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Dear Emacs, please make this -*-Text-*- mode!
This file covers NEWS up to the release of R-2.0.0.
See 'ONEWS' for subsequent changes.
* *
* *
o The stub packages from 1.9.x have been removed: the library()
function selects the new home for their code.
o `Lazy loading' of R code has been implemented, and is used for
the standard and recommended packages by default. Rather than
keep R objects in memory, they are kept in a database on disc
and only loaded on first use. This accelerates startup (down
to 40% of the time for 1.9.x) and reduces memory usage -- the
latter is probably unimportant of itself, but reduces
commensurately the time spent in garbage collection.
Packages are by default installed using lazy loading if they
have more than 25Kb of R code and did not use a saved image.
This can be overridden by INSTALL --[no-]lazy or via a field
in the DESCRIPTION file. Note that as with --save, any other
packages which are required must be already installed.
As the lazy-loading databases will be consulted often, R
will be slower if run from a slow network-mounted disc.
o All the datasets formerly in packages 'base' and 'stats' have
been moved to a new package 'datasets'. data() does the
appropriate substitution, with a warning. However, calls to
data() are not normally needed as the data objects are visible
in the 'datasets' package.
Packages can be installed to make their data objects visible
via R CMD INSTALL --lazy-data or via a field in the
o Package 'graphics' has been split into 'grDevices' (the graphics
devices shared between base and grid graphics) and 'graphics'
(base graphics). Each of the 'graphics' and 'grid' packages
load 'grDevices' when they are attached. Note that
ps.options() has been moved to grDevices and user hooks may
need to be updated.
o The semantics of data() have changed (and were incorrectly
documented in recent releases) and the function has been moved
to package 'utils'. Please read the help page carefully if
you use the 'package' or 'lib.loc' arguments.
data() now lists datasets, and not just names which data() accepts.
o Dataset 'phones' has been renamed to 'WorldPhones'.
o Datasets 'sunspot.month' and 'sunspot.year' are available
separately but not via data(sunspot) (which was used by package
lattice to retrieve a dataset 'sunspot').
o Packages must have been re-installed for this version, and
library() will enforce this.
o Package names must now be given exactly in library() and
require(), regardless of whether the underlying file system is
case-sensitive or not. So 'library(mass)' will not work, even
on Windows.
o R no longer accepts associative use of relational operators.
That is, 3 < 2 < 1 (which used to evalute as TRUE!) now causes
a syntax error. If this breaks existing code, just add
parentheses -- or braces in the case of plotmath.
o The R parser now allows multiline strings, without escaping
the newlines with backslashes (the old method still works).
Patch by Mark Bravington.
o There is a new atomic vector type, class "raw". See ?raw for
full details including the operators and utility functions provided.
o The default barplot() method by default uses a
gamma-corrected grey palette (rather than the heat color
palette) for coloring its output when given a matrix.
o The 'formula' method for boxplot() has a 'na.action' argument,
defaulting to NULL. This is mainly useful if the response
is a matrix when the previous default of 'na.omit' would omit
entire rows. (Related to PR#6846.)
boxplot() and bxp() now obey global 'par' settings and also
allow the specification of graphical options in more detail,
compatibly with S-PLUS (fulfilling wishlist entry PR#6832)
thanks to contributions from Arni Magnusson. For consistency,
'boxwex' is not an explicit argument anymore.
o chull() has been moved to package graphics (as it uses xy.coords).
o There is now a coef() method for summaries of "nls" objects.
o compareVersion(), packageDescription() and read.00Index()
have been moved to package 'utils'.
o convolve(), fft(), mvfft() and nextn() have been moved to
package stats.
o coplot() now makes use of cex.lab and font.lab par() settings.
o cumsum/prod/max/min() now preserve names.
o data(), .path.packages() and .find.packages() now interpret
package = NULL to mean all loaded packages.
o data.frame() and its replacement methods remove the names from
vector columns. Using I() will ensure that names are
o data.frame(check.names = TRUE) (the default) enforces unique
names, as S does.
o .Defunct() now has 'new' and 'package' arguments like those of
o The plot() method for "dendrogram" objects now respects many more
nodePar and edgePar settings and for edge labeling computes the
extents of the diamond more correctly.
o deparse(), dput() and dump() have a new 'control' argument to
control the level of detail when deparsing. dump() defaults to
the most detail, the others default to less. See ?.deparseOpts
for the details.
They now evaluate promises by default: see ?dump for details.
o dir.create() now expands '~' in filenames.
o download.file() has a new progress meter (under Unix) if the
length of the file is known -- it uses 50 equals signs.
o dyn.load() and library.dynam() return an object describing the
DLL that was loaded. For packages with namespaces, the DLL
objects are stored in a list within the namespace.
o New function eapply() - apply for environments. The supplied
function is applied to each element of the environment; the order
of application is not specified.
o edit() and fix() use the object name in the window caption on
some platforms (e.g. Windows).
o Function file.edit() function added: like, but
allows editing.
o Function can return file sizes > 2G if the
underlying OS supports such.
o fisher.test(*, allows the confidence interval
computation to be skipped.
o formula() methods for classes "lm" and "glm" used the expanded
formula (with '.' expanded) from the terms component.
o The `formula' method for ftable() now looks for variables in the
environment of the formula before the usual search path.
o A new function getDLLRegisteredRoutines() returns information
about the routines available from a DLL that were explicitly
registered with R's dynamic loading facilities.
o A new function getLoadedDLLs() returns information about the
DLLs that are currently loaded within this session.
o The package element returned by getNativeSymbolInfo() contains
reference to both the internal object used to resolve symbols
with the DLL, and the internal DllInfo structure used to
represent the DLL within R.
o help() now returns information about available documentation for
a given topic, and notifies about multiple matches. It has a
separate print() method.
If the latex help files were not installed, help() will offer
to create a latex file on-the-fly from the installed .Rd file.
o heatmap() has a new argument 'reorderfun'.
o Most versions of install.packages() have an new optional
argument 'dependencies = TRUE' which will not only fetch the
packages but also their uninstalled dependencies and their
dependencies ....
The Unix version of install.packages() attempts to install
packages in an order that reflects their dependencies. (This
is not needed for binary installs as used under Windows.)
o interaction() has new argument 'sep'.
o interaction.plot() allows 'type = "b"' and doesn't give spurious
warnings when passed a matplot()-only argument such as 'main'.
o is.integer() and is.numeric() always return FALSE for a
factor. (Previously they were true and false respectively for
well-formed factors, but it is possible to create factors
with non-integer codes by underhand means.)
o New functions is.leaf(), dendrapply() and a labels() method for
dendrogram objects.
o legend() has an argument 'pt.lwd' and setting 'density' now works
because 'angle' now defaults to 45 (mostly contributed by Uwe Ligges).
o library() now checks the version dependence (if any) of
required packages mentioned in the Depends: field of the
o load() now detects and gives a warning (rather than an error)
for empty input, and tries to detect (but not correct) files
which have had LF replaced by CR.
o ls.str() and lsf.str() now return an object of class "ls_str" which
has a print method.
o make.names() has a new argument allow_, which if false allows
its behaviour in R 1.8.1 to be reproduced.
o The 'formula' method for mosaicplot() has a 'na.action' argument
defaulting to 'na.omit'.
o model.frame() now warns if it is given data = newdata and it
creates a model frame with a different number of rows from
that implied by the size of 'newdata'.
Time series attributes are never copied to variables in the
model frame unless na.action = NULL. (This was always the
intention, but they sometimes were as the result of an earlier
bug fix.)
o There is a new 'padj' argument to mtext() and axis().
Code patch provided by Uwe Ligges (fixes PR#1659 and PR#7188).
o Function package.dependencies() has been moved to package 'tools'.
o The 'formula' method for pairs() has a 'na.action' argument,
defaulting to 'na.pass', rather than the value of
o There are five new par() settings:
'family' can be used to specify a font family for graphics
text. This is a device-independent family specification
which gets mapped by the graphics device to a device-specific
font specification (see, for example, postscriptFonts()).
Currently, only PostScript, PDF, X11, Quartz, and Windows
respond to this setting.
'lend', 'ljoin', and 'lmitre' control the cap style and
join style for drawing lines (only noticeable on thick lines
or borders). Currently, only PostScript, PDF, X11, and Quartz
respond to these settings.
'lheight' is a multiplier used in determining the vertical
spacing of multi-line text.
All of these settings are currently only available via par()
(i.e., not in-line as arguments to plot(), lines(), ...)
o PCRE (as used by grep etc) has been updated to version 5.0.
o A 'version' argument has been added to pdf() device. If this is
set to "1.4", the device will support transparent colours.
o plot.xy(), the workhorse function of points(), lines() and
plot.default() now has 'lwd' as explicit argument instead of
implicitly in '...', and now recycles lwd where it makes
sense, i.e. for line-based plot symbols.
o The png() and jpeg() devices (and the bmp() device under Windows)
now allow a nominal resolution to be recorded in the file.
o New functions to control mapping from device-independent
graphics font family to device-specific family:
postscriptFont() and postscriptFonts() (for both postscript()
and pdf()); X11Font() and X11Fonts(); windowsFont() and
windowsFonts(); quartzFont() and quartzFonts().
o power (x^y) has optimised code for y == 2.
o prcomp() is now generic, with a formula method (based on an
idea of Jari Oksanen).
prcomp() now has a simple predict() method.
o printCoefmat() has a new logical argument 'signif.legend'.
o quantile() has the option of several methods described in
Hyndman & Fan (1996). (Contributed by Rob Hyndman.)
o rank() has two new 'ties.method's, "min" and "max".
o New function read.fortran() reads Fortran-style fixed-format
o read.fwf() reads multiline records, is faster for large files.
o read.table() now accepts "NULL", "factor", "Date" and
"POSIXct" as possible values of colClasses, and colClasses can
be a named character vector.
o readChar() can now read strings with embedded nuls.
o The "dendrogram" method for reorder() now has a 'agglo.FUN'
argument for specification of a weights agglomeration
o New reorder() method for factors, slightly extending that in
lattice. Contributed by Deepayan Sarkar.
o Replaying a plot (with replayPlot() or via autoprinting) now
automagically opens a device if none is open.
o replayPlot() issues a warning if an attempt is made to replay
a plot that was recorded using a different R version (the
format for recorded plots is not guaranteed to be stable
across different R versions). The Windows-menu equivalent
(History...Get from variable) issues a similar warning.
o reshape() can handle multiple 'id' variables.
o It is now possible to specify colours with a full alpha
transparency channel via the new 'alpha' argument to the
rgb() and hsv() functions, or as a string of the form "#RRGGBBAA".
NOTE: most devices draw nothing if a colour is not opaque,
but PDF and Quartz devices will render semitransparent colours.
A new argument 'alpha' to the function col2rgb()
provides the ability to return the alpha component of
colours (as well as the red, green, and blue components).
o save() now checks that a binary connection is used.
o seek() on connections now accepts and returns a double for the
file position. This allows >2Gb files to be handled on a
64-bit platform (and some 32-bit platforms).
o source() with 'echo = TRUE' uses the function source attribute
when displaying commands as they are parsed.
o setClass() and its utilities now warn if either superclasses
or classes for slots are undefined. (Use setOldClass to
register S3 classes for use as slots)
o str(obj) now displays more reasonably the STRucture of S4 objects.
It is also improved for language objects and lists with promise
The method for class "dendrogram" has a new argument 'stem' and
indicates when it's not printing all levels (as typically when
e.g., 'max.level = 2').
Specifying 'max.level = 0' now allows to suppress all but the top
level for hierarchical objects such as lists. This is different
to previous behavior which was the default behavior of giving all
levels is unchanged. The default behavior is unchanged but now
specified by 'max.level = NA'.
o system.time() has a new argument 'gcFirst' which, when TRUE,
forces a garbage collection before timing begins.
o tail() of a matrix now displays the original row numbers.
o The default method for text() now coerces a factor to character
and not to its internal codes. This is incompatible with S
but seems what users would expect.
It now also recycles (x,y) to the length of 'labels' if that
is longer. This is now compatible with grid.text() and
S. (See also PR#7084.)
o TukeyHSD() now labels comparisons when applied to an
interaction in an aov() fit. It detects non-factor terms in
'which' and drops them if sensible to do so.
o There is now a replacement method for window(), to allow a
range of values of time series to be replaced by specifying the
start and end times (and optionally a frequency).
o If writeLines() is given a connection that is not open, it now
attempts to open it in mode = "wt" rather than the default
mode specified when creating the connection.
o The screen devices x11(), windows() and quartz() have a new
argument 'bg' to set the default background colour.
o Subassignments involving NAs and with a replacement value of
length > 1 are now disallowed. (They were handled
inconsistently in R < 2.0.0, see PR#7210.) For data frames
they are disallowed altogether, even for logical matrix indices
(the only case which used to work).
o The way the comparison operators handle a list argument has
been rationalized so a few more cases will now work -- see
o Indexing a vector by a character vector was slow if both the
vector and index were long (say 10,000). Now hashing is used
and the time should be linear in the longer of the lengths
(but more memory is used).
o Printing a character string with embedded nuls now prints the
whole string, and non-printable characters are represented by
octal escape sequences.
o Objects created from a formally defined class now include the
name of the corresponding package as an attribute in the
object's class. This allows packages with namespaces to have
private (non-exported) classes.
o Changes to package 'grid':
- Calculation of number of circles to draw in circleGrob now
looks at length of y and r as well as length of x.
- Calculation of number of rectangles to draw in rectGrob now
looks at length of y, w, and h as well as length of x.
- All primitives (rectangles, lines, text, ...) now handle
non-finite values (NA, Inf, -Inf, NaN) for locations and
Non-finite values for locations, sizes, and scales of
viewports result in error messages.
There is a new vignette ("nonfinite") which describes this
new behaviour.
- Fixed (unreported) bug in drawing circles. Now checks that
radius is non-negative.
- downViewport() now reports the depth it went down to find a
viewport. Handy for "going back" to where you started, e.g., ...
depth <- downViewport("vpname")
<draw stuff>
- The "alpha" gpar() is now combined with the alpha channel of
colours when creating a gcontext as follows: (internal C code)
finalAlpha = gpar("alpha")*(R_ALPHA(col)/255)
This means that gpar(alpha=) settings now affect internal
colours so grid alpha transparency settings now are sent to
graphics devices.
The alpha setting is also cumulative. For example, ...
grid.rect(width=0.5, height=0.5,
gp=gpar(fill="blue")) # alpha = 1
grid.rect(height=0.25, gp=gpar(fill="red")) # alpha = 0.5
grid.rect(width=0.25, gp=gpar(fill="red")) # alpha = 0.25 !
- Editing a gp slot in a grob is now incremental. For example ...
grid.edit("line", gp=gpar(col="red")) # line turns red
grid.edit("line", gp=gpar(lwd=3)) # line becomes thick
- The "cex" gpar is now cumulative. For example ...
grid.rect(height=unit(4, "char")) # cex = 1
grid.rect(height=unit(4, "char")) # cex = 0.5
grid.rect(height=unit(4, "char")) # cex = 0.125 !!!
- New childNames() function to list the names of children
of a gTree.
- The "grep" and "global" arguments have been implemented for
grid.[add|edit|get|remove]Grob() functions.
The "grep" argument has also been implemented for the
grid.set() and setGrob().
- New function grid.grab() which creates a gTree from the
current display list (i.e., the current page of output can
be converted into a single gTree object with all grobs
on the current page as children of the gTree and all the
viewports used in drawing the current page in the childrenvp
slot of the gTree).
- New "lineend", "linejoin", and "linemitre" gpar()s:
line end can be "round", "butt", or "square".
line join can be "round", "mitre", or "bevel".
line mitre can be any number larger than 1
(controls when a mitre join gets turned into a bevel join;
proportional to angle between lines at join;
very big number means that conversion only happens for lines
that are almost parallel at join).
- New grid.prompt() function for controlling whether the user is
prompted before starting a new page of output.
Grid no longer responds to the par(ask) setting in the "graphics"
o The tcltk package has had the tkcmd() function renamed as
tcl() since it could be used to invoke commands that had
nothing to do with Tk. The old name is retained, but will be
deprecated in a future release. Similarly, we now have
tclopen(), tclclose(), tclread(), tclputs(), tclfile.tail(),
and tclfile.dir() replacing counterparts starting with "tk",
with old names retained for now.
o R CMD check now checks for file names in a directory that
differ only by case.
o R CMD check now checks Rd files using R code from package tools,
and gives refined diagnostics about "likely" Rd problems (stray
top-level text which is silently discarded by Rdconv).
o R CMD INSTALL now fails for packages with incomplete/invalid
DESCRIPTION metadata, using new code from package tools which is
also used by R CMD check.
o list_files_with_exts (package tools) now handles zipped directories.
o Package 'tools' now provides Rd_parse(), a simple top-level
parser/analyzer for R documentation format.
o tools::codoc() (and hence R CMD check) now checks any documentation
for registered S3 methods and unexported objects in packages
with namespaces.
o Package 'utils' contains several new functions:
- Generics toBibtex() and toLatex() for converting
R objects to BibTeX and LaTeX (but almost no methods yet).
- A much improved citation() function which also has a package
argument. By default the citation is auto-generated from
the package DESCRIPTION, the file 'inst/CITATION' can be
used to override this, see help(citation) and
- sessionInfo() can be used to include version information about
R and R packages in text or LaTeX documents.
o The DVI and PDF manuals are now all made on the paper specified
by R_PAPERSIZE (default 'a4'), even the .texi manuals which
were made on US letter paper in previous versions.
o The reference manual now omits 'internal' help pages.
o There is a new help page shown by help("Memory-limits") which
documents the current design limitations on large objects.
o The format of the LaTeX version of the documentation has
changed. The old format is still accepted, but only the new
resolves cross-references to object names containing _, for
o HTML help pages now contain a reference to the package and
version in the footer, and HTML package index pages give their
name and version at the top.
o All manuals in the 2.x series have new ISBN numbers.
o The 'R Data Import/Export' manual has been revised and has a
new chapter on `Reading Excel spreadsheets'.
o The PACKAGE argument for .C/.Call/.Fortran/.External can be
omitted if the call is within code within a package with a
namespace. This ensures that the native routine being called
is found in the DLL of the correct version of the package if
multiple versions of a package are loaded in the R session.
Using a namespace and omitting the PACKAGE argument is
currently the only way to ensure that the correct version is
o The header Rmath.h contains a definition for R_VERSION_STRING
which can be used to track different versions of R and libRmath.
o The Makefile in src/nmath/standalone now has 'install' and
'uninstall' targets -- see the README file in that directory.
o More of the header files, including Rinternals.h, Rdefines.h and
Rversion.h, are now suitable for calling directly from C++.
o Configure looks to a suitable option for inlining C code which
made available as macro R_INLINE: see `Writing R Extensions'
for further details.
removed: use R CMD instead.
o La.eigen(), tetragamma(), pentagamma(), package.contents() and
package.description() are defunct.
o The undocumented function newestVersion() is no longer exported
from package utils. (Mainly because it was not completely general.)
o C-level entry point ptr_R_GetX11Image has been removed, as it
was replaced by R_GetX11Image at 1.7.0.
o The undocumented C-level entry point R_IsNaNorNA has been
removed. It was used in a couple of packages, and should be
replaced by a call to the documented macro ISNAN.
o The gnome/GNOME graphics device is now defunct.
o Arithmetic supporting +/-Inf, NaNs and the IEC 60559 (aka
IEEE 754) standard is now required -- the partial and often
untested support for more limited arithmetic has been removed.
The C99 macro isfinite is used in preference to finite if available
(and its correct functioning is checked at configure time).
Where isfinite or finite is available and works, it is used as
the substitution value for R_FINITE. On some platforms this
leads to a performance gain. (This applies to compiled code
in packages only for isfinite.)
o The dynamic libraries libR and libRlapack are now installed in
R_HOME/lib rather than R_HOME/bin.
o When --enable-R-shlib is specified, the R executable is now a
small executable linked against libR: see the R-admin manual
for further discussion. The 'extra' libraries bzip2, pcre,
xdr and zlib are now compiled in a way that allows the code to
be included in a shared library only if this option is
specified, which might improve performance when it is not.
o The main R executable is now R_HOME/exec/R not R_HOME/R.bin, to
ease issues on MacOS X. (The location is needed when debugging
core dumps, on other platforms.)
o Configure now tests for 'inline' and alternatives, and the
src/extra/bzip2 code now (potentially) uses inlining where
available and not just under gcc.
o The XPG4 sed is used on Solaris for forming dependencies,
which should now be done correctly.
o Makeinfo 4.5 or later is now required for building the HTML and
Info versions of the manuals. However, binary distributions
need to be made with 4.7 or later to ensure some of the
links are correct.
o f2c is not allowed on 64-bit platforms, as it uses longs for
Fortran integers.
o There are new options on how to make the PDF version of the
reference manual -- see the 'R Administration and Installation
Manual' section 2.2.
o The concatenated Rd files in the installed 'man' directory are
now compressed and the R CMD check routines can read the
compressed files.
o There is a new configure option --enable-linux-lfs that will
build R with support for > 2Gb files on suitably recent 32-bit
Linux systems.
o The DESCRIPTION file of packages may contain a 'Imports:'
field for packages whose namespaces are used but do not need
to be attached. Such packages should no longer be listed in
o There are new optional fields 'SaveImage', 'LazyLoad' and
'LazyData' in the DESCRIPTION file. Using 'SaveImage' is
preferred to using an empty file 'install.R'.
o A package can contain a file 'R/sysdata.rda' to contain
system datasets to be lazy-loaded into the namespace/package
o The packages listed in 'Depends' are now loaded before a package
is loaded (or its image is saved or it is prepared for lazy
loading). This means that almost all uses of R_PROFILE.R and
install.R are now unnecessary.
o If installation of any package in a bundle fails, R CMD
INSTALL will back out the installation of all of the bundle,
not just the failed package (on both Unix and Windows).
o Complex superassignments were wrong when a variable with the same
name existed locally, and were not documented in R-lang.
o dropped names/rownames from columns in all
but the first data frame.
o The dimnames<- method for data.frames was not checking the
validity of the row names.
o Various memory leaks reported by valgrind have been plugged.
o gzcon() connections would sometimes read the crc bytes from
the wrong place, possibly uninitialized memory.
o Rd.sty contained a length \middle that was not needed after a
revision in July 2000. It caused problems with LaTeX systems
based on e-TeX which are starting to appear.
o save() to a connection did not check that the connection was
open for writing, nor that non-ascii saves cannot be made to a
text-mode connection.
o phyper() uses a new algorithm based on Morten Welinder's bug
report (PR#6772). This leads to faster code for large arguments
and more precise code, e.g. for phyper(59, 150,150, 60, lower=FALSE).
This also fixes bug (PR#7064) about fisher.test().
o print.default(*, gap = <n>) now in principle accepts all
non-negative values <n>.
o smooth.spline(...)$pen.crit had a typo in its computation;
note this was printed in print.smooth.spline(*) but not used in
other "smooth.spline" methods.
o write.table() handles zero-row and zero-column inputs correctly.
o debug() works on trivial functions instead of crashing. (PR#6804)
o eval() could alter a data.frame/list second argument, so
with(trees, Girth[1] <- NA) altered 'trees' (and any copy of
'trees' too).
o cor() could corrupt memory when the standard deviation was
zero. (PR#7037)
o inverse.gaussian() always printed 1/mu^2 as the link function.
o constrOptim() now passes ... arguments through optim to the
objective function.
o object.size() now has a better estimate for character vectors:
it was in general too low (but only significantly so for
very short character strings) but over-estimated NA and
duplicated elements.
o quantile() now interpolates correctly between finite and
infinite values (giving +/-Inf rather than NaN).
o library() now gives more informative error messages mentioning
the package being loaded.
o Building the reference manual no longer uses roman upright
quotes in typewriter output.
o model.frame() no longer builds invalid data frames if the
data contains time series and rows are omitted by na.action.
o write.table() did not escape quotes in column names. (PR#7171)
o Range checks missing in recursive assignments using [[ ]]. (PR#7196)
o packageStatus() reported partially-installed bundles as
o apply() failed on an array of dimension >=3 when for each
iteration the function returns a named vector of length >=2.
o The GNOME interface was in some circumstances failing if run
from a menu -- it needed to always specify that R be interactive.
o depMtrxToStrings (part of pkgDepends) applied nrow() to a
non-matrix and aborted on the result.
o Fix some issues with nonsyntactical names in modelling code
(PR#7202), relating to backquoting. There are likely more.
o Support for S4 classes that extend basic classes has been fixed
in several ways. as() methods and x@.Data should work better.
o hist() and pretty() accept (and ignore) infinite values. (PR#7220)
o It is no longer possible to call gzcon() more than once on a
o t.test() now detects nearly-constant input data. (PR#7225)
o mle() had problems if ndeps or parscale was supplied in the
control arguments for optim(). Also, the profiler is now more
careful to reevaluate modified mle() calls in its parent
o Fix to rendering of accented superscripts and subscripts e.g.,
expression((b[dot(a)])). (Patch from Uwe Ligges.)
o attach(*, pos=1) now gives a warning (and will give an error).
o power.*test() now gives an error when 'sig.level' is outside [0,1].
o Fitting a binomial glm with a matrix response lost the names of
the response, which should have been transferred to the
residuals and fitted values.
o print.ts() could get the year wrong because rounding issue
* *
* *
o Installation will now work even in Norwegian and Danish locales
which sort AA at the end (for package stats4 which has AAA.R).
o Various memory leaks have been plugged and uses of strcpy()
with overlapping src and dest corrected.
o R CMD INSTALL now also works for /bin/sh's such as the one from
Solaris 8 which fail when a function has the same name as a variable.
o The Date method for trunc() failed.
o window() failed if both start and end were outside the time
range of the original series (possible if extend = TRUE).
o coplot(..) doesn't give an extraneous warning anymore when called
on a fresh device.
o hasArg() used wrong logic to get the parent function. (sys.function()
behaves differently from what is documented.)
o prompt(f) now gives proper \usage{..} for
f <- function(x, g = function(u) { v <- u^2 ; sin(v)/v }) { g(x) }
o package.skeleton() now uses the supplied name in the DESCRIPTION
o options(list('digits', 'scipen')) no longer seg.faults, the
problem being the misuse of a list (PR#7078).
o summary.Date() now has a more sensible default for 'digits'.
o list.files(all.files = TRUE, recursive = TRUE) died on infinite
recursion. (PR#7100)
o cor(as.array(c(a=1,b=2)), cbind(1:2)) no longer seg.faults (PR#7116).
cor(), cov() and var() no longer accidentally work with list()
arguments as if they were unlist()ed.
o as.matrix(data.frame(d=as.POSIXct("2004-07-20"))) doesn't give a
wrong warning anymore.
o gsub(perl=TRUE) code got the R length of return strings wrong
in some circumstances (when the string was shortened).
(Fixed also PR#7108)
o summaryRprof() was ignoring functions whose name begins with dot,
e.g. .C, .Call, .Fortran. (PR#7137)
o loglin() could segfault if 'start' was of the wrong length. (PR#7123)
o model.tables(type="means") could fail in a design where a
projection gave all zeros. (PR#7132)
o Applying attributes() to a pairlist, e.g. .Options, could segfault.
o The checking of R versions incorrectly assumed 1.9.1 >= 1.50.
o str(Surv(..)) failed for type = "counting" Surv objects and for
o approx(c(1,2),c(NA,NA),1.5,rule=2) does not segfault anymore
(PR#7177), but gives an error.
o nls(model = TRUE) was broken.
o Subsetted assignments of the form A[i1, i2, i3] <- B stopped as
soon as an NA was encountered in an index so subsequent non-NA
indices were ignored. (PR#7210)
o Fixed bug in handling of lwd=NA in contour().
o was returning undefined results on nested lists.
o as.Date() now has a method for "POSIXlt" objects.
o mean() has a method for "difftime" objects and so summary()
works for such objects.
o legend() has a new argument 'pt.cex'.
o plot.ts() has more arguments, particularly 'yax.flip'.
o heatmap() has a new 'keep.dendro' argument.
o The default barplot method now handles vectors and 1-d arrays
(e.g., obtained by table()) the same, and uses grey instead of
heat color palettes in these cases. (Also fixes PR#6776.)
o nls() now looks for variables and functions in its formula in
the environment of the formula before the search path, in the
same way lm() etc look for variables in their formulae.
o src/modules/X11/dataentry.c would not build on some XFree
4.4.0 systems. (This is a bug in their header files but we have
added a workaround.)
o Building with gcc/g77 3.4.0 on ix86 platforms failed to produce
a working build: the critical LAPACK routines are now compiled
with -ffloat-store.
o Added patches to enable 64-bit builds on AIX 5.1: see the R-admin
manual for details.
o Added some patches to allow non-IEEE-754 installations to work
reasonably well. (Infs and NAs are still not handled properly
in complex arithmetic and functions such as sin(). See also
Deprecated, as support for non-IEEE-754 installations is about
to be removed.)
o Installation will now work in Estonian (et_EE*) locales, which
sort z before u. (PR#6958)
o Support for non-IEEE-754 arithmetic (which has been untested
for some time) will be removed in the next full release.
deprecated: use R CMD instead.
o The gnome/GNOME graphics device is deprecated and will be
removed in the next full release.
o pbinom(q, N, prob) is now more accurate when prob is close to 0.
o pcauchy(x, .., log.p) is now more accurate for large x,
particularly when log.p = TRUE. (PR#6756)
o pgeom(q, prob, lower.tail, log.p) is now (sometimes much) more
accurate when prob is very small. (PR#6792)
The code for pgeom(prob=1) assumed IEEE 754 arithmetic, and
gave NaNs under gcc 3.4.0 -fPIC, for example.
o makeARIMA() was not handling an ARMA(0, 0) model correctly.
o as.Date() was failing on factors. (PR#6779)
o min(), max() and range() were failing on "difftime" objects.
o could fail on some unusual list names.
o type.convert() ignored na.strings when no conversion was done.
(PR#6781, not needed for its primary use in read.table.)
o Fixed a clipping problem in the quartz() device.
o Subsetting a factor swapped the order of the attributes, which
identical() cares about. (PR#6799)
o The L-BFGS-B option of optim() apparently needs part of its
workspace zeroed. (PR#6720)
o extractAIC.survreg() needed updating.
o When using the header Rmath.h in standalone mode, the case where
TRUE, FALSE are already defined is now handled correctly.
o Package utils now exports several functions that are needed for
writing Sweave drivers.
o Comparison of two lists/expressions was giving nonsensical
(and often random) answers, and is now an error.
o The C-level function ncols was returning a random answer
(often 0) for a 1D array. This caused model.matrix to
misbehave (perhaps segfault) if a term was a 1D array. (PR#6838)
o The configure script now finds the pdf viewers ggv and gpdf.
o Workaround for the problems strptime on MacOS X has with dates
before 1900.
o 'R CMD build' works in a directory whose path contains spaces.
(PR#6830 under Unix/Linux: it already worked under Windows.)
Also 'R CMD check'.
o mosaicplot() stops cleanly if given a table containing missing values.
o install.packages() from a local CRAN was broken.
o bxp() fixed for e.g., boxplot(..., border=2:4)
o approx(list(x=rep(NaN,9), y=1:9), xout=NaN) does not seg.fault
anymore (PR#6809).
o plot(1, pch=NA) does not give an error anymore and
plot(1:2, pch=c("o",NA)) only prints one symbol (PR#6876).
o diffinv(matrix(3, 7,0)) now works.
o plot.ts(z) for multivariate 'z' now properly draws all 'nc' xlab`s
when nc > 1 and obeys 'ann=FALSE' or 'axes=FALSE'.
o aggregate(.data.frame) failed if the answer would have had one
o recordPlot() and replayPlot() failed to duplicate the display
list, so further plotting altered the saved or replayed object.
o Assignments of the form adf[i,j] <- value now accept a
data-frame value as well as a list value.
o dir.create() sometimes erroneously continued to report a directory
already existed after the first instance. (PR#6892)
o arima.sim() allows a null model.
o which.min() & which.max()'s C code now PROTECT()'s its result.
o Building standalone nmath did not support some of the DEBUG options.
o mle() got confused if start value list was not in same order as
arguments of likelihood function (reported by Ben Bolker)
o backsolve(r, x, k) now allows k < nrow(x) - as its documentation
always claimed.
o update.packages("mgcv") and old.packages(*) now give a better error
message; and installed.packages("mgcv") properly returns <empty>.
o stats:::as.dendrogram.hclust() is documented and no longer re-sorts
the two children at each node. This fixes as.dendrogram(hh) for
the case where hh is a "reordered" hclust object.
plot.dendrogram(x) now draws leaves 'x' more sensibly.
reorder.dendrogram() now results in a dendrogram with correct
"midpoint"s, and hence reordered dendrograms are plotted correctly.
stats:::midcache.dendrogram() and hence the reorder() and rev()
dendrogram methods do not return bloated dendrograms.
o heatmap(*, labRow=., labCol=.) now also reorders the labels when
specified---not only when using default labels.
o Copying lattice (grid) output to another device now works again
(There were intermittent problems in 1.9.0 - PR#6915, #6947/8.)
o hist() uses a more robust choice of its 'diddle' factor, used
to detect if an observation is on a bin boundary. (PR#6931)
o jitter(x) now returns x when length(x) == 0.
o Under some rare circumstances the locale-specific tables used by
the perl=TRUE option to grep() etc were being corrupted and so
matches were missed.
o qbinom(*, prob = 0, lower.tail = FALSE) now properly gives 0.
o Class "octmode" needed a "[" method to preserve the class: see
example( for an example.
o Underscore '_' is now allowed in syntactically valid names, and
make.names() no longer changes underscores. Very old code
that makes use of underscore for assignment may now give
confusing error messages.
o Package 'base' has been split into packages 'base', 'graphics',
'stats' and 'utils'. All four are loaded in a default
installation, but the separation allows a 'lean and mean'
version of R to be used for tasks such as building indices.
Packages ctest, eda, modreg, mva, nls, stepfun and ts have been
merged into stats, and lqs has been returned to MASS. In all
cases a stub has been left that will issue a warning and ensure
that the appropriate new home is loaded. All the time series
datasets have been moved to package stats. Sweave has been
moved to utils.
Package mle has been moved to stats4 which will become the
central place for statistical S4 classes and methods
distributed with base R. Package mle remains as a stub.
Users may notice that code in .Rprofile is run with only the
new base loaded and so functions may now not be found. For
example, ps.options(horizontal = TRUE) should be preceded by
library(graphics) or called as graphics::ps.options or,
better, set as a hook -- see ?setHook.
o There has been a concerted effort to speed up the startup of
an R session: it now takes about 2/3rds of the time of 1.8.1.
o A warning is issued at startup in a UTF-8 locale, as currently R
only supports single-byte encodings.
o $, $<-, [[, [[<- can be applied to environments. Only character
arguments are allowed and no partial matching is done. The
semantics are basically that of get/assign to the environment with
o There are now print() and [ methods for "acf" objects.
o aov() will now handle singular Error() models, with a warning.
o arima() allows models with no free parameters to be fitted (to
find log-likelihood and AIC values, thanks to Rob Hyndman).
o array() and matrix() now allow 0-length `data' arguments for
compatibility with S.
o now has a method for arrays.
o now coerces an all-logical data frame
to a logical matrix.
o New function assignInNamespace() parallelling fixInNamespace.
o There is a new function contourLines() to produce contour
lines (but not draw anything). This makes the CRAN package
clines (with its clines() function) redundant.
o D(), deriv(), etc now also differentiate asin(), acos(), atan(),
(thanks to a contribution of Kasper Kristensen).
o The `package' argument to data() is no longer allowed to be a
(unquoted) name and so can be a variable name or a quoted
character string.
o There is a new class "Date" to represent dates (without times)
plus many utility functions similar to those for date-times.
See ?Date.
o Deparsing (including using dump() and dput()) an integer
vector now wraps it in as.integer() so it will be source()d
correctly. (Related to PR#4361.)
o .Deprecated() has a new argument `package' which is used in
the warning message for non-base packages.
o The print() method for "difftime" objects now handles arrays.
o dir.create() is now an internal function (rather than a call to
mkdir) on Unix as well as on Windows. There is now an option
to suppress warnings from mkdir, which may or may not have
been wanted.
o dist() has a new method to calculate Minkowski distances.
o expand.grid() returns appropriate array dimensions and dimnames
in the attribute "out.attrs", and this is used by the
predict() method for loess to return a suitable array.
o factanal(), loess() and princomp() now explicitly check for
numerical inputs; they might have silently coded factor
variables in formulae.
o New functions factorial(x) defined as gamma(x+1) and for
S-PLUS compatibility, lfactorial(x) defined as lgamma(x+1).
o findInterval(x, v) now allows +/-Inf values, and NAs in x.
o formula.default() now looks for a "terms" component before a
'formula' argument in the saved call: the component will have
`.' expanded and probably will have the original environment
set as its environment. And what it does is now documented.
o glm() arguments `etastart' and `mustart' are now evaluated via
the model frame in the same way as `subset' and `weights'.
o Functions grep(), regexpr(), sub() and gsub() now coerce their
arguments to character, rather than give an error.
The perl=TRUE argument now uses character tables prepared for
the locale currently in use each time it is used, rather than
those of the C locale.
o New functions head() and tail() in package `utils'.
(Based on a contribution by Patrick Burns.)
o legend() has a new argument 'text.col'.
o methods(class=) now checks for a matching generic, and so no
longer returns methods for non-visible generics (and
eliminates various mismatches).
o A new function mget() will retrieve multiple values from an
o model.frame() methods, for example those for "lm" and "glm",
pass relevant parts of ... onto the default method. (This has
long been documented but not done.) The default method is now
able to cope with model classes such as "lqs" and "ppr".
o nls() and ppr() have a `model' argument to allow the model frame
to be returned as part of the fitted object.
o "POSIXct" objects can now have a "tzone" attribute that
determines how they will be converted and printed. This means
that date-time objects which have a timezone specified will
generally be regarded as in their original time zone.
o postscript() device output has been modified to work around
rounding errors in low-precision calculations in gs >= 8.11.
(PR#5285, which is not a bug in R.)
It is now documented how to use other Computer Modern fonts,
for example italic rather than slanted.
o ppr() now fully supports categorical explanatory variables,
ppr() is now interruptible at suitable places in the
underlying FORTRAN code.
o princomp() now warns if both `x' and `covmat' are supplied,
and returns scores only if the centring used is known.
o psigamma(x, deriv=0), a new function generalizes, digamma() etc.
All these (psigamma, digamma, trigamma,...) now also work for x < 0.
o pchisq(*, ncp > 0) and hence qchisq() now work with much higher
values of ncp; it has become much more accurate in the left tail.
o read.table() now allows embedded newlines in quoted fields. (PR#4555)
o rep.default(0-length-vector, length.out=n) now gives a vector
of length n and not length 0, for compatibility with S.
If both `each' and `length.out' have been specified, it now
recycles rather than fills with NAs for S compatibility.
If both `times' and `length.out' have been specified, `times'
is now ignored for S compatibility. (Previously padding with
NAs was used.)
The "POSIXct" and "POSIXlt" methods for rep() now pass ... on
to the default method (as expected by PR#5818).
o rgb2hsv() is new, an R interface the C API function with the same name.
o User hooks can be set for onLoad, library, detach and
onUnload of packages/namespaces: see ?setHook.
o save() default arguments can now be set using option
"save.defaults", which is also used by save.image() if option
"save.image.defaults" is not present.
o New function shQuote() to quote strings to be passed to OS shells.
o sink() now has a split= argument to direct output to both the
sink and the current output connection.
o split.screen() now works for multiple devices at once.
o On some OSes (including Windows and those using glibc)
strptime() did not validate dates correctly, so we have added
extra code to do so. However, this cannot correct scanning
errors in the OS's strptime (although we have been able to
work around these on Windows). Some examples are now tested for
during configuration.
o strsplit() now has `fixed' and `perl' arguments and
split="" is optimized.
o subset() now allows a `drop' argument which is passed on to
the indexing method for data frames.
o termplot() has an option to smooth the partial residuals.
o varimax() and promax() add class "loadings" to their loadings
o Model fits now add a "dataClasses" attribute to the terms, which
can be used to check that the variables supplied for
prediction are of the same type as those used for fitting.
(It is currently used by predict() methods for classes "lm",
"mlm", "glm" and "ppr", as well as methods in packages MASS,
rpart and tree.)
o New command-line argument --max-ppsize allows the size of the
pointer protection stack to be set higher than the previous
limit of 10000.
o The fonts on an X11() device (also jpeg() and png() on Unix)
can be specified by a new argument `fonts' defaulting to the
value of a new option "X11fonts".
o New functions in the tools package: pkgDepends, getDepList and
installFoundDepends. These provide functionality for assessing
dependencies and the availability of them (either locally or
from on-line repositories).
o The parsed contents of a NAMESPACE file are now stored at
installation and if available used to speed loading the
package, so packages with namespaces should be reinstalled.
o Argument `asp' although not a graphics parameter is accepted
in the ... of graphics functions without a warning. It now
works as expected in contour().
o Package stats4 exports S4 generics for AIC() and BIC().
o The Mac OS X version now produces an R framework for easier linking
of R into other programs. As a result, is now relocatable.
o Added experimental support for conditionals in NAMESPACE files.
o Added as.list.environment to coerce environments to lists
o New function addmargins() in the stats package to add marginal
summaries to tables, e.g. row and column totals. (Based on a
contribution by Bendix Carstensen.)
o dendrogam edge and node labels can now be expressions (to be
plotted via stats:::plotNode called from plot.dendrogram).
The diamond frames around edge labels are more nicely scaled
o Methods defined in the methods package can now include
default expressions for arguments. If these arguments are
missing in the call, the defaults in the selected method will
override a default in the generic. See ?setMethod.
o Changes to package 'grid':
- Renamed push/pop.viewport() to push/popViewport().
- Added upViewport(), downViewport(), and seekViewport() to
allow creation and navigation of viewport tree
(rather than just viewport stack).
- Added id and id.lengths arguments to grid.polygon() to allow
multiple polygons within single grid.polygon() call.
- Added vpList(), vpStack(), vpTree(), and current.vpTree()
to allow creation of viewport "bundles" that may be pushed
at once (lists are pushed in parallel, stacks in series).
current.vpTree() returns the current viewport tree.
- Added vpPath() to allow specification of viewport path
in downViewport() and seekViewport().
See ?viewports for an example of its use.
NOTE: it is also possible to specify a path directly,
e.g., something like "vp1::vp2", but this is only
advised for interactive use (in case I decide to change the
separator :: in later versions).
- Added "just" argument to grid.layout() to allow justification
of layout relative to parent viewport *IF* the layout is not
the same size as the viewport. There's an example in
- Allowed the "vp" slot in a grob to be a viewport name or a
vpPath. The interpretation of these new alternatives is to
call downViewport() with the name or vpPath before drawing the
grob and upViewport() the appropriate amount after drawing the
grob. Here's an example of the possible usage:
pushViewport(viewport(w=.5, h=.5, name="A"))
pushViewport(viewport(w=.5, h=.5, name="B"))
grid.rect(vp="A", gp=gpar(fill="red"))
grid.rect(vp=vpPath("A", "B"), gp=gpar(fill="blue"))
- Added engine.display.list() function. This allows the user to
tell grid NOT to use the graphics engine display list and to handle
ALL redraws using its own display list (including redraws after
device resizes and copies).
This provides a way to avoid some of the problems with resizing
a device when you have used grid.convert(), or the gridBase package,
or even base functions such as legend().
There is a document discussing the use of display lists in grid
on the grid web site
- Changed the implementation of grob objects. They are no longer
implemented as external references. They are now regular R objects
which copy-by-value. This means that they can be saved/loaded
like normal R objects. In order to retain some existing grob
behaviour, the following changes were necessary:
+ grobs all now have a "name" slot. The grob name is used to
uniquely identify a "drawn" grob (i.e., a grob on the display
+ grid.edit() and grid.pack() now take a grob name as the first
argument instead of a grob. (Actually, they take a gPath -
see below)
+ the "grobwidth" and "grobheight" units take either a grob
OR a grob name (actually a gPath - see below). Only in the
latter case will the unit be updated if the grob "pointed to"
is modified.
In addition, the following features are now possible with grobs:
+ grobs now save()/load() like any normal R object.
+ many grid.*() functions now have a *Grob() counterpart. The
grid.*() version is used for its side-effect of drawing
something or modifying something which has been drawn; the
*Grob() version is used for its return value, which is a grob.
This makes it more convenient to just work with grob
objects without producing any graphical output
(by using the *Grob() functions).
+ there is a gTree object (derived from grob), which is a grob
that can have children. A gTree also has a "childrenvp" slot
which is a viewport which is pushed and then "up"ed before the
children are drawn; this allows the children of a gTree to
place themselves somewhere in the viewports specified in the
childrenvp by having a vpPath in their vp slot.
+ there is a gPath object, which is essentially a concatenation
of grob names. This is used to specify the child of
(a child of ...) a gTree.
+ there is a new API for creating/accessing/modifying grob objects:
grid.add(), grid.remove(), grid.edit(), grid.get() (and their
*Grob() counterparts can be used to add, remove, edit, or extract
a grob or the child of a gTree. NOTE: the new grid.edit() API
is incompatible with the previous version.
- Added stringWidth(), stringHeight(), grobWidth(), and grobHeight()
convenience functions (they produce "strwidth", "strheight",
"grobwidth", and "grobheight" unit objects, respectively).
- Allowed viewports to turn off clipping altogether.
Possible settings for viewport clip arg are now:
"on" = clip to the viewport (was TRUE)
"inherit" = clip to whatever parent says (was FALSE)
"off" = turn off clipping
Still accept logical values (and NA maps to "off")
o R CMD check now runs the (Rd) examples with default RNGkind
(uniform & normal) and set.seed(1).
example(*, setRNG = TRUE) does the same.
o undoc() in package `tools' has a new default of `use.values =
NULL' which produces a warning whenever the default values of
function arguments differ between documentation and code.
Note that this affects "R CMD check" as well.
o Testing examples via (as used by R CMD
check) now restores the search path after every help file.
o checkS3methods() in package 'tools' now also looks for generics
in the loaded namespaces/packages listed in the Depends fields
of the package's DESCRIPTION file when testing an installed
o The DESCRIPTION file of packages may contain a 'Suggests:'
field for packages that are only used in examples or
o Added an option to package.dependencies() to handle the
'Suggests' levels of dependencies.
o Vignette dependencies can now be checked and obtained via
o Option 'repositories' to list URLs for package repositories
o package.description() has been replaced by packageDescription().
o R CMD INSTALL/build now skip Subversion's .svn directories as
well as CVS directories.
o arraySubscript and vectorSubscript take a new argument which
is a function pointer that provides access to character
strings (such as the names vector) rather than assuming these
are passed in.
o R_CheckUserInterrupt is now described in `Writing R Extensions'
and there is a new equivalent subroutine rchkusr for calling
from FORTRAN code.
o hsv2rgb and rgb2hsv are newly in the C API.
o Salloc and Srealloc are provided in S.h as wrappers for S_alloc
and S_realloc, since current S versions use these forms.
o The type used for vector lengths is now R_len_t rather than
int, to allow for a future change.
o The internal header nmath/dpq.h has slightly improved macros
R_DT_val() and R_DT_Cval(), a new R_D_LExp() and improved
R_DT_log() and R_DT_Clog(); this improves accuracy in several
[dpq]-functions {for "extreme" arguments}.
o print.coefmat() is defunct, replaced by printCoefmat().
o codes() and codes<-() are defunct.
o anovalist.lm (replaced in 1.2.0) is now defunct.
o, and lm.wfit.null() are defunct.
o print.atomic() is defunct.
o The command-line arguments --nsize and --vsize are no longer
recognized as synonyms for --min-nsize and --min-vsize (which
replaced them in 1.2.0).
o Unnecessary methods coef.{g}lm and fitted.{g}lm have been
removed: they were each identical to the default method.
o La.eigen() is deprecated now eigen() uses LAPACK by default.
o tetragamma() and pentagamma() are deprecated, since they are
equivalent to psigamma(, deriv=2) and psigamma(, deriv=3).
o LTRUE/LFALSE in Rmath.h have been removed: they were
deprecated in 1.2.0.
o package.contents() and package.description() have been deprecated.
o The defaults for configure are now --without-zlib
--without-bzlib --without-pcre.
The included PCRE sources have been updated to version 4.5 and
PCRE >= 4.0 is now required if --with-pcre is used.
The included zlib sources have been updated to 1.2.1, and this
is now required if --with-zlib is used.
o configure no longer lists bzip2 and PCRE as `additional
capabilities' as all builds of R have had them since 1.7.0.
o --with-blas=goto to use K. Goto's optimized BLAS will now work.
o When lm.{w}fit() disregarded arguments in ... they reported
the values and not the names.
o lm(singular.ok = FALSE) was looking for 0 rank, not rank < p.
o The substitution code for strptime in the sources no longer
follows glibc in silently `correcting' invalid inputs.
o The cor() function did not remove missing values in the
non-Pearson case.
o [l]choose() use a more accurate formula which also slightly
improves p- and qhyper(); choose(n, k) now returns 0 instead
of NaN for k < 0 or > n.
o find(simple.words=TRUE) (the default) was still using regular
expressions for e.g. "+" and "*". Also, it checked the mode
only of the first object matching a regular expression found
in a package.
o Memory leaks in [dpq]wilcox and [dqr]signrank have been plugged.
These only occurred when multiple values of m or n > 50 were
used in a single call. (PR#5314, plus another potential leak.)
o Non-finite input values to eigen(), La.eigen(), svd() and
La.svd() are now errors: they often caused infinite
looping. (PR#5406, PR#4366, PR#3723: the fix for 3723/4366
returned a vector of NAs, not a matrix, for the eigenvectors.)
o stepfun(x,y) now gives an error when `x' has length 0 instead
of an invalid result (that could lead to a segmentation
o buildVignettes() uses file.remove() instead of unlink() to
remove temporary files.
o methods(class = "lqs") does not produce extraneous entries anymore.
o Directly calling a method that uses NextMethod() no longer
produces the erroneous error message 'function is not a
o chisq.test(x, simulate.p.value = TRUE) could hang in an infinite
loop or segfault, as r2dtable() did, when the entries in x where
large. (PR#5701)
o fisher.test(x) could give a P-value of 'Inf' in similar cases which
now result in an error (PR#4688). It silently truncated
non-integer 'x' instead of rounding.
o cutree(a, h=h) silently gave wrong results when 'a' was an
agnes object; now gives an error and reminds of as.hclust().
o postscript() could crash if given a font value outside the
valid range 1...5.
o qchisq(1-e, .., ncp=.) did not terminate for small e.
(PR#6421 (PR#875))
o contrasts() turns a logical variable into a factor. This now
always has levels c("FALSE", "TRUE") even if only one (or
none) of these occur in the variable.
o model.frame()'s lm and glm methods had 'data' and 'na.action'
arguments which they ignored and have been removed.
o The defaults data=list() in lm() and glm() could never be
used and have been removed. glm had, again
never used.
o The internal tools function for listing all internal S3 generics
was omitting all the members of the S3 group generics, which
also accept methods for members.
o Some BLASes were returning NA %*% 0 as 0 and some as NA. Now
slower but more careful code is used if NAs are present. (PR#4582)
o package.skeleton() no longer generates invalid filenames for
code and help files. Also, care is taken not to generate
filenames that differ only by case.
o pairs() now respects axis graphical parameters such as
cex.main, font.main and las.
o Saving images of packages with namespaces (such as mle) was
not compressing the image.
o When formula.default() returned a terms object, it returned a
result of class c("terms", "formula") with different
subsetting rules from an object of class "formula".
o The standalone Rmath library did not build correctly on systems
with inaccurate log1p.
o Specifying asp is now respected in calls like plot(1, 10, asp=1)
with zero range on both axes.
o outer() called rep() with an argument the generic does not
have, and discarded the class of the answer.
o object.size() now returns a real (not integer) answer and so
can cope with objects occupying more than 2Gb.
o Lookups base:: and ::: were not confining their search to the
named package/namespace.
o qbinom() was returning NaN for prob = 0 or 1 or size = 0 even
though the result is well-defined. (In part, PR#5900.)
o par(mgp)[2] was being interpreted as relative to par(mgp)[3].
o Versioned install was broken both with and without namespaces:
no R code was loaded.
o methods(), getS3method() and the registration of S3 methods in
namespaces were broken if the S3 generic was converted into an
S4 generic by setting an S4 method.
o Title and copyright holder of the reference manual are now in
sync with the citation() command.
o The validation code for POSIXlt dates and hence
seq(, by="DSTdays") now works for large mday values (not
just those in -1000...1000). (PR#6212)
o The print() method for data frames now copes with data frames
containing arrays (other than matrices).
o texi2dvi() and buildVignettes() use clean=FALSE as default
because the option is not supported on some Solaris
machines. For buildVignettes() this makes no difference as it
uses an internal cleanup mechanism.
o The biplot() method for "prcomp" was not registered nor exported.
o Latex conversion of .Rd files was missing newline before
\end{Section} etc which occasionally gave problems, as fixed for
some other \end{Foo} in 1.8.1. (PR#5645)
o Work around a glibc bug to make the %Z format usable in strftime().
o The glm method for rstandard() was wrongly scaled for cases where
summary(model)$dispersion != 1.
o Calling princomp() with a covariance matrix (rather than a
list) failed to predict scores rather than predict NA as
intended. (PR#6452)
o termplot() is more tolerant of variables not in the data= argument.
o isoreg() could segfault on monotone input sequences. (PR#6494)
o Rdconv detected \link{\url{}} only very slowly. (PR#6496)
o aov() with Error() term and no intercept incorrectly assigned
terms to strata. (PR#6510)
o ftable() incorrectly handled arguments named "x". (PR#6541)
o vector(), matrix(), array() and their internal equivalents
report correctly that the number of elements specified was too
large (rather than reporting it as negative).
o Minor copy-paste error in example(names). (PR#6594)
o length<-() now works correctly on factors (and is now generic
with a method for factors).
o x <- 2^32; x:(x+3) no longer generates an error (but gives a
result of type "double").
o pgamma(30, 100, lower=FALSE, log=TRUE) is not quite 0, now.
pgamma(x, alph) now only uses a normal approximation for
alph > 1e5 instead of alph > 1000. This also improves the accuracy
of ppois().
o qgamma() now does one or more final Newton steps, increasing
accuracy from around 2e-8 to 3e-16 in some cases. (PR#2214).
It allows values p close to 1 not returning Inf, with accuracy for
'lower=FALSE', and values close to 0 not returning 0 for
'log=TRUE'. These also apply to qchisq(), e.g.,
qchisq(1e-13, 4, lower=FALSE) is now finite and
qchisq(1e-101, 1) is positive.
o gamma(-n) now gives NaN for all negative integers -n.
o The Unix version of browseURL() now protects the URL from the
shell, for example allowing & and $ to occur in the URL.
It was incorrectly attempting to use -remote "openURL()" for
unknown browsers.
o extractAIC.coxph() works around an inconsistency in the
$loglik output from coxph. (PR#6646)
o stem() was running into integer overflows with nearly-constant
inputs, and scaling badly for constant ones. (Partly PR#6645)
o system() under Unix was losing the 8095th char if the output
was split. (PR#6624)
o plot.lm() gave incorrect results if there were zero weights.
o Binary operators warned for inconsistent lengths on vector op
vector operations, but not on vector op matrix ones. (PR#6633
and more.)
Comparison operators did not warn about inconsistent lengths
for real vectors, but did for integer, logical and character
o spec.pgram(x, ..., pad, fast, ...) computed the periodogram with
a bias (downward) whenever 'pad > 0' (non-default) or 'fast = TRUE'
(default) and nextn(n) > n where n = length(x); similarly for
'df' (approximate degrees of freedom for chisq).
o dgamma(0, a) now gives Inf for a < 1 (instead of NaN), and
so does dchisq(0, 2*a, ncp).
o pcauchy() is now correct in the extreme tails.
o file.copy() did not check that any existing `from' file had
been truncated before appending the new contents.
o The QC files now check that their file operations succeeded.
o replicate() worked by making the supplied expression the
body of an anonymous function(x), leading to a variable
capture issue. Now, function(...) is used instead.
o chisq.test(simulate.p.value = TRUE) was returning slightly
incorrect p values, notably p = 0 when the data gave the most
extreme value.
o terms.formula(simplify = TRUE) was losing offset terms.
Multiple offset terms were not being removed correctly if two
of them appeared first or last in the formula. (PR#6656)
o Rd conversion to latex did not add a new line before
\end{Section} in more cases than were corrected in 1.8.1.
o split.default() dropped NA levels in its internal code but
returned them as NA in all components in the interpreted code
for factors. (PR#6672)
o points.formula() had problems if there was a subset argument
and no data argument. (PR#6652)
o as.dist() does a bit more checking of its first argument and now
warns when applied to non-square matrices.
o mle() gives a more understandable error message when its 'start'
argument is not ok.
o All uses of dir.create() check the return value.
download.packages() checks that destdir exists and is a directory.
o Methods dispatch corrects an error that failed to find
methods for classes that extend sealed classes (class unions
that contain basic classes, e.g.).
o Sweave no longer wraps the output of code chunks with
echo=false and results=tex in Schunk environments.
o termplot() handles models with missing data better, especially
with na.action=na.exclude.
o 1:2 * 1e-100 now prints with correct number of spaces.
o Negative subscripts that were out of range or NA were not handled
correctly. Mixing negative and NA subscripts is now caught as
an error: it was not caught on some platforms and segfaulted
on others.
o gzfile() connections had trouble at EOF when used on uncompressed
o The Unix version of dataentry segfaulted if the `Copy' button
was used. (PR#6605)
o unlist on lists containing expressions now works (PR#5628)
o D(), deriv() and deriv3() now also can deal with gamma and lgamma.
o The X11 module can now be built against XFree86 4.4.0 headers (still
with some warnings).
o seq.POSIXt(from, to, by="DSTdays") was shorter than expected
for rare times in the UK time zone. (PR#4558)
o c/rbind() did not support vectors/matrices of mode "list". (PR#6702)
o summary() methods for POSIX[cl]t and Date classes coerced the
number of NAs to a date on printing.
o KalmanSmooth would sometimes return NA values with NA inputs.
o fligner.test() worked correctly only if data were already sorted
by group levels. (PR#6739)
* *
* *
o There is now a "Complex" S3 group generic (a side-effect of
fixing up the corresponding S4 group generic).
o help("regex") now gives a description of the regular expressions
used in R.
o The startup message now shows the R Foundation as copyright
holder, and includes the R ISBN number and a pointer to the new
citation() function.
o The solve() function now uses the `tol' argument for all
non-complex cases. The default tolerance for LINPACK is 1e-7,
as before. For LAPACK it currently is .Machine$double.eps but
may be changed in later versions of R.
o now defaults to agrep = FALSE when keyword= is
specified, since no one wants fuzzy matching of categories.
o Function texi2dvi() in package tools can be used to compile
latex files from within R, provided the OS has a command
texi2dvi or texify.
o Objects with formal S4 classes saved in pre-1.8 versions and
loaded into the current version have incompatible class
attributes (no package information). A new function,
fixPre1.8() in package methods, will fix the class attributes.
See the help for this function.
o heatmap() allows Rowv/Colv = NA, suppressing the corresponding
o An "antifeature": Tcl 8.0 is now officially unsupported. In 1.8.0
it just didn't work. This very old version lacks several features
that are needed for the new version of the tcltk package. R will
still build the tcltk package against Tcl 8.0 but the resulting
package will not load.
o symnum(x) now behaves as documented when length(x) == 0 and uses
lower.triangular = FALSE for logical arrays.
o c() now has a method for "noquote" objects and hence works as
o split(1:10, c(1,2)) no longer gives a spurious warning.
o The "Complex" S4 group generic now works.
o abbreviate() doesn't get into infinite loops on input that differs
only by leading/trailing space
o Added check for user interrupt in Rvprintf to allow printing to be
o Fixed bug that would cause segfault on protect stack overflow.
o crossprod() on matrices with zero extents would return an
uninitialized matrix (rather than one filled with zeros).
o DF[[i,j]] for a data frame used row j and col i, not as intended
row i and col j.
o Even more user errors in recursive indexing of lists are now
caught. (PR#4486)
o cor(<matrix>, use = "pairwise") gave wrong result in 1.8.0 (only).
o could give incorrect names when one of the
arguments had only one column. (PR#4299)
o Subsetting a one-dimensional array dropped dimensions even when
they were not of length one. (Related to PR#4110)
o The plot() method for `ecdf' objects, plot.ecdf(), now allows to
set a `ylab' argument (different from the default).
o cor.test(*, method="spearman") gave wrong results `randomly'
(because of a wrong type passed to C; PR#4718).
o dist() objects with NA's didn't print these, now do. (PR#4866).
o regexpr(fixed = TRUE) returned 0-based indices.
o df[, length_1_index] <- value did not recycle short rhs. (PR#4820)
o median() no longer `works' for odd-length factor variables.
o packageStatus() is more robust to failing to contact a
repository, and contacts the correct paths in the repositories
under Windows.
o .setOldIs (methods) contained a typo stopping POSIXct objects (etc)
being included in formal classes.
o terms() sometimes removed offset() terms incorrectly, since it
counted by variables and not terms. Its "offset" attribute
was incorrectly documented as referring to terms not
variables. (Related to PR#4941)
o buildVignettes() and pkgVignettes() in package tools are now
documented. The call to texi2dvi is wrapped in the new
function texi2dvi() which also works on Windows.
o hclust() was sometimes not finding the correct inter-cluster
distances with non-monotone methods. (PR#4195)
o plot.hclust() now tolerates mode changes on dumped objects. (PR#4361)
o prompt() no longer insists files are in the current directory.
o filter() did not use init in reverse order as documented. (PR#5017)
o contrasts<-() and model.matrix() now have sanity checks that
factors having at least 2 levels (or one level and a contrast
matrix): model.matrix() gave nonsensical results for 0-level
o writeChar() could segfault if more characters were requested
than exist. (PR#5090)
o round() and signif() dropped attributes with 0-length inputs,
only. (PR#4710)
o The default graphics device in the GNOME interface was gtk,
which is no longer in the base package. It is now X11.
o The print button on the toolbar of the GNOME graphics device
did not work.
o The example code on the man page for TkWidgetcmds had not been
updated after the change that made tkget (et al.) return
tclObj objects, so the "Submit" button didn't work.
o Rd conversion to latex did not add a new line before
\end{Section} for the section environments, which caused
problems if the last thing in a section was \preformatted{}
(and potentially elsewhere).
o Under some circumstances mosaicplot() failed if main was
supplied as it was passed on to model.frame.default().
o Conversion to POSIXlt (including printing) of POSIXct dates
before 1902 and after 2038 computed which were leap years from
(year-1900) so got some xx00 years wrong.
o As from this release there is only one R port for the
Macintosh, which runs only on Mac OS X. (The `Carbon' port has
been discontinued, and the `Darwin' port is part of the new
version.) The current version can be run either as a
command-line application or as an `Aqua' console. There is a
`Quartz' device quartz(), and the download and installation of
both source and binary packages is supported from the Aqua
console. Those CRAN and BioC packages which build under Mac OS X
have binary versions updated daily.
o The defaults for glm.control(epsilon=1e-8, maxit=25) have been
tightened: this will produce more accurate results, slightly
o sub, gsub, grep, regexpr, chartr, tolower, toupper, substr,
substring, abbreviate and strsplit now handle missing values
differently from "NA".
o Saving data containing name space references no longer warns
about name spaces possibly being unavailable on load.
o On Unix-like systems interrupt signals now set a flag that is
checked periodically rather than calling longjmp from the
signal handler. This is analogous to the behavior on Windows.
This reduces responsiveness to interrupts but prevents bugs
caused by interrupting computations in a way that leaves the
system in an inconsistent state. It also reduces the number
of system calls, which can speed up computations on some
platforms and make R more usable with systems like Mosix.
o Error and warning handling has been modified to incorporate a
flexible condition handling mechanism. See the online
documentation of 'tryCatch' