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<pre class='metadata'>
Title: CSS Shapes Module Level 1
Status: ED
Work Status: Testing
Shortname: css-shapes
Level: 1
Group: csswg
TR: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-shapes/
ED: https://drafts.csswg.org/css-shapes/
Previous Version: http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/CR-css-shapes-1-20140320/
Editor: Vincent Hardy, Adobe Systems&#44; Inc., vhardy@adobe.com
Editor: Rossen Atanassov, Microsoft Corporation, ratan@microsoft.com, w3cid 49885
Editor: Alan Stearns, Adobe Systems&#44; Inc., stearns@adobe.com, w3cid 46659
!Issues list: <a href="https://www.w3.org/Bugs/Public/buglist.cgi?query_format=advanced&amp;product=CSS&amp;component=Shapes&amp;resolution=---&amp;cmdtype=doit">In Bugzilla</a>
Abstract: CSS Shapes describe geometric shapes for use in CSS. For Level 1, CSS Shapes can be applied to floats. A circle shape on a float will cause inline content to <a>wrap</a> around the circle shape instead of the float's bounding box.
Link Defaults: css2 (property) margin
</pre>
<pre class='link-defaults'>
spec:css-masking-1; type: value
text: nonzero
text: evenodd
</pre>
<style type="text/css">
.singleImgExample {
display: block;
margin: auto;
}
</style>
<h2 id="intro">
Introduction</h2>
<em>This section is not normative.</em>
Shapes define arbitrary geometries
that can be used as CSS values.
This specification defines properties
to control the geometry
of an element's <a>float area</a>.
The 'shape-outside' property uses shape values
to define the <a>float area</a> for a float.
Note: Future levels of CSS Shapes will allow use of shapes
on elements other than floats.
Other CSS modules can make use of shapes as well,
such as CSS Masking [[CSS-MASKING]]
and CSS Exclusions [[CSS3-EXCLUSIONS]].
Note: If a user agent implements both CSS Shapes
and CSS Exclusions,
the 'shape-outside' property defines
the exclusion area for an exclusion.
Note: A future level of CSS Shapes will define a shape-inside property,
which will define a shape to <a>wrap</a> content within the element.
<h3 id="module-interactions">
Module Interactions</h3>
This module extends the float features defined in [[!CSS2]] chapter 9.
<h3 id="values">Values</h3>
This specification follows the <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/about.html#property-defs">CSS property definition conventions</a> from [[!CSS2]].
Value types not defined in this specification are defined in CSS Values & Units [[!CSS-VALUES-3]].
Other CSS modules may expand the definitions of these value types.
In addition to the property-specific values listed in their definitions,
all properties defined in this specification
also accept the <a>CSS-wide keywords</a> keywords as their property value.
For readability they have not been repeated explicitly.
<h3 id=animations>Animated Values</h3>
It is expected that CSS will include ways
to animate transitions between styles.
(The section
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/#animatable-types">"Animation of property types"</a>
of the <cite>CSS Transitions module</cite> [[CSS3-TRANSITIONS]]
is expected to define how different kinds
of values are interpolated during a transition.)
In anticipation of that,
this module includes a line "Animatable" for each property,
which specifies whether and how values
of the property can be animated.
<h3 id="terminology">
Terminology</h3>
<dfn data-lt="wrap|wrapping">Wrap</dfn>
This specification uses the term <a>wrap</a>
to refer to flowing content
around the sides of a <a>float area</a>,
defined in [[!CSS2]] chapter 9.
Content <a>wraps</a> around the right side
of a left-floated box,
and content <a>wraps</a> around the left side
of a right-floated box.
One result of this <a>wrapping</a>
is that line boxes next to a float
are shortened as necessary
to avoid intersections with the <a>float area</a>.
<dfn>Float area</dfn>
The area used
for <a>wrapping</a> content
around a float element.
The rules for float behavior
use the sides of the <a>float area</a>
to determine where content flows.
By default,
the <a>float area</a> is the float element's
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/box.html#box-dimensions">margin box</a>
(note this can be different than
the <a>float area</a> produced
by the ''margin-box'' value,
which includes border-radius curvature).
