Network traffic classification library that requires minimal application payload
C++ Other

README

libprotoident 2.0.10

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Copyright (c) 2011-2016 The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
All rights reserved.

This code has been developed by the University of Waikato WAND
research group. For further information please see http://www.wand.net.nz/.
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See the file COPYING and COPYING.LESSER for full licensing details for this
software.

Report and bugs, questions or comments to contact@wand.net.nz

NEW: You can now lodge bugs by filing an issue on the libprotoident github:
https://github.com/wanduow/libprotoident

Authors:
	Shane Alcock

With contributions from:
    Donald Neal
    Aaron Murrihy
    Paweł Foremski <pjf@iitis.pl>
    Fabian Weisshaar <elnappo@nerdpol.io>

Introduction
============
Libprotoident is a library designed to perform application protocol 
identification using a very limited form of deep packet inspection, i.e. using
the first four bytes of application payload sent in each direction. The
library provides a simple API that will enable programmers to develop their own
tools that utilise application protocol information and we have also included
some tools that can be used to perform simple analysis of traffic flows.

Required Libraries
==================
libtrace
	* available from http://research.wand.net.nz/software/libtrace.php

libflowmanager 2.0.4 or later
	* optional, but required to build the tools
	* available from http://research.wand.net.nz/software/libflowmanager.php

Installation
============
After having installed the required libraries, running the following series
of commands should install libprotoident

        ./bootstrap.sh (only if you've cloned the source from GitHub)
        ./configure
       	make
	make install

By default, libprotoident installs to /usr/local - this can be changed by
appending the --prefix=<new location> option to ./configure.

The libprotoident tools are built by default - this can be changed by using the
--with-tools=no option with ./configure.

Protocols Supported
===================
A full list of supported protocols can be found at 
http://wand.net.nz/trac/libprotoident/wiki/SupportedProtocols

Libprotoident also currently has rules for several "mystery" protocols. These
are patterns that commonly occur in our trace sets that we cannot tie to an
actual protocol. It would be nice to know what these protocols actually are - 
if you have any suggestions please feel free to email us at contact@wand.net.nz.

In addition, a flow can be assigned into a "category" based on the protocol
determined by libprotoident, enabling broader analysis. For example, 
BitTorrent, Gnutella and eMule all fall into the P2P category, whereas SMTP,
POP3 and IMAP are part of the Mail category.

Tools
=====
There are currently four tools included with libprotoident.

 * lpi_protoident
 
   Description:	
	
	This tool attempts to identify each individual flow within the provided
	trace. Identification only occurs when the flow has concluded or 
	expired, so it is not very effective for real-time applications. 

   Usage: 
	lpi_protoident <input trace URI>

	The input trace must be a valid libtrace URI.

   Output:
   	For each flow in the input trace, a single line is printed to stdout
	describing the flow. The line contains the following fields separated
	by spaces (in order):

	 * Application protocol (as reported by libprotoident)
	 * IP address of the first endpoint
	 * IP address of the second endpoint
	 * Port used by the first endpoint
	 * Port used by the second endpoint
	 * Transport protocol (6 = TCP, 17 = UDP)
	 * Unix timestamp when the flow began
	 * Unix timestamp when the flow ended
	 * Total bytes sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
	 * Total bytes sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from first endpoint (in hex)
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from first endpoint (ASCII)
	 * Size of first payload-bearing packet sent from first endpoint
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from second endpoint (in hex)
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from second endpoint (ASCII)
	 * Size of first payload-bearing packet sent from second endpoint
		
 * lpi_find_unknown
 
   Description:	
	
	This tool reports all the flows in a trace which libprotoident
	was unable to identify. Identification only occurs when the flow has
	concluded or expired, so it is not very effective for real-time
	applications. 

	This is mainly intended as a tool to aid development of new protocol
	identifiers.
	
   Usage: 
	lpi_find_unknown <input trace URI>

	The input trace must be a valid libtrace URI.

   Output:
   	For each unknown flow in the input trace, a single line is printed to 
	stdout describing the flow. The line contains the following fields 
	separated by spaces (in order):

	 * IP address of the first endpoint
	 * IP address of the second endpoint
	 * Port used by the first endpoint
	 * Port used by the second endpoint
	 * Transport protocol (6 = TCP, 17 = UDP)
	 * Unix timestamp when the flow began
	 * Total bytes sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
	 * Total bytes sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from first endpoint (in hex)
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from first endpoint (ASCII)
	 * Size of first payload-bearing packet sent from first endpoint
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from second endpoint (in hex)
	 * First four bytes of payload sent from second endpoint (ASCII)
	 * Size of first payload-bearing packet sent from second endpoint


 * lpi_arff

   Description:
        This tool is similar to lpi_protoident except that it writes its
        output in the ARFF format so that it is compatible with the Weka
        machine learning software (http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/).

        This tool was contributed by Paweł Foremski <pjf@iitis.pl>.

   Usage:
        lpi_arff <input trace URI>

	The input trace must be a valid libtrace URI.

   Output:
        The output begins with a series of lines describing each feature that
        will be used to describe each flow. Following that,
   	for each flow in the input trace, a single line is printed to stdout
	describing the flow. The line contains the following fields separated
	by commas (in order):

	 * Application protocol (as reported by libprotoident)
	 * ID number for the application protocol
	 * Total number of packets sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
	 * Total number of bytes sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
	 * Total number of packets sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
	 * Total number of bytes sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
         * Minimum payload size sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
         * Mean payload size sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
         * Maximum payload size sent from first endpoint to second endpoint
         * Standard deviation of payload size sent from first endpoint to
                second endpoint
         * Minimum payload size sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
         * Mean payload size sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
         * Maximum payload size sent from second endpoint to first endpoint
         * Standard deviation of payload size sent from second endpoint to
                first endpoint
         * Minimum packet interarrival time for packets sent from first
                endpoint to second endpoint
         * Mean packet interarrival time for packets sent from first
                endpoint to second endpoint
         * Maximum packet interarrival time for packets sent from first
                endpoint to second endpoint
         * Standard deviation of packet interarrival time for packets sent from
                first endpoint to second endpoint
         * Minimum packet interarrival time for packets sent from second
                endpoint to first endpoint
         * Mean packet interarrival time for packets sent from second
                endpoint to first endpoint
         * Maximum packet interarrival time for packets sent from second
                endpoint to first endpoint
         * Standard deviation of packet interarrival time for packets sent from
                second endpoint to first endpoint
         * Flow duration (in microseconds)
         * Flow start time (as a Unix timestamp)

 * lpi_live   (DEPRECATED)
  
   Description:
   	This tool reports byte and packet counts (both inbound and outbound)
	for each identified protocol in real-time. Identification of a flow
	occurs as soon as possible, so that the statistics reported are as
	up-to-date as possible.

        lpi_live has been deprecated and will not be built by default. The code
        is still available in our git repository, but we will not update or
        support this tool anymore. Instead, please use the lpicollector
        (https://github.com/wanduow/lpicollector) for real-time flow analysis
        with libprotoident.

        In combination with the included lpi.py example client, lpicollector
        can produce output similar to that produced by lpi_live.

   Usage:
   	lpi_live <options> <input URI>

	The input URI must be a valid libtrace URI.

   Options:
        -f <filterstring> : Specifies a BPF filter to be applied to the input.
	-R : Ignore traffic to or from RFC1918 private addresses.
	-i <secs>: Specifies the reporting interval (in seconds).
	-T : Use trace direction tags to determine direction.
	-l <mac> : Determine direction based on the given mac address. The mac
		   should represent the 'inside' or 'local' side of the network.
	-m <id>	: Use the given id string to identify the monitor rather than
		  $HOSTNAME.

   Output:

   	IMPORTANT: lpi_live output has changed significantly in version 2.0.5!

	Reports are written to stdout. Each line of output is a series of comma
	separated values representing a single measurement.

	The values are (in order):
	 * The monitor id
	 * The Unix timestamp for the beginning of the measurement period
	 * The length of the measurement period
	 * The statistic being reported - this is one of the following:
	 	- in_pkts = inbound packets
		- out_pkts = outbound packets
		- in_bytes = inbound bytes (based on wire length)
		- out_bytes = outbound bytes (based on wire length)
		- in_new_flows = new inbound flows
		- out_new_flows = new outbound flows
		- in_curr_flows = inbound flows active at the period end
		- out_curr_flows = outbound flows active at the period end
	* The application protocol being measured
	* The value for the measured statistic
		
API
===

If you want to develop your own tools based on libprotoident, you'll need to
use the libprotoident API. The API is very simple and the best way to learn it
is to examine how the existing tools work. The source for the tools is
located in the tools/ directory.

The tools use libflowmanager to do the flow tracking, using functions beginning
with 'lfm_'. You will probably want to incorporate this into your own tool.
Usage of libprotoident itself is through functions beginning with 'lpi_'.

The libprotoident API functions themselves are documented in 
lib/libprotoident.h if you need further guidance.

Further documentation of the API can also be found at 
http://wand.net.nz/trac/libprotoident/wiki/DeveloperDocs

If all else fails, drop us a line at contact@wand.net.nz.