dfn>
<dd>
Han decimal numbers
(e.g., 一, 二, 三, ..., 九八, 九九, 一〇〇).
<dt><dfn>devanagari</dfn>
<dd>
devanagari numbering
(e.g., १, २, ३, ..., ९८, ९९, १००).
<dt><dfn id=georgian>georgian</dfn>
<dd>
Traditional Georgian numbering
(e.g., ა, ბ, გ, ..., ჟჱ, ჟთ, რ).
<dt><dfn>gujarati</dfn>
<dd>
Gujarati numbering
(e.g., ૧, ૨, ૩, ..., ૯૮, ૯૯, ૧૦૦).
<dt><dfn>gurmukhi</dfn>
<dd>
Gurmukhi numbering
(e.g., ੧, ੨, ੩, ..., ੯੮, ੯੯, ੧੦੦).
<dt><dfn id=hebrew>hebrew</dfn>
<dd>
Traditional Hebrew numbering
(e.g., א&lrm;, ב&lrm;, ג&lrm;, ..., צח&lrm;, צט&lrm;, ק&lrm;).
<dt><dfn>kannada</dfn>
<dd>
Kannada numbering
(e.g., ೧, ೨, ೩, ..., ೯೮, ೯೯, ೧೦೦).
<dt><dfn>lao</dfn>
<dd>
Laotian numbering
(e.g., ໑, ໒, ໓, ..., ໙໘, ໙໙, ໑໐໐).
<dt><dfn>malayalam</dfn>
<dd>
Malayalam numbering
(e.g., ൧, ൨, ൩, ..., ൯൮, ൯൯, ൧൦൦).
<dt><dfn>mongolian</dfn>
<dd>
Mongolian numbering
(e.g., ᠑, ᠒, ᠓, ..., ᠙᠘, ᠙᠙, ᠑᠐᠐).
<dt><dfn>myanmar</dfn>
<dd>
Myanmar (Burmese) numbering
(e.g., ၁, ၂, ၃, ..., ၉၈, ၉၉, ၁၀၀).
<dt><dfn>oriya</dfn>
<dd>
Oriya numbering
(e.g., ୧, ୨, ୩, ..., ୯୮, ୯୯, ୧୦୦).
<dt><dfn>persian</dfn>
<dd>
Persian numbering
(e.g., ۱, ۲, ۳, ۴, ..., ۹۸, ۹۹, ۱۰۰).
<dt><dfn id=lower-roman>lower-roman</dfn>
<dd>
Lowercase ASCII Roman numerals
(e.g., i, ii, iii, ..., xcviii, xcix, c).
<dt><dfn id=upper-roman>upper-roman</dfn>
<dd>
Uppercase ASCII Roman numerals
(e.g., I, II, III, ..., XCVIII, XCIX, C).
<dt><dfn>tamil</dfn>
<dd>
Tamil numbering
(e.g., ௧, ௨, ௩, ..., ௯௮, ௯௯, ௧௦௦).
<dt><dfn>telugu</dfn>
<dd>
Telugu numbering
(e.g., ౧, ౨, ౩, ..., ౯౮, ౯౯, ౧౦౦).
<dt><dfn>thai</dfn>
<dd>
Thai (Siamese) numbering
(e.g., ๑, ๒, ๓, ..., ๙๘, ๙๙, ๑๐๐).
<dt><dfn>tibetan</dfn>
<dd>
Tibetan numbering
(e.g., ༡, ༢, ༣, ..., ༩༨, ༩༩, ༡༠༠).
</dl>
The ''decimal'' counter-style must not be overridable with a ''@counter-style'' rule,
so that it is always available as the ultimate fallback style.
The following stylesheet fragment provides the normative definition of these predefined counter styles:
<pre class='stylesheet'><bdo dir=ltr>
@counter-style decimal {
system: numeric;
symbols: '0' '1' '2' '3' '4' '5' '6' '7' '8' '9';
}
@counter-style decimal-leading-zero {
system: extends decimal;
pad: 2 '0';
}
@counter-style arabic-indic {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\660" "\661" "\662" "\663" "\664" "\665" "\666" "\667" "\668" "\669";
/* ٠ ١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥ ٦ ٧ ٨ ٩ */
}
@counter-style armenian {
system: additive;
range: 1 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 \554, 8000 \553, 7000 \552, 6000 \551, 5000 \550, 4000 \54F, 3000 \54E, 2000 \54D, 1000 \54C, 900 \54B, 800 \54A, 700 \549, 600 \548, 500 \547, 400 \546, 300 \545, 200 \544, 100 \543, 90 \542, 80 \541, 70 \540, 60 \53F, 50 \53E, 40 \53D, 30 \53C, 20 \53B, 10 \53A, 9 \539, 8 \538, 7 \537, 6 \536, 5 \535, 4 \534, 3 \533, 2 \532, 1 \531;
/* 9000 Ք, 8000 Փ, 7000 Ւ, 6000 Ց, 5000 Ր, 4000 Տ, 3000 Վ, 2000 Ս, 1000 Ռ, 900 Ջ, 800 Պ, 700 Չ, 600 Ո, 500 Շ, 400 Ն, 300 Յ, 200 Մ, 100 Ճ, 90 Ղ, 80 Ձ, 70 Հ, 60 Կ, 50 Ծ, 40 Խ, 30 Լ, 20 Ի, 10 Ժ, 9 Թ, 8 Ը, 7 Է, 6 Զ, 5 Ե, 4 Դ, 3 Գ, 2 Բ, 1 Ա */
}
@counter-style upper-armenian {
system: extends armenian;
}
@counter-style lower-armenian {
system: additive;
range: 1 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 "\584", 8000 "\583", 7000 "\582", 6000 "\581", 5000 "\580", 4000 "\57F", 3000 "\57E", 2000 "\57D", 1000 "\57C", 900 "\57B", 800 "\57A", 700 "\579", 600 "\578", 500 "\577", 400 "\576", 300 "\575", 200 "\574", 100 "\573", 90 "\572", 80 "\571", 70 "\570", 60 "\56F", 50 "\56E", 40 "\56D", 30 "\56C", 20 "\56B", 10 "\56A", 9 "\569", 8 "\568", 7 "\567", 6 "\566", 5 "\565", 4 "\564", 3 "\563", 2 "\562", 1 "\561";
/* 9000 ք, 8000 փ, 7000 ւ, 6000 ց, 5000 ր, 4000 տ, 3000 վ, 2000 ս, 1000 ռ, 900 ջ, 800 պ, 700 չ, 600 ո, 500 շ, 400 ն, 300 յ, 200 մ, 100 ճ, 90 ղ, 80 ձ, 70 հ, 60 կ, 50 ծ, 40 խ, 30 լ, 20 ի, 10 ժ, 9 թ, 8 ը, 7 է, 6 զ, 5 ե, 4 դ, 3 գ, 2 բ, 1 ա */
}
@counter-style bengali {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\9E6" "\9E7" "\9E8" "\9E9" "\9EA" "\9EB" "\9EC" "\9ED" "\9EE" "\9EF";
/* ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯ */
}
@counter-style cambodian {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\17E0" "\17E1" "\17E2" "\17E3" "\17E4" "\17E5" "\17E6" "\17E7" "\17E8" "\17E9";
/* ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩ */
}
@counter-style khmer {
system: extends cambodian;
}
@counter-style cjk-decimal {
system: numeric;
range: 0 infinite;
symbols: \3007 \4E00 \4E8C \4E09 \56DB \4E94 \516D \4E03 \516B \4E5D;
/* 〇 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 */
suffix: "\3001";
/* "、" */
}
@counter-style devanagari {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\966" "\967" "\968" "\969" "\96A" "\96B" "\96C" "\96D" "\96E" "\96F";
/* ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ */
}
@counter-style georgian {
system: additive;
range: 1 19999;
additive-symbols: 10000 \10F5, 9000 \10F0, 8000 \10EF, 7000 \10F4, 6000 \10EE, 5000 \10ED, 4000 \10EC, 3000 \10EB, 2000 \10EA, 1000 \10E9, 900 \10E8, 800 \10E7, 700 \10E6, 600 \10E5, 500 \10E4, 400 \10F3, 300 \10E2, 200 \10E1, 100 \10E0, 90 \10DF, 80 \10DE, 70 \10DD, 60 \10F2, 50 \10DC, 40 \10DB, 30 \10DA, 20 \10D9, 10 \10D8, 9 \10D7, 8 \10F1, 7 \10D6, 6 \10D5, 5 \10D4, 4 \10D3, 3 \10D2, 2 \10D1, 1 \10D0;
/* 10000 ჵ, 9000 ჰ, 8000 ჯ, 7000 ჴ, 6000 ხ, 5000 ჭ, 4000 წ, 3000 ძ, 2000 ც, 1000 ჩ, 900 შ, 800 ყ, 700 ღ, 600 ქ, 500 ფ, 400 ჳ, 300 ტ, 200 ს, 100 რ, 90 ჟ, 80 პ, 70 ო, 60 ჲ, 50 ნ, 40 მ, 30 ლ, 20 კ, 10 ი, 9 თ, 8 ჱ, 7 ზ, 6 ვ, 5 ე, 4 დ, 3 გ, 2 ბ, 1 ა */
}
@counter-style gujarati {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\AE6" "\AE7" "\AE8" "\AE9" "\AEA" "\AEB" "\AEC" "\AED" "\AEE" "\AEF";
/* ૦ ૧ ૨ ૩ ૪ ૫ ૬ ૭ ૮ ૯ */
}
@counter-style gurmukhi {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\A66" "\A67" "\A68" "\A69" "\A6A" "\A6B" "\A6C" "\A6D" "\A6E" "\A6F";
/* ੦ ੧ ੨ ੩ ੪ ੫ ੬ ੭ ੮ ੯ */
}
@counter-style hebrew {
system: additive;
range: 1 10999;
additive-symbols: 10000 \5D9\5F3, 9000 \5D8\5F3, 8000 \5D7\5F3, 7000 \5D6\5F3, 6000 \5D5\5F3, 5000 \5D4\5F3, 4000 \5D3\5F3, 3000 \5D2\5F3, 2000 \5D1\5F3, 1000 \5D0\5F3, 400 \5EA, 300 \5E9, 200 \5E8, 100 \5E7, 90 \5E6, 80 \5E4, 70 \5E2, 60 \5E1, 50 \5E0, 40 \5DE, 30 \5DC, 20 \5DB, 19 \5D9\5D8, 18 \5D9\5D7, 17 \5D9\5D6, 16 \5D8\5D6, 15 \5D8\5D5, 10 \5D9, 9 \5D8, 8 \5D7, 7 \5D6, 6 \5D5, 5 \5D4, 4 \5D3, 3 \5D2, 2 \5D1, 1 \5D0;
/* 10000 י׳, 9000 ט׳, 8000 ח׳, 7000 ז׳, 6000 ו׳, 5000 ה׳, 4000 ד׳, 3000 ג׳, 2000 ב׳, 1000 א׳, 400 ת, 300 ש, 200 ר, 100 ק, 90 צ, 80 פ, 70 ע, 60 ס, 50 נ, 40 מ, 30 ל, 20 כ, 19 יט, 18 יח, 17 יז, 16 טז, 15 טו, 10 י, 9 ט, 8 ח, 7 ז, 6 ו, 5 ה, 4 ד, 3 ג, 2 ב, 1 א */
/* This system manually specifies the values for 19-15 to force the correct display of 15 and 16, which are commonly rewritten to avoid a close resemblance to the Tetragrammaton. */
/* Implementations MAY choose to implement this manually to a higher range; see note below. */
}
@counter-style kannada {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\CE6" "\CE7" "\CE8" "\CE9" "\CEA" "\CEB" "\CEC" "\CED" "\CEE" "\CEF";
/* ೦ ೧ ೨ ೩ ೪ ೫ ೬ ೭ ೮ ೯ */
}
@counter-style lao {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\ED0" "\ED1" "\ED2" "\ED3" "\ED4" "\ED5" "\ED6" "\ED7" "\ED8" "\ED9";
/* ໐ ໑ ໒ ໓ ໔ ໕ ໖ ໗ ໘ ໙ */
}
@counter-style malayalam {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\D66" "\D67" "\D68" "\D69" "\D6A" "\D6B" "\D6C" "\D6D" "\D6E" "\D6F";
/* ൦ ൧ ൨ ൩ ൪ ൫ ൬ ൭ ൮ ൯ */
}
@counter-style mongolian {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\1810" "\1811" "\1812" "\1813" "\1814" "\1815" "\1816" "\1817" "\1818" "\1819";
/* ᠐ ᠑ ᠒ ᠓ ᠔ ᠕ ᠖ ᠗ ᠘ ᠙ */
}
@counter-style myanmar {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\1040" "\1041" "\1042" "\1043" "\1044" "\1045" "\1046" "\1047" "\1048" "\1049";
/* ၀ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ */
}
@counter-style oriya {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\B66" "\B67" "\B68" "\B69" "\B6A" "\B6B" "\B6C" "\B6D" "\B6E" "\B6F";
/* ୦ ୧ ୨ ୩ ୪ ୫ ୬ ୭ ୮ ୯ */
}
@counter-style persian {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\6F0" "\6F1" "\6F2" "\6F3" "\6F4" "\6F5" "\6F6" "\6F7" "\6F8" "\6F9";
/* ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹ */
}
@counter-style lower-roman {
system: additive;
range: 1 3999;
additive-symbols: 1000 m, 900 cm, 500 d, 400 cd, 100 c, 90 xc, 50 l, 40 xl, 10 x, 9 ix, 5 v, 4 iv, 1 i;
}
@counter-style upper-roman {
system: additive;
range: 1 3999;
additive-symbols: 1000 M, 900 CM, 500 D, 400 CD, 100 C, 90 XC, 50 L, 40 XL, 10 X, 9 IX, 5 V, 4 IV, 1 I;
}
@counter-style tamil {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\BE6" "\BE7" "\BE8" "\BE9" "\BEA" "\BEB" "\BEC" "\BED" "\BEE" "\BEF";
/* ௦ ௧ ௨ ௩ ௪ ௫ ௬ ௭ ௮ ௯ */
}
@counter-style telugu {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\C66" "\C67" "\C68" "\C69" "\C6A" "\C6B" "\C6C" "\C6D" "\C6E" "\C6F";
/* ౦ ౧ ౨ ౩ ౪ ౫ ౬ ౭ ౮ ౯ */
}
@counter-style thai {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\E50" "\E51" "\E52" "\E53" "\E54" "\E55" "\E56" "\E57" "\E58" "\E59";
/* ๐ ๑ ๒ ๓ ๔ ๕ ๖ ๗ ๘ ๙ */
}
@counter-style tibetan {
system: numeric;
symbols: "\F20" "\F21" "\F22" "\F23" "\F24" "\F25" "\F26" "\F27" "\F28" "\F29";
/* ༠ ༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩ */
}
</bdo></pre>
Implementations must implement ''hebrew'' at least to the range specified in the ''@counter-style'' rule above,
but may implement it to a higher range.
If they do so,
the corresponding 'range' descriptor must reflect the implemented range.
<h3 id='simple-alphabetic'>
Alphabetic: ''lower-alpha'', ''lower-latin'', ''upper-alpha'', ''upper-latin'', ''cjk-earthly-branch'', ''cjk-heavenly-stem'', ''lower-greek'', ''hiragana'', ''hiragana-iroha'', ''katakana'', ''katakana-iroha''</h3>
<dl dfn-type=value dfn-for="<counter-style-name>">
<dt><dfn id=lower-alpha>lower-alpha</dfn>
<dt><dfn id=lower-latin>lower-latin</dfn>
<dd>
Lowercase ASCII letters
(e.g., a, b, c, ..., z, aa, ab).
<dt><dfn id=upper-alpha>upper-alpha</dfn>
<dt><dfn id=upper-latin>upper-latin</dfn>
<dd>
Uppercase ASCII letters
(e.g., A, B, C, ..., Z, AA, AB).
<dt><dfn>cjk-earthly-branch</dfn>
<dd>
Han "Earthly Branch" ordinals
(e.g., 子, 丑, 寅, ..., 亥, 子子, 子丑).
<dt><dfn>cjk-heavenly-stem</dfn>
<dd>
Han "Heavenly Stem" ordinals
(e.g., 甲, 乙, 丙, ..., 癸, 甲甲, 甲乙).
<dt><dfn id=lower-greek>lower-greek</dfn>
<dd>
Lowercase classical Greek
(e.g., α, β, γ, ..., ω, αα, αβ).
<dt><dfn id=hiragana>hiragana</dfn>
<dd>
Dictionary-order hiragana lettering
(e.g., あ, い, う, ..., ん, ああ, あい).
<dt><dfn id=hiragana-iroha>hiragana-iroha</dfn>
<dd>
Iroha-order hiragana lettering
(e.g., い, ろ, は, ..., す, いい, いろ).
<dt><dfn id=katakana>katakana</dfn>
<dd>
Dictionary-order katakana lettering
(e.g., ア, イ, ウ, ..., ン, アア, アイ).
<dt><dfn id=katakana-iroha>katakana-iroha</dfn>
<dd>
Iroha-order katakana lettering
(e.g., イ, ロ, ハ, ..., ス, イイ, イロ)
</dl>
The following stylesheet fragment provides the normative definition of these predefined counter styles:
<pre class='stylesheet'><bdo dir=ltr>
@counter-style lower-alpha {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z;
}
@counter-style lower-latin {
system: extends lower-alpha;
}
@counter-style upper-alpha {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z;
}
@counter-style upper-latin {
system: extends upper-alpha;
}
@counter-style cjk-earthly-branch {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\5B50" "\4E11" "\5BC5" "\536F" "\8FB0" "\5DF3" "\5348" "\672A" "\7533" "\9149" "\620C" "\4EA5";
/* 子 丑 寅 卯 辰 巳 午 未 申 酉 戌 亥 */
suffix: "、";
}
@counter-style cjk-heavenly-stem {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\7532" "\4E59" "\4E19" "\4E01" "\620A" "\5DF1" "\5E9A" "\8F9B" "\58EC" "\7678";
/* 甲 乙 丙 丁 戊 己 庚 辛 壬 癸 */
suffix: "、";
}
@counter-style lower-greek {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\3B1" "\3B2" "\3B3" "\3B4" "\3B5" "\3B6" "\3B7" "\3B8" "\3B9" "\3BA" "\3BB" "\3BC" "\3BD" "\3BE" "\3BF" "\3C0" "\3C1" "\3C3" "\3C4" "\3C5" "\3C6" "\3C7" "\3C8" "\3C9";
/* α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω */
}
@counter-style hiragana {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\3042" "\3044" "\3046" "\3048" "\304A" "\304B" "\304D" "\304F" "\3051" "\3053" "\3055" "\3057" "\3059" "\305B" "\305D" "\305F" "\3061" "\3064" "\3066" "\3068" "\306A" "\306B" "\306C" "\306D" "\306E" "\306F" "\3072" "\3075" "\3078" "\307B" "\307E" "\307F" "\3080" "\3081" "\3082" "\3084" "\3086" "\3088" "\3089" "\308A" "\308B" "\308C" "\308D" "\308F" "\3090" "\3091" "\3092" "\3093";
/* あ い う え お か き く け こ さ し す せ そ た ち つ て と な に ぬ ね の は ひ ふ へ ほ ま み む め も や ゆ よ ら り る れ ろ わ ゐ ゑ を ん */
suffix: "、";
}
@counter-style hiragana-iroha {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\3044" "\308D" "\306F" "\306B" "\307B" "\3078" "\3068" "\3061" "\308A" "\306C" "\308B" "\3092" "\308F" "\304B" "\3088" "\305F" "\308C" "\305D" "\3064" "\306D" "\306A" "\3089" "\3080" "\3046" "\3090" "\306E" "\304A" "\304F" "\3084" "\307E" "\3051" "\3075" "\3053" "\3048" "\3066" "\3042" "\3055" "\304D" "\3086" "\3081" "\307F" "\3057" "\3091" "\3072" "\3082" "\305B" "\3059";
/* い ろ は に ほ へ と ち り ぬ る を わ か よ た れ そ つ ね な ら む う ゐ の お く や ま け ふ こ え て あ さ き ゆ め み し ゑ ひ も せ す */
suffix: "、";
}
@counter-style katakana {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\30A2" "\30A4" "\30A6" "\30A8" "\30AA" "\30AB" "\30AD" "\30AF" "\30B1" "\30B3" "\30B5" "\30B7" "\30B9" "\30BB" "\30BD" "\30BF" "\30C1" "\30C4" "\30C6" "\30C8" "\30CA" "\30CB" "\30CC" "\30CD" "\30CE" "\30CF" "\30D2" "\30D5" "\30D8" "\30DB" "\30DE" "\30DF" "\30E0" "\30E1" "\30E2" "\30E4" "\30E6" "\30E8" "\30E9" "\30EA" "\30EB" "\30EC" "\30ED" "\30EF" "\30F0" "\30F1" "\30F2" "\30F3";
/* ア イ ウ エ オ カ キ ク ケ コ サ シ ス セ ソ タ チ ツ テ ト ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ハ ヒ フ ヘ ホ マ ミ ム メ モ ヤ ユ ヨ ラ リ ル レ ロ ワ ヰ ヱ ヲ ン */
suffix: "、";
}
@counter-style katakana-iroha {
system: alphabetic;
symbols: "\30A4" "\30ED" "\30CF" "\30CB" "\30DB" "\30D8" "\30C8" "\30C1" "\30EA" "\30CC" "\30EB" "\30F2" "\30EF" "\30AB" "\30E8" "\30BF" "\30EC" "\30BD" "\30C4" "\30CD" "\30CA" "\30E9" "\30E0" "\30A6" "\30F0" "\30CE" "\30AA" "\30AF" "\30E4" "\30DE" "\30B1" "\30D5" "\30B3" "\30A8" "\30C6" "\30A2" "\30B5" "\30AD" "\30E6" "\30E1" "\30DF" "\30B7" "\30F1" "\30D2" "\30E2" "\30BB" "\30B9";
/* イ ロ ハ ニ ホ ヘ ト チ リ ヌ ル ヲ ワ カ ヨ タ レ ソ ツ ネ ナ ラ ム ウ ヰ ノ オ ク ヤ マ ケ フ コ エ テ ア サ キ ユ メ ミ シ ヱ ヒ モ セ ス */
suffix: "、";
}
</bdo></pre>
<h3 id='simple-symbolic'>
Symbolic: ''disc'', ''circle'', ''square'', ''disclosure-open'', ''disclosure-closed''</h3>
<dl dfn-type=value dfn-for="<counter-style-name>">
<dt><dfn id=disc>disc</dfn>
<dd>A filled circle, similar to • U+2022 BULLET.
<dt><dfn id=circle>circle</dfn>
<dd>A hollow circle, similar to ◦ U+25E6 WHITE BULLET.
<dt><dfn id=square>square</dfn>
<dd>A filled square, similar to ◾ U+25FE BLACK MEDIUM SMALL SQUARE.
<dt><dfn id=disclosure-open>disclosure-open</dfn>
<dt><dfn id=disclosure-closed>disclosure-closed</dfn>
<dd>
Symbols appropriate for indicating an open or closed disclosure widget,
such as the HTML <{details}> element.
</dl>
The ''disc'' counter-style must not be overridable with a ''@counter-style'' rule,
so that the initial value of 'list-style-type' is well-known to the User Agent.
The following stylesheet fragment provides the normative definition of these predefined counter styles:
<pre class='stylesheet'>
@counter-style disc {
system: cyclic;
symbols: \2022;
/* • */
suffix: " ";
}
@counter-style circle {
system: cyclic;
symbols: \25E6;
/* ◦ */
suffix: " ";
}
@counter-style square {
system: cyclic;
symbols: \25FE;
/* ◾ */
suffix: " ";
}
@counter-style disclosure-open {
system: cyclic;
suffix: " ";
/* for symbols, see normative text below */
}
@counter-style disclosure-closed {
system: cyclic;
suffix: " ";
/* for symbols, see normative text below */
}
</pre>
Alternately, a browser may render these styles using a browser-generated image instead of the defined character.
If so, the image must look similar to the character,
and must be sized to attractively fill a 1em by 1em square.
For the ''disclosure-open'' and ''disclosure-closed'' counter styles,
the marker must be an image or character suitable for indicating
the open and closed states of a disclosure widget,
such as HTML's <{details}> element.
If the image is directional,
it must respond to the <a>writing mode</a> of the element,
similar to the <a href="https://drafts.csswg.org/css4-images/#bidi-images">bidi-sensitive images</a> feature of the Images 4 module.
For example, the ''disclosure-closed'' style might use the characters
U+25B8 BLACK RIGHT-POINTING SMALL TRIANGLE (▸)
and U+25C2 BLACK LEFT-POINTING SMALL TRIANGLE (◂),
while the ''disclosure-open'' style might use the character
U+25BE BLACK DOWN-POINTING SMALL TRIANGLE (▾).
<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<h2 id='complex-predefined-counters'>
Complex Predefined Counter Styles</h2>
While authors may define their own counter styles using the ''@counter-style'' rule
or rely on the set of predefined counter styles,
a few counter styles are described by rules that are too complex to be captured by the predefined algorithms.
These counter styles are described in this section.
Some of the counter styles specified in this section
have custom algorithms for generating counter values,
but are otherwise identical to a counter style defined via the ''@counter-style'' rule.
For example, an author can reference one of these styles in an ''extends'' system,
reusing the algorithm but swapping out some of the other descriptors.
All of the counter styles defined in this section have a <a lt='speak-as' descriptor>spoken form</a> of ''numbers'',
and <a>use a negative sign</a>.
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<h3 id='complex-cjk'>
Longhand East Asian Counter Styles</h3>
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean have counter styles
which have a “longhand” nature,
similar to “thirteen thousand one hundred and twenty-three” in English.
Each has both formal and informal variants.
The formal styles are typically used in financial and legal documents,
as their characters are more difficult to alter into each other.
<div class="example">
The following table shows examples of these styles, particularly some ways in which they differ.
<table class="data">
<thead>
<tr><th>Counter Style
<th>0
<th>1
<th>2
<th>3
<th>10
<th>11
<th>99
<th>100
<th>101
<th>6001
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr><th scope="row">''japanese-informal''
<td>〇
<td>一
<td>二
<td>三
<td>十
<td>十一
<td>九十九
<td>百
<td>百一
<td>六千一
<tr><th scope="row">''japanese-formal''
<td>零
<td>壱
<td>弐
<td>参
<td>壱拾
<td>壱拾壱
<td>九拾九
<td>壱百
<td>壱百壱
<td>六阡壱
<tr><th scope="row">''korean-hangul-formal''
<td>영
<td>일
<td>이
<td>삼
<td>일십
<td>일십일
<td>구십구
<td>일백
<td>일백일
<td>육천일
<tr><th scope="row">''korean-hanja-informal''
<td>零
<td>一
<td>二
<td>三
<td>十
<td>十一
<td>九十九
<td>百
<td>百一
<td>六千一
<tr><th scope="row">''korean-hanja-formal''
<td>零
<td>壹
<td>貳
<td>參
<td>壹拾
<td>壹拾壹
<td>九拾九
<td>壹百
<td>壹百壹
<td>六仟壹
<tr><th scope="row">''simp-chinese-informal''
<td>零
<td>一
<td>二
<td>三
<td>十
<td>十一
<td>九十九
<td>一百
<td>一百零一
<td>六千零一
<tr><th scope="row">''simp-chinese-formal''
<td>零
<td>壹
<td>贰
<td>叁
<td>壹拾
<td>壹拾壹
<td>玖拾玖
<td>壹佰
<td>壹佰零壹
<td>陆仟零壹
<tr><th scope="row">''trad-chinese-informal''
<td>零
<td>一
<td>二
<td>三
<td>十
<td>十一
<td>九十九
<td>一百
<td>一百零一
<td>六千零一
<tr><th scope="row">''trad-chinese-formal''
<td>零
<td>壹
<td>貳
<td>參
<td>壹拾
<td>壹拾壹
<td>玖拾玖
<td>壹佰
<td>壹佰零壹
<td>陸仟零壹
</tbody>
</table>
</div>
Because opinions differ on how best to represent numbers 10k or greater
using the longhand CJK styles,
all of the counter styles defined in this section are defined to have a range of -9999 to 9999,
but implementations may support a larger range.
Outside the implementation-supported range,
the fallback is ''cjk-decimal''.
Note: Implementations are encouraged to research and implement counter representations beyond 10k
and report back to the CSS Working Group with data
when a generally-accepted answer is discovered.
Some previous research on this topic is contained in an <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-css-counter-styles-3-20130718/#extended-cjk">earlier draft</a>.
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<h4 id='limited-japanese'>
Japanese: ''japanese-informal'' and ''japanese-formal''</h4>
<dl dfn-type="value" dfn-for="<counter-style>">
<dt><dfn id="japanese-informal">japanese-informal</dfn>
<dd>
Informal Japanese Kanji numbering
(e.g., 千百十一)
<dt><dfn id="japanese-formal">japanese-formal</dfn>
<dd>
Formal Japanese Kanji numbering
(e.g. 壱阡壱百壱拾壱)
</dl>
<pre class=stylesheet>
@counter-style japanese-informal {
system: additive;
range: -9999 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 \4E5D\5343, 8000 \516B\5343, 7000 \4E03\5343, 6000 \516D\5343, 5000 \4E94\5343, 4000 \56DB\5343, 3000 \4E09\5343, 2000 \4E8C\5343, 1000 \5343, 900 \4E5D\767E, 800 \516B\767E, 700 \4E03\767E, 600 \516D\767E, 500 \4E94\767E, 400 \56DB\767E, 300 \4E09\767E, 200 \4E8C\767E, 100 \767E, 90 \4E5D\5341, 80 \516B\5341, 70 \4E03\5341, 60 \516D\5341, 50 \4E94\5341, 40 \56DB\5341, 30 \4E09\5341, 20 \4E8C\5341, 10 \5341, 9 \4E5D, 8 \516B, 7 \4E03, 6 \516D, 5 \4E94, 4 \56DB, 3 \4E09, 2 \4E8C, 1 \4E00, 0 \3007;
/* 9000 九千, 8000 八千, 7000 七千, 6000 六千, 5000 五千, 4000 四千, 3000 三千, 2000 二千, 1000 千, 900 九百, 800 八百, 700 七百, 600 六百, 500 五百, 400 四百, 300 三百, 200 二百, 100 百, 90 九十, 80 八十, 70 七十, 60 六十, 50 五十, 40 四十, 30 三十, 20 二十, 10 十, 9 九, 8 八, 7 七, 6 六, 5 五, 4 四, 3 三, 2 二, 1 一, 0 〇 */
suffix: '\3001';
/* 、 */
negative: "\30DE\30A4\30CA\30B9";
/* マイナス */
fallback: cjk-decimal;
}
@counter-style japanese-formal {
system: additive;
range: -9999 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 \4E5D\9621, 8000 \516B\9621, 7000 \4E03\9621, 6000 \516D\9621, 5000 \4F0D\9621, 4000 \56DB\9621, 3000 \53C2\9621, 2000 \5F10\9621, 1000 \58F1\9621, 900 \4E5D\767E, 800 \516B\767E, 700 \4E03\767E, 600 \516D\767E, 500 \4F0D\767E, 400 \56DB\767E, 300 \53C2\767E, 200 \5F10\767E, 100 \58F1\767E, 90 \4E5D\62FE, 80 \516B\62FE, 70 \4E03\62FE, 60 \516D\62FE, 50 \4F0D\62FE, 40 \56DB\62FE, 30 \53C2\62FE, 20 \5F10\62FE, 10 \58F1\62FE, 9 \4E5D, 8 \516B, 7 \4E03, 6 \516D, 5 \4F0D, 4 \56DB, 3 \53C2, 2 \5F10, 1 \58F1, 0 \96F6;
/* 9000 九阡, 8000 八阡, 7000 七阡, 6000 六阡, 5000 伍阡, 4000 四阡, 3000 参阡, 2000 弐阡, 1000 壱阡, 900 九百, 800 八百, 700 七百, 600 六百, 500 伍百, 400 四百, 300 参百, 200 弐百, 100 壱百, 90 九拾, 80 八拾, 70 七拾, 60 六拾, 50 伍拾, 40 四拾, 30 参拾, 20 弐拾, 10 壱拾, 9 九, 8 八, 7 七, 6 六, 5 伍, 4 四, 3 参, 2 弐, 1 壱, 0 零 */
suffix: '\3001';
/* 、 */
negative: "\30DE\30A4\30CA\30B9";
/* マイナス */
fallback: cjk-decimal;
}
</pre>
<h4 id=limited-korean>
Korean: ''korean-hangul-formal'', ''korean-hanja-informal'', and ''korean-hanja-formal''</h4>
<dl dfn-for="<counter-style-name>" dfn-type="value">
<dt><dfn id="korean-hangul-formal">korean-hangul-formal</dfn>
<dd>
Korean Hangul numbering
(e.g., 일천일백일십일)
<dt><dfn id="korean-hanja-informal">korean-hanja-informal</dfn>
<dd>
Informal Korean Hanja numbering
(e.g., 千百十一)
<dt><dfn id="korean-hanja-formal">korean-hanja-formal</dfn>
<dd>
Formal Korean Han (Hanja) numbering
(e.g., 壹仟壹百壹拾壹)
</dl>
<pre class=stylesheet>
@counter-style korean-hangul-formal {
system: additive;
range: -9999 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 \AD6C\CC9C, 8000 \D314\CC9C, 7000 \CE60\CC9C, 6000 \C721\CC9C, 5000 \C624\CC9C, 4000 \C0AC\CC9C, 3000 \C0BC\CC9C, 2000 \C774\CC9C, 1000 \C77C\CC9C, 900 \AD6C\BC31, 800 \D314\BC31, 700 \CE60\BC31, 600 \C721\BC31, 500 \C624\BC31, 400 \C0AC\BC31, 300 \C0BC\BC31, 200 \C774\BC31, 100 \C77C\BC31, 90 \AD6C\C2ED, 80 \D314\C2ED, 70 \CE60\C2ED, 60 \C721\C2ED, 50 \C624\C2ED, 40 \C0AC\C2ED, 30 \C0BC\C2ED, 20 \C774\C2ED, 10 \C77C\C2ED, 9 \AD6C, 8 \D314, 7 \CE60, 6 \C721, 5 \C624, 4 \C0AC, 3 \C0BC, 2 \C774, 1 \C77C, 0 \C601;
/* 9000 구천, 8000 팔천, 7000 칠천, 6000 육천, 5000 오천, 4000 사천, 3000 삼천, 2000 이천, 1000 일천, 900 구백, 800 팔백, 700 칠백, 600 육백, 500 오백, 400 사백, 300 삼백, 200 이백, 100 일백, 90 구십, 80 팔십, 70 칠십, 60 육십, 50 오십, 40 사십, 30 삼십, 20 이십, 10 일십, 9 구, 8 팔, 7 칠, 6 육, 5 오, 4 사, 3 삼, 2 이, 1 일, 0 영 */
suffix: ', ';
negative: "\B9C8\C774\B108\C2A4 ";
/* 마이너스 (followed by a space) */
}
@counter-style korean-hanja-informal {
system: additive;
range: -9999 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 \4E5D\5343, 8000 \516B\5343, 7000 \4E03\5343, 6000 \516D\5343, 5000 \4E94\5343, 4000 \56DB\5343, 3000 \4E09\5343, 2000 \4E8C\5343, 1000 \5343, 900 \4E5D\767E, 800 \516B\767E, 700 \4E03\767E, 600 \516D\767E, 500 \4E94\767E, 400 \56DB\767E, 300 \4E09\767E, 200 \4E8C\767E, 100 \767E, 90 \4E5D\5341, 80 \516B\5341, 70 \4E03\5341, 60 \516D\5341, 50 \4E94\5341, 40 \56DB\5341, 30 \4E09\5341, 20 \4E8C\5341, 10 \5341, 9 \4E5D, 8 \516B, 7 \4E03, 6 \516D, 5 \4E94, 4 \56DB, 3 \4E09, 2 \4E8C, 1 \4E00, 0 \96F6;
/* 9000 九千, 8000 八千, 7000 七千, 6000 六千, 5000 五千, 4000 四千, 3000 三千, 2000 二千, 1000 千, 900 九百, 800 八百, 700 七百, 600 六百, 500 五百, 400 四百, 300 三百, 200 二百, 100 百, 90 九十, 80 八十, 70 七十, 60 六十, 50 五十, 40 四十, 30 三十, 20 二十, 10 十, 9 九, 8 八, 7 七, 6 六, 5 五, 4 四, 3 三, 2 二, 1 一, 0 零 */
suffix: ', ';
negative: "\B9C8\C774\B108\C2A4 ";
/* 마이너스 (followed by a space) */
}
@counter-style korean-hanja-formal {
system: additive;
range: -9999 9999;
additive-symbols: 9000 \4E5D\4EDF, 8000 \516B\4EDF, 7000 \4E03\4EDF, 6000 \516D\4EDF, 5000 \4E94\4EDF, 4000 \56DB\4EDF, 3000 \53C3\4EDF, 2000 \8CB3\4EDF, 1000 \58F9\4EDF, 900 \4E5D\767E, 800 \516B\767E, 700 \4E03\767E, 600 \516D\767E, 500 \4E94\767E, 400 \56DB\767E, 300 \53C3\767E, 200 \8CB3\767E, 100 \58F9\767E, 90 \4E5D\62FE, 80 \516B\62FE, 70 \4E03\62FE, 60 \516D\62FE, 50 \4E94\62FE, 40 \56DB\62FE, 30 \53C3\62FE, 20 \8CB3\62FE, 10 \58F9\62FE, 9 \4E5D, 8 \516B, 7 \4E03, 6 \516D, 5 \4E94, 4 \56DB, 3 \53C3, 2 \8CB3, 1 \58F9, 0 \96F6;
/* 9000 九仟, 8000 八仟, 7000 七仟, 6000 六仟, 5000 五仟, 4000 四仟, 3000 參仟, 2000 貳仟, 1000 壹仟, 900 九百, 800 八百, 700 七百, 600 六百, 500 五百, 400 四百, 300 參百, 200 貳百, 100 壹百, 90 九拾, 80 八拾, 70 七拾, 60 六拾, 50 五拾, 40 四拾, 30 參拾, 20 貳拾, 10 壹拾, 9 九, 8 八, 7 七, 6 六, 5 五, 4 四, 3 參, 2 貳, 1 壹, 0 零 */
suffix: ', ';
negative: "\B9C8\C774\B108\C2A4 ";
/* 마이너스 (followed by a space) */
}
</pre>
<h4 id='limited-chinese'>
Chinese: ''simp-chinese-informal'', ''simp-chinese-formal'', ''trad-chinese-informal'', and ''trad-chinese-formal''</h4>
<dl dfn-type="value" dfn-for="<counter-style>">
<dt><dfn id="simp-chinese-informal">simp-chinese-informal</dfn>
<dd>
Simplified Chinese informal numbering
(e.g., 一千一百一十一)
<dt><dfn id="simp-chinese-formal">simp-chinese-formal</dfn>
<dd>
Simplified Chinese formal numbering
(e.g. 壹仟壹佰壹拾壹)
<dt><dfn id="trad-chinese-informal">trad-chinese-informal</dfn>
<dd>
Traditional Chinese informal numbering
(e.g., 一千一百一十一)
<dt><dfn id="trad-chinese-formal">trad-chinese-formal</dfn>
<dd>
Traditional Chinese formal numbering
(e.g., 壹仟壹佰壹拾壹)
<dt><dfn id="cjk-ideographic">cjk-ideographic</dfn>
<dd>
This counter style is identical to ''trad-chinese-informal''.
(It exists for legacy reasons.)
</dl>
The Chinese longhand styles are defined by almost identical algorithms
(specified as a single algorithm here, with the differences called out when relevant),
but use different sets of characters,
as specified by the table following the algorithm.
<ol>
<li>If the counter value is 0, the representation is the character for 0
specified for the given counter style. Skip the rest of this algorithm.
<li>Initially represent the counter value as a decimal number. For each
digit that is not 0, append the appropriate digit marker to the digit.
The ones digit has no marker.
<li>For the informal styles, if the counter value is between ten and
nineteen, remove the tens digit (leave the digit marker).
<li>Drop any trailing zeros and collapse any remaining zeros into a single
zero digit.
<li>Replace the digits 0-9 with the appropriate character for the given
counter style. Return the resultant string as the representation of the
counter value.
</ol>
For all of these counter styles, the 'suffix' is "、" U+3001,
the 'fallback' is ''cjk-decimal'',
the 'range' is ''-9999 9999'',
and the 'negative' value is given in the table of symbols for each style.
The following tables define the characters used in these styles:
<table class='data'>
<thead>
<tr>
<th rowspan=2 scope=col>Values
<th colspan=4 scope=col>Codepoints
<tr>
<th>simp-chinese-informal
<th>simp-chinese-formal
<th>trad-chinese-informal
<th>trad-chinese-formal
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 0
<td>零 U+96F6
<td>零 U+96F6
<td>零 U+96F6
<td>零 U+96F6
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 1
<td>一 U+4E00
<td>壹 U+58F9
<td>一 U+4E00
<td>壹 U+58F9
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 2
<td>二 U+4E8C
<td>贰 U+8D30
<td>二 U+4E8C
<td>貳 U+8CB3
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 3
<td>三 U+4E09
<td>叁 U+53C1
<td>三 U+4E09
<td>參 U+53C3
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 4
<td>四 U+56DB
<td>肆 U+8086
<td>四 U+56DB
<td>肆 U+8086
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 5
<td>五 U+4E94
<td>伍 U+4F0D
<td>五 U+4E94
<td>伍 U+4F0D
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 6
<td>六 U+516D
<td>陆 U+9646
<td>六 U+516D
<td>陸 U+9678
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 7
<td>七 U+4E03
<td>柒 U+67D2
<td>七 U+4E03
<td>柒 U+67D2
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 8
<td>八 U+516B
<td>捌 U+634C
<td>八 U+516B
<td>捌 U+634C
<tr>
<th scope=row>Digit 9
<td>九 U+4E5D
<td>玖 U+7396
<td>九 U+4E5D
<td>玖 U+7396
<tr>
<th scope=row>Tens Digit Marker
<td>十 U+5341
<td>拾 U+62FE
<td>十 U+5341
<td>拾 U+62FE
<tr>
<th scope=row>Hundreds Digit Marker
<td>百 U+767E
<td>佰 U+4F70
<td>百 U+767E
<td>佰 U+4F70
<tr>
<th scope=row>Thousands Digit Marker
<td>千 U+5343
<td>仟 U+4EDF
<td>千 U+5343
<td>仟 U+4EDF
<tr>
<th scope=row>Negative Sign
<td>负 U+8D1F
<td>负 U+8D1F
<td>負 U+8CA0
<td>負 U+8CA0
</tbody>
</table>
<div class='note'>
For reference, here are the first 120 values for the ''simp-chinese-informal'' style:
<pre>
1     一 41   四十一 81   八十一
2     二 42   四十二 82   八十二
3     三 43   四十三 83   八十三
4     四 44   四十四 84   八十四
5     五 45   四十五 85   八十五
6     六 46   四十六 86   八十六
7     七 47   四十七 87   八十七
8     八 48   四十八 88   八十八
9     九 49   四十九 89   八十九
10     十 50    五十 90    九十
11    十一 51   五十一 91   九十一
12    十二 52   五十二 92   九十二
13    十三 53   五十三 93   九十三
14    十四 54   五十四 94   九十四
15    十五 55   五十五 95   九十五
16    十六 56   五十六 96   九十六
17    十七 57   五十七 97   九十七
18    十八 58   五十八 98   九十八
19    十九 59   五十九 99   九十九
20    二十 60    六十 100    一百
21   二十一 61   六十一 101  一百零一
22   二十二 62   六十二 102  一百零二
23   二十三 63   六十三 103  一百零三
24   二十四 64   六十四 104  一百零四
25   二十五 65   六十五 105  一百零五
26   二十六 66   六十六 106  一百零六
27   二十七 67   六十七 107  一百零七
28   二十八 68   六十八 108  一百零八
29   二十九 69   六十九 109  一百零九
30    三十 70    七十 110  一百一十
31   三十一 71   七十一 111 一百一十一
32   三十二 72   七十二 112 一百一十二
33   三十三 73   七十三 113 一百一十三
34   三十四 74   七十四 114 一百一十四
35   三十五 75   七十五 115 一百一十五
36   三十六 76   七十六 116 一百一十六
37   三十七 77   七十七 117 一百一十七
38   三十八 78   七十八 118 一百一十八
39   三十九 79   七十九 119 一百一十九
40    四十 80    八十 120  一百二十</pre>
</div>
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<h3 id='ethiopic-numeric-counter-style'>
Ethiopic Numeric Counter Style: ''ethiopic-numeric''</h3>
The <dfn value for="<counter-style-name>">ethiopic-numeric</dfn> counter style is defined for all positive non-zero numbers.
The following algorithm converts decimal digits to ethiopic numbers:
<ol>
<li>
If the number is 1,
return "፩" (U+1369).
<li>
Split the number into groups of two digits,
starting with the least significant decimal digit.
<li>
Index each group sequentially,
starting from the least significant as group number zero.
<li>
If the group has the value zero,
or if the group is the most significant one and has the value 1,
or if the group has an odd index (as given in the previous step) and has the value 1,
then remove the digits
(but leave the group, so it still has a separator appended below).
<li>
For each remaining digit,
substitute the relevant ethiopic character from the list below.
<table class=data>
<thead>
<tr>
<th colspan="3">Tens
<th colspan="3">Units
<tr>
<th>Values
<th colspan="2">Codepoints
<th>Values
<th colspan="2">Codepoints
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>10
<td>፲
<td>U+1372
<td>1
<td>፩
<td>U+1369
<tr>
<td>20
<td>፳
<td>U+1373
<td>2
<td>፪
<td>U+136A
<tr>
<td>30
<td>፴
<td>U+1374
<td>3
<td>፫
<td>U+136B
<tr>
<td>40
<td>፵
<td>U+1375
<td>4
<td>፬
<td>U+136C
<tr>
<td>50
<td>፶
<td>U+1376
<td>5
<td>፭
<td>U+136D
<tr>
<td>60
<td>፷
<td>U+1377
<td>6
<td>፮
<td>U+136E
<tr>
<td>70
<td>፸
<td>U+1378
<td>7
<td>፯
<td>U+136F
<tr>
<td>80
<td>፹
<td>U+1379
<td>8
<td>፰
<td>U+1370
<tr>
<td>90
<td>፺
<td>U+137A
<td>9
<td>፱
<td>U+1371
</table>
<li>
For each group with an odd index (as given in the second step),
except groups which originally had a value of zero,
append ፻ U+137B.
<li>
For each group with an even index (as given in the second step),
except the group with index 0,
append ፼ U+137C.
<li>
Concatenate the groups into one string,
and return it.
</ol>
For this system, the name is "ethiopic-numeric",
the 'range' is ''1 infinite'',
the 'suffix' is <code>"/ "</code> (U+002F SOLIDUS followed by a U+0020 SPACE),
and the rest of the descriptors have their initial value.
<div class="example">
The decimal number 100, in ethiopic, is ፻ U+137B <!-- odd -->
The decimal number 78010092, in ethiopic, is
፸፰፻፩፼፺፪
U+1378 U+1370 U+137B <!-- 70 8 odd --> U+1369 U+137C <!-- 1 even --> U+137A U+136A. <!-- 90 2 -->
The decimal number 780100000092, in ethiopic, is
፸፰፻፩፼፼፺፪
U+1378 U+1370 U+137B <!-- 70 8 odd --> U+1369 U+137C <!-- 1 even --> U+137C <!-- even --> U+137A U+136A. <!-- 90 2 -->
</div>
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<h2 id='additional-predefined'>
Additional Predefined Counter Styles</h2>
The Internationalization Working Group maintains a large list of predefined ''@counter-style'' rules for various world languages
in their <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/predefined-counter-styles/">Predefined Counter Styles</a> document.
[[predefined-counter-styles]]
These additional counter styles are not intended to be supported by user-agents by default,
but can be used by users or authors copying them directly into style sheets.
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<h2 id="apis">APIs</h2>
<h3 id='extentions-to-cssrule-interface'>
Extensions to the <code>CSSRule</code> interface</h3>
The <code>CSSRule</code> interface is extended as follows:
<pre class='idl'>
partial interface CSSRule {
const unsigned short <dfn const for=CSSRule>COUNTER_STYLE_RULE</dfn> = 11;
};
</pre>
<h3 id="the-csscounterstylerule-interface">
The <code>CSSCounterStyleRule</code> interface</h3>
The <a interface>CSSCounterStyleRule</a> interface represents a ''@counter-style'' rule.
<pre class='idl'>
[Exposed=Window]
interface CSSCounterStyleRule : CSSRule {
attribute CSSOMString name;
attribute CSSOMString system;
attribute CSSOMString symbols;
attribute CSSOMString additiveSymbols;
attribute CSSOMString negative;
attribute CSSOMString prefix;
attribute CSSOMString suffix;
attribute CSSOMString range;
attribute CSSOMString pad;
attribute CSSOMString speakAs;
attribute CSSOMString fallback;
};
</pre>
<dl dfn-type=attribute dfn-for=CSSCounterStyleRule>
<dt><dfn>name</dfn>
<dd>
The <var>name</var> attribute on getting must return a <code>CSSOMString</code> object
that contains the serialization of the <<counter-style-name>> defined for the associated rule.
On setting the <var>name</var> attribute, run the following steps:
1. If the value is an <a>ASCII case-insensitive</a> match
for any of the predefined <a>counter styles</a>,
lowercase it.
2. If the value is not "decimal", "disc", or "none",
replace the associated rule's name with an <a>identifier</a> equal to the value.
3. Otherwise, do nothing.
<dt><dfn>system</dfn>
<dt><dfn>symbols</dfn>
<dt><dfn>additiveSymbols</dfn>
<dt><dfn>negative</dfn>
<dt><dfn>prefix</dfn>
<dt><dfn>suffix</dfn>
<dt><dfn>range</dfn>
<dt><dfn>pad</dfn>
<dt><dfn>speakAs</dfn>
<dt><dfn>fallback</dfn>
<dd>
The remaining attributes on getting must return a <code>CSSOMString</code> object
that contains the serialization of the associated descriptor defined for the associated rule.
If the descriptor was not specified in the associated rule,
the attribute must return an empty string.
On setting, run the following steps:
1. <a>Parse a list of component values</a> from the value.
2. If the returned value is invalid according to the given descriptor's grammar,
or would cause the ''@counter-style'' rule to become invalid,
do nothing and abort these steps.
(For example, some systems require the 'symbols' descriptor to contain two values.)
3. If the attribute being set is <a idl>system</a>,
and the new value would change the algorithm used,
do nothing and abort these steps.
<span class='note'>It's okay to change an aspect of the algorithm,
like the <a>first symbol value</a> of a ''system/fixed'' system.</span>
4. Set the descriptor to the value.
</dl>
<h2 id='ua-stylesheet'>
Sample style sheet for HTML</h2>
This section is informative, not normative.
HTML itself defines the styles that apply to its elements,
and in some cases defers to the user agent's discretion.
<pre>
details > summary {
display: list-item;
list-style: disclosure-closed inside;
}
details[open] > summary {
list-style: disclosure-open inside;
}
</pre>
<h2 class='no-num' id='changes'>
Changes</h2>
<h3 id='changes-jun-2015'>
Changes since the Jun 2015 Candidate Recommendation</h3>
Significant changes since the <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2015/CR-css-counter-styles-3-20150611/">June 11 2015 CR</a> draft:
* Exclude "none" and "disc" from being the name of a counter style.
* When setting CSSCounterStyle.name, take the string directly; don't [=CSS/parse=] it as an ident.
* Clarify that counter styles are read out in the element's <a>content language</a>.
* Clarified that 'additive-symbols' tuples must be of <em>strictly</em> decreasing weight.
* Specified that invalid values just invalidate the declaration, not the whole rule.
* ''@counter-style'' rules that are invalid due to missing descriptors just fail to create a <a>counter style</a>;
they're otherwise still valid rules.
A <a href="https://drafts.csswg.org/css-counter-styles-3/issues-cr-20150611">Disposition of Comments</a> is available.
<h3 id='changes-feb-2015'>
Changes since the Feb 2015 Candidate Recommendation</h3>
* Allowed UAs to extend the ''hebrew'' style past the spec-defined limits
(since the current limits are mostly just an artifact of how annoying it is to go higher with the ''@counter-style''-based definition).
<h2 class="no-num" id="acknowledgments">
Acknowledgments</h2>
The following people and documentation they wrote were very useful for defining the numbering systems:
<!-- alphabetical by full name -->
Alexander Savenkov,
Arron Eicholz,
Aryeh Gregor,
Christopher Hoess,
Daniel Yacob,
Frank Tang,
Jonathan Rosenne,
Karl Ove Hufthammer,
Musheg Arakelyan,
Nariné Renard Karapetyan,
Randall Bart,
Richard Ishida,
Simon Montagu (Mozilla, smontagu@smontagu.org)
Special thanks to Xidorn Quan for <em>extensive</em> reviews of all aspects of the spec.
<!-- see http://www.damowmow.com/temp/csswg/lists/part2.html
http://www.qsm.co.il/Hebrew/Gimatria.htm
http://people.netscape.com/smontagu/writings/HebrewNumbers.html
http://www.ethiopic.org/Collation/OrderedLists.html
http://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=102252
http://www.geez.org/Numerals/ -->
<h2 class="no-num" id="priv-sec">
Privacy and Security Considerations</h2>
This specification introduces no new privacy or security considerations.
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