This specification's 'shape-outside' property
can be used to define an arbitrary,
non-rectangular <a>float area</a>.
<h2 id="relation-to-box-model-and-float-behavior">
Relation to the box model and float behavior</h2>
While the boundaries used
for <a>wrapping</a> inline flow content
outside a float
can be defined using shapes,
the actual box model does not change.
If the element has specified
margins, borders or padding
they will be computed and rendered
according to the [[!CSS3BOX]] module.
Also, float positioning and stacking are not affected
by defining a <a>float area</a> with a shape.
When a shape is used to define
a <a>float area</a>,
the shape is clipped
to the float's margin box.
In other words,
a shape can only ever reduce
a <a>float area</a>,
not increase it.
A reduced <a>float area</a> may have no effect
on some line boxes
that would normally be affected by the float.
An <dfn>empty float area</dfn>
(where the shape encloses no area)
has no effect on line boxes.
A <a>float area</a> defined by a shape
may reduce the normal <a>float area</a> on all sides,
but this does not allow content to <a>wrap</a>
on both sides of a float.
Left floats with a 'shape-outside' still
only allow content <a>wrapping</a> on the right side,
and right floats only allow <a>wrapping</a> on the left.
<div class="example">
In the following example
the left and right floating
<code class="html">img</code> elements
specify a triangular shape
using the 'shape-outside' property.
<pre><code>
&lt;img class="left" src="hand.svg"/&gt;
&lt;img class="right" src="hand.svg"/&gt;
&lt;p&gt;
Sometimes a web page's text content appears to be
funneling your attention towards a spot on the page
to drive you to follow a particular link. Sometimes
you don't notice.
&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;style type="text/css"&gt;
.left {
shape-outside: polygon(0 0, 100% 100%, 0 100%);
float: left;
width: 40%;
height: 12ex;
transform: scaleX(-1);
}
.right {
shape-outside: polygon(100% 0, 100% 100%, 0 100%);
float: right;
width: 40%;
height: 12ex;
}
p {
text-align: center;
}
&lt;/style&gt;
</code>
</pre>
<img class="singleImgExample" src="images/hand-funnel.png" alt="Using the shape-outside property with floats"/>
</div>
<div class="example">
Since shapes are clipped to the float's margin box,
adding this shape to the left float above
would result in the same rendering.
<pre><code>
shape-outside: polygon(0 0, 500% 500%, 0 500%);
</code>
</pre>
</div>
<div class="example">
A shape with no extent will create
a <a>float area</a> with no extent.
Because <a>wrapping</a> only considers the <a>float area</a>,
either shape below applied to a float
will allow inline content
to flow through all of the float's box.
<pre><code>
shape-outside: inset(50% 50% 50% 50%);
shape-outside: inset(150% 150% 0% 0%);
</code>
</pre>
</div>
<div class="example">
A 'shape-outside' can create open areas
on both the left and right
of a <a>float area</a>.
Content still <a>wraps</a> only on one side
of a float in this case.
In the picture,
the shape is rendered in blue,
and the content area outside the shape in mauve.
<pre><code>
shape-outside: polygon(50px 0px, 100px 100px, 0px 100px);
</code>
</pre>
<img class="singleImgExample" src="images/float-side-example.png" alt="wrapping around right side of a left-float float area"/>
</div>
<div class="example">
The following styling creates
a shape much smaller than
the float's content area,
and adds a margin-top to the float.
In the picture,
the shape is rendered in blue,
the content area outside the shape in mauve,
and the margin area of the float box in yellow.
The inline content only <a>wraps</a> around the shape,
and otherwise overlays the rest
of the float margin box.
<pre><code>
.float-left {
shape-outside: polygon(0% 50%, 50% 100%, 0 100%);
float: left;
width: 100px;
height: 100px;
margin-top: 20px;
}
</code></pre>
<img class="singleImgExample" src="images/float-margin-example.png" alt="Adding margin-top to a float with a small shape-outside"/>
The next picture shows a possible result
if two of these floats
were stacked next to each other.
Note that the floats are positioned
using their margin boxes,
not the <a>float area</a>.
<img class="singleImgExample" src="images/stacked-float-example.png" alt="Stacking two floats with a small shape-outside"/>
</div>
<h2 id="basic-shape-functions">
Basic Shapes</h2>
The <dfn>&lt;basic-shape&gt;</dfn> type
can be specified using basic shape functions.
When using this syntax
to define shapes,
the <dfn>reference box</dfn> is defined
by each property that uses
<<basic-shape>> values.
The coordinate system for the shape
has its origin on the top-left corner of the
<a>reference box</a> with the x-axis
running to the right
and the y-axis running downwards.
All the lengths expressed in percentages
are resolved from the used dimensions
of the <a>reference box</a>.
<h3 id="supported-basic-shapes">
Supported Shapes</h3>
The following shapes are supported.
All <<basic-shape>> values use
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/#functional-notation">functional notation</a>
and are defined here using the
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/#value-defs">Value Definition Syntax</a>.
<dl>
<dt><dfn>inset()</dfn> =
inset( <<length-percentage>>{1,4} [ round <<'border-radius'>> ]? )
</dt>
<dd>
Defines an inset rectangle.
<ul>
<li>
When all of the first four arguments
are supplied they represent the
<strong>top, right, bottom</strong> and
<strong>left</strong> offsets
from the <a>reference box</a> inward
that define the positions
of the edges
of the inset rectangle.
These arguments follow the syntax
of the 'margin' shorthand,
that let you set all four insets
with one, two or four values.
</li>
<li>
The optional <<'border-radius'>> argument(s)
define rounded corners for the inset rectangle
using the 'border-radius' shorthand syntax.
</li>
</ul>
A pair of insets in either dimension
that add up to more than the used dimension
(such as left and right insets of 75% apiece)
define a shape enclosing no area.
For this specification,
this results in an <a>empty float area</a>.
</dd>
<dt><dfn>circle()</dfn> =
circle( <<shape-radius>>? [ at <<position>> ]? )
</dt>
<dd>
<ul>
<li>
The shape-radius argument represents
<strong>r</strong>, the radius
of the circle.
Negative values are invalid.
A radius of zero defines a shape
enclosing no area,
which results in an <a>empty float area</a>.
A percentage value here
is resolved from the used width and height
of the <a>reference box</a> as <br>
<code>sqrt(<em>width</em><sup>2</sup>+<em>height</em><sup>2</sup>)/sqrt(2)</code>.
</li>
<li>
The position argument defines
the center of the circle.
This defaults to center if omitted.
</li>
</ul>
</dd>
<dt><dfn>ellipse()</dfn> =
ellipse( <<shape-radius>>{2}? [ at <<position>> ]? )
</dt>
<dd>
<ul>
<li>
The shape-radius arguments represent
<strong>rx</strong> and
<strong>ry</strong>,
the x-axis and y-axis radii
of the ellipse,
in that order.
Negative values for either radius are invalid.
If either radius is zero this defines a shape
enclosing no area,
which results in an <a>empty float area</a>.
Percentage values here are resolved
against the used width (for the rx value)
and the used height (for the ry value)
of the reference box.
</li>
<li>
The position argument defines
the center of the ellipse.
This defaults to center if omitted.
</li>
</ul>
</dd>
<dt><dfn>polygon()</dfn> =
polygon( <<fill-rule>>? , [<<length-percentage>> <<length-percentage>>]# )
</dt>
<dd>
<ul>
<li>
<dfn><<fill-rule>></dfn> -
The filling rule used
to determine the interior
of the polygon.
See <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/painting.html#FillRuleProperty">fill-rule</a> property
in SVG for details.
Possible values are ''nonzero''
or ''evenodd''.
Default value when omitted is ''nonzero''.</li>
<li>
Each pair argument in the list represents <strong>x<sub>i</sub></strong> and <strong>y<sub>i</sub></strong> -
the <strong>x</strong> and <strong>y</strong> axis coordinates of the i-th vertex of the polygon.
</li>
</ul>
The UA must close a polygon
by connecting the last vertex
with the first vertex of the list.
At least three vertices are required
to define a polygon with an area.
This means that (for this specification)
polygons with less than three vertices
(or with three or more vertices
arranged to enclose no area)
result in an <a>empty float area</a>.
</dd>
</dl>
The arguments not defined above are defined as follows:
<dl>
<dt><dfn><<shape-radius>></dfn> = <<length-percentage>> | closest-side | farthest-side
<dd>
Defines a radius for a circle or ellipse. If omitted it defaults to closest-side.
<ul>
<li>
<dfn>closest-side</dfn>
uses the length from the center
of the shape to the closest side
of the <a>reference box</a>.
For circles,
this is the closest side
in any dimension.
For ellipses,
this is the closest side
in the radius dimension.
<li>
<dfn>farthest-side</dfn>
uses the length from the center
of the shape to the farthest side
of the <a>reference box</a>.
For circles,
this is the farthest side
in any dimension.
For ellipses,
this is the farthest side
in the radius dimension.
</ul>
</dl>
<h3 id='basic-shape-computed-values'>
Computed Values of Basic Shapes</h3>
The values in a <<basic-shape>> function are computed as specified, with these exceptions:
<ul>
<li>
Omitted values are included and compute to their defaults.
</li>
<li>
A <<position>> value in ''circle()'' or ''ellipse()'' is computed as a pair of offsets (horizontal then vertical) from the top left origin, each given as a combination of an absolute length and a percentage.
</li>
<li>
A <<'border-radius'>> value in ''inset()'' is computed as an expanded list of all eight <<length>> or percentage values.
</li>
</ul>
<h3 id='basic-shape-serialization'>
Serialization of Basic Shapes</h3>
To serialize the <<basic-shape>> functions,
serialize as per their individual grammars,
in the order the grammars are written in,
avoiding calc() expressions where possible,
avoiding calc() transformations,
omitting components when possible without changing the meaning,
joining space-separated tokens with a single space,
and following each serialized comma with a single space.
The <<position>> values
(including the defaults)
in ''ellipse()'' and ''circle()''
serialize to their 2- and 4-value forms only,
preferring the 2-value form
when it can be expressed without calc(),
preferring left and top origins,
and preferring 0% over a zero length.
<div class="example">
Since <<position>> keywords stand in for percentages, keywords without an offset turn into percentages.
<pre><code>
circle(at left bottom)
serializes as "circle(at 0% 100%)"
</code></pre>
Omitting components means that some default values do not show up in the serialization. But since <<position>> always uses the 2- or 4-value form, a default <<position>> is not omitted.
<pre><code>
circle(closest-side at center)
serializes as "circle(at 50% 50%)"
</code></pre>
Using grammar order means that <<position>> values always give horizontal components first, then vertical.
<pre><code>
circle(at bottom left)
serializes as "circle(at 0% 100%)"
</code></pre>
Avoiding calc() expressions means that some <<position>> values that could be simplified to the 2-value form must be serialized in 4-value form instead.
<pre><code>
circle(at right 5px bottom 10px)
serializes as "circle(at right 5px bottom 10px)"
not as "circle(at calc(100% - 5px) calc(100% - 10px))"
</code></pre>
Avoiding calc() transformations means that if a specified (or computed) calc() must stay in calc() form, it will be used as-is, not reformulated with a different origin or reduced.
<pre><code>
bottom calc(10% + 5px)
serializes as "bottom calc(10% + 5px)"
not as "top calc(90% - 5px)" or "calc(90% - 5px)"
</code></pre>
Preferring 0% over a zero length comes up when you must supply an omitted offset.
<pre><code>
circle(at right 5px top)
serializes as "circle(at right 5px top 0%)"
</code></pre>
Preferring left and top origins means that some percentage offsets will normalize to those origins (when calc can be avoided).
<pre><code>
circle(at right 5% top 0px)
serializes as "circle(at 95% 0%)"
</code></pre>
</div>
<h3 id='basic-shape-interpolation'>
Interpolation of Basic Shapes</h3>
For interpolating between
one basic shape and a second,
the rules below are applied.
The values in the shape functions interpolate
as a <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/#animtype-simple-list">simple list</a>.
The list values interpolate as
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/#animtype-lpcalc">length,
percentage, or calc</a> where possible.
If list values are not one of those types
but are identical
(such as finding ''nonzero''
in the same list position
in both lists)
those values do interpolate.
<ul>
<li>
Both shapes must use the same <a>reference box</a>.
</li>
<li>
If both shapes are the same type,
that type is ''ellipse()'' or ''circle()'',
and none of the radii use
the ''closest-side'' or ''farthest-side'' keywords,
interpolate between each value
in the shape functions.
</li>
<li>
If both shapes are of type ''inset()'',
interpolate between each value
in the shape functions.
</li>
<li>
If both shapes are of type ''polygon()'',
both polygons have the same number of vertices,
and use the same <<fill-rule>>,
interpolate between each value
in the shape functions.
</li>
<li>
In all other cases no interpolation is specified.
</li>
</ul>
<h2 id="shapes-from-image">
Shapes from Image</h2>
Another way of defining shapes
is by specifying a source <<image>>
whose alpha channel is used
to compute the shape.
The shape is computed to be the path or paths
that enclose the area(s)
where the opacity of the specified image
is greater than the 'shape-image-threshold' value.
The absence of any pixels with an alpha value
greater than the specified threshold
results in an <a>empty float area</a>.
If the 'shape-image-threshold' is not specified,
the initial value to be considered is 0.0.
The image is sized and positioned
as if it were a replaced element
whose specified width and height
are the same as the element's
used content box size.
For animated raster image formats (such as
<a href="http://www.w3.org/Graphics/GIF/spec-gif89a.txt">GIF</a>),
the first frame of the animation sequence is used.
<div class="example">
An image is floating to the left of a paragraph.
The image shows the 3D version of the
CSS logo over a transparent background.
The logo has a shadow using an alpha-channel.
The image defines its <a>float area</a>
through the 'shape-outside' property.
<pre>
<code>
&lt;p&gt;
&lt;img id="CSSlogo" src="CSS-logo1s.png"/&gt;
blah blah blah blah...
&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;style&gt;
#CSSlogo {
float: left;
shape-outside: attr(src url);
shape-image-threshold: 0.1;
}
&lt;/style&gt;
</code>
</pre>
The 'shape-outside' property re-uses the url
from the src attribute of the img element.
It is perfectly possible to display an image
and use a different image for its <a>float area</a>.
In the figure below, the alpha-channel threshold
is represented by the dotted line around the CSS logo.
It's then possible to affect where the lines
of the paragraph start in three ways:
<ol>
<li>Modifying the alpha channel in the image</li>
<li>Changing the value of the 'shape-image-threshold' property</li>
<li>Changing the value of the 'shape-margin' property (see example 8)</li>
</ol>
<figure>
<img alt="A float shape around an image using its alpha-channel" src="images/shape-outside-image.png" style="width:70%"/>
<figcaption>
A float shape around an image using its alpha-channel.
</figcaption>
</figure>
</div>
<h2 id="shapes-from-box-values">
Shapes from Box Values</h2>
Shapes can be defined
by reference to edges in the
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css-box-3/#the-css-box-model">CSS Box Model</a>.
These edges include
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-background/#corner-shaping">border-radius curvature</a> [[!CSS3BG]]
from the used border-radius values.
The <<shape-box>> value extends the <<box>> value
to include ''margin-box''.
Its syntax is:
<pre>
<dfn><<shape-box>></dfn> = <<box>> | ''margin-box''
</pre>
The definitions of the values are:
The <dfn value for="<shape-box>, shape-outside">margin-box</dfn> value defines the shape
enclosed by the outside margin edge.
The corner radii of this shape are determined
by the corresponding border-radius and margin values.
If the ratio of <code>border-radius/margin</code> is 1 or more,
then the margin box corner radius is
<code>border-radius + margin</code>.
If the ratio of <code>border-radius/margin</code> is less than 1,
then the margin box corner radius is
<code>border-radius + (margin * (1 + (ratio-1)^3))</code>.
The <dfn value for="<shape-box>, shape-outside">border-box</dfn> value defines the shape
enclosed by the outside border edge.
This shape follows all
of the normal border radius shaping rules
for the outside of the border.
The <dfn value for="<shape-box>, shape-outside">padding-box</dfn> value defines the shape
enclosed by the outside padding edge.
This shape follows all
of the normal border radius shaping rules
for the inside of the border.
The <dfn value for="<shape-box>, shape-outside">content-box</dfn> value defines the shape
enclosed by the outside content edge.
Each corner radius of this box
is the larger of 0
or <code>border-radius - border-width - padding</code>.
<div class="example">
Given the 100px square below with
10px padding, border and margins,
the box values define these shapes:
<ul>
<li>''margin-box'': the shape containing all of the yellow pixels</li>
<li>''border-box'': the shape containing all of the black pixels</li>
<li>''padding-box'': the shape containing all of the mauve pixels</li>
<li>''content-box'': the shape containing all of the blue pixels</li>
</ul>
<figure>
<img alt="Colored boxes representing simple box edges" src="images/box-edges-simple.png"/>
<figcaption>
Simple CSS Box Model Edges
</figcaption>
</figure>
And the same definitions apply to a more complex example with the same 100px square, but with these border, padding and margin properties:
<pre>
<code>
border-radius: 20px 20px 20px 40px;
border-width: 30px 10px 20px 10px;
padding: 10px 20px 10px 10px;
margin: 20px 10px 10px 10px;
</code>
</pre>
<figure>
<img alt="Colored boxes representing complex box edges" src="images/box-edges-complex.png"/>
<figcaption>
Complex CSS Box Model Edges
</figcaption>
</figure>
</div>
<div class="example">
The difference between normal float wrapping
and wrapping around the shape defined
by the margin-box value is that
the margin-box shape includes corner shaping.
Take the 100px square with 10px padding,
border and margins,
but with a border-radius of 60px.
If you make a left float out of it,
content normally wraps in this manner:
<figure>
<img alt="Text wrapping around float with no shape" src="images/normal-wrap.png"/>
<figcaption>
Normal float wrapping
</figcaption>
</figure>
If you add a margin-box shape to the float,
then content wraps around the rounded margin-box corners.
<pre>
<code>
shape-outside: margin-box;
</code>
</pre>
<figure>
<img alt="Text wrapping around float with margin-box shape" src="images/margin-box-wrap.png"/>
<figcaption>
Float wrapping with margin-box
</figcaption>
</figure>
</div>
<h2 id="declaring-shapes">
Declaring Shapes</h2>
Shapes are declared with
the 'shape-outside' property,
with possible modifications
from the 'shape-margin' property.
The shape defined by
the 'shape-outside'
and 'shape-margin' properties
changes the geometry
of a float element's
<a>float area</a>.
<h3 id="shape-outside-property">
Float Area Shape: the 'shape-outside' property</h3>
<pre class='propdef'>
Name: shape-outside
Value: none | [ <<basic-shape>> || <<shape-box>> ] | <<image>>
Initial: none
Applies to: floats
Inherited: no
Computed value: as <a href="#basic-shape-computed-values">defined</a> for <<basic-shape>> (with <<shape-box>> following, if supplied), the <<image>> with its URI made absolute, otherwise as specified.
Animatable: as <a href="#basic-shape-interpolation">specified</a> for <<basic-shape>>, otherwise no
</pre>
The values of this property have the following meanings:
<dl dfn-type="value" dfn-for="shape-outside">
<dt><dfn>none</dfn></dt>
<dd>
The <a>float area</a> is unaffected.
</dd>
<dt><<shape-box>></dt>
<dd>
If one of these values is specified by itself
the shape is computed based on one of
''margin-box'',
''border-box'',
''padding-box'' or
''content-box''
which use their respective boxes
including curvature from border-radius,
similar to 'background-clip' [[!CSS3BG]].
</dd>
<dt><dfn><<basic-shape>></dfn></dt>
<dd>
The shape is computed based on the values of one
of ''inset()'', ''circle()'', ''ellipse()''
or ''polygon()''. If a <<shape-box>> is also supplied, this defines the <a>reference box</a> for the <<basic-shape>> function. If <<shape-box>> is not supplied, then the <a>reference box</a> defaults to ''margin-box''.
</dd>
<dt><dfn><<image>></dfn></dt>
<dd>
The shape is extracted
and computed based
on the alpha channel
of the specified <<image>>
as defined by 'shape-image-threshold'.
User agents must use the
<a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/html5/infrastructure.html#cors-enabled-fetch">potentially CORS-enabled fetch</a>
method defined by the [[!HTML5]] specification
for all URLs in a 'shape-outside' value.
When fetching,
user agents must use "Anonymous" mode,
set the referrer source
to the stylesheet's URL
and set the origin to the URL
of the containing document.
If this results in network errors
such that there is no valid fallback image,
the effect is as if
the value <a value for="shape-outside">none</a>
had been specified.
</dd>
</dl>
<h3 id="shape-image-threshold-property">
Choosing Image Pixels: the 'shape-image-threshold' property</h3>
The 'shape-image-threshold'
defines the alpha channel threshold
used to extract the shape
using an image.
A value of 0.5 means that
the shape will enclose
all the pixels
that are more than 50% opaque.
<pre class='propdef'>
Name: shape-image-threshold
Value: <<number>>
Initial: 0.0
Applies to: floats
Inherited: no
Computed value: The same as the specified value after clipping the <<number>> to the range [0.0,1.0]
Animatable: as <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/#animtype-number">number</a>
</pre>
The values of this property have the following meanings:
<dl dfn-type="value" dfn-for="shape-image-threshold">
<dt><dfn><<number>></dfn></dt>
<dd>
Sets the threshold used
for extracting a shape
from an image.
The shape is defined
by the pixels whose alpha value
is greater than the threshold.
A threshold value outside the range
0.0 (fully transparent)
to 1.0 (fully opaque)
will be clamped to this range.
</dd>
</dl>
Note: A future level of CSS Shapes may define
a switch to use the luminance data
from an image instead of the alpha data.
When this happens,
shape-image-threshold will be extended
to apply its threshold
to either alpha or luminance,
depending on the switch state.
<h3 id="shape-margin-property">
Expanding a Shape: the 'shape-margin' property</h3>
The 'shape-margin' property adds
a margin to a 'shape-outside'.
This defines a new shape
that is the smallest contour
(in the shrink-wrap sense)
that includes all the points
that are the 'shape-margin' distance outward
in the perpendicular direction
from a point on the underlying shape.
Note that at points where
a perpendicular is not defined
(e.g. sharp points)
take all points
on the circle centered at the point
and with a radius of 'shape-margin'.
This property takes only non-negative values.
<pre class='propdef'>
Name: shape-margin
Value: <<length>> | <<percentage>>
Initial: 0
Applies to: floats
Inherited: no
Computed value: as specified, but with lengths made absolute
Animatable: as <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/#animtype-lpcalc">length, percentage, or calc</a>.
</pre>
<dl dfn-type="value" dfn-for="shape-margin">
<dt><dfn><<length>></dfn></dt>
<dd>
Sets the margin of the shape to the <<length>>.
</dd>
<dt><dfn><<percentage>></dfn></dt>
<dd>
Sets the margin of the shape to a percentage
of the width of the element's containing block.
</dd>
</dl>
<div class="example">
A 'shape-margin' creating an offset from a polygonal 'shape-outside'. The lighter blue area shows the shape in a 100x100px float, and the darker blue area shows the 10px offset.
<pre>
<code>
.float {
shape-outside: polygon(10px 10px, 90px 50px, 40px 50px, 90px 90px, 10px 90px);
shape-margin: 10px;
}
</code>
</pre>
<img src="images/nepal-flag-shape.png"
alt="Example of a shape-margin offset"/>
</div>
<div class="example">
If shape-margin is added
to the CSS logo from example 6,
the line boxes <a>wrapping</a>
around the shape are shortened further.
<pre>
<code>
#CSSlogo {
shape-margin: 35px;
}
</code>
</pre>
<figure>
<img alt="A float shape around an image using its alpha-channel with a 35 pixels shape-margin" src="images/shape-outside-image-with-margin.png" style="width:70%"/>
<figcaption>
A float shape around an image using its alpha-channel with a 35-pixel 'shape-margin'
</figcaption>
</figure>
</div>
<h2 class="no-num" id="acknowledgments">
Acknowledgments</h2>
This specification is made possible by input from
Andrei Bucur,
Alexandru Chiculita,
Elika Etemad,
Arron Eicholz,
Sylvain Galineau,
Daniel Glazman,
Arno Gourdol,
Zoltan Horvath,
Chris Jones,
Bem Jones-Bey,
Marcus Mielke,
Alex Mogilevsky,
Hans Muller,
Mihnea Ovidenie,
Virgil Palanciuc,
Robert Sanderson,
Dirk Schulze,
Peter Sorotokin,
Bear Travis,
Eugene Veselov,
Stephen Zilles
and the CSS Working Group members.
<h2 class="no-num" id="change-log">
Change Log</h2>
<h3 class="no-num" id="20140320">
Since <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2014/CR-css-shapes-1-20140320/">March 20th 2014</a></h3>
<ul>
<li>Clarified shape-margin computed value</li>
<li>Clarified empty circles and ellipses for <a href="https://github.com/w3c/csswg-drafts/issues/850">issue #850</a></li>
</ul>
<h3 class="no-num" id="20140211">
Since <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2014/WD-css-shapes-1-20140211/">February 11th 2014</a></h3>
<ul>
<li>Replaced divs with images in the first example</li>
<li>Add 0px to last serialization example</li>
</ul>
<h3 class="no-num" id="20131203">
Since <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-css-shapes-1-20131203/">December 3rd 2013</a></h3>
<ul>
<li>Updated computed value and serialization of basic shapes</li>
<li>Added a margin-box example</li>
<li>Change auto to none for shape-outside</li>
<li>Defined shape-box instead of redefining box</li>
<li>Clarified that shape from image may produce more than one path</li>
</ul>
<h3 class="no-num" id="20130620">
Since <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-css-shapes-1-20130620/">June 20th 2013</a></h3>
<ul>
<li>Added shape from box value section</li>
<li>Updated basic-shape interpolation</li>
<li>Allow negative insets, disallow negative radii</li>
<li>Changed relevant to reference</li>
<li>Remove box-sizing dependency, add relevant box keywords</li>
<li>Changed circle() and ellipse() to use radial gradient syntax</li>
<li>Postponed rectangle() to level 2</li>
<li>Clarified shape-from-image sizing and positioning</li>
<li>Change inset-rectangle() to inset()</li>
<li>Future-proof shape-image-threshold to possibly apply to luminance</li>
<li>Added CORS fetching to shape-outside URLs</li>
<li>Changed shape-outside value from &lt;uri&gt; to &lt;image&gt;</li>
<li>Remove 'percentages based on auto-sizing resolve to 0'</li>
<li>Change initial value of shape-image-threshold to 0.0</li>
<li>Change float positioning to be unaffected by shape-outside</li>
<li>Shapes on floats clipped to float's margin box</li>
</ul>
<h3 class="no-num" id="20120503">
Since <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-css3-exclusions-20120503/">May 3rd 2012</a></h3>
<ul>
<li>Postpone shapes from SVG elements to a future Shapes level</li>
<li>Postpone shape-inside to a future Shapes level</li>
<li>split exclusions from shapes into separate modules</li>
<li>added inset-rectangle() to basic shapes</li>
<li>Changed shape-inside overflow diagrams to show exclusion behavior</li>
<li>Changed shape-inside to contribute to the wrapping context</li>
<li>Defined exclusion edges relative to wrapping content's writing mode</li>
<li>Made use of start, end, before and after consistent</li>
<li>Added interpolation for basic shapes</li>
<li>Changed basic shapes to depend on box specified with box-sizing</li>
<li>Added overflow behavior for shape-inside.</li>
<li>Added wrap-flow:minimum.</li>
<li>Clarified processing model.</li>
<li>Changed wrap-margin and wrap-padding to shape-margin and shape-padding.</li>
<li>Removed wrap shorthand.</li>
</ul>
<h3 class="no-num" id="20111213">
Since <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-css3-exclusions-20111213/">December 13th 2011</a></h3>
<ul>
<li>Clarified processing model.</li>
<li>Clarified interaction with floats.</li>
<li>Clarified that an exclusion element establishes a new block formatting context.</li>
</ul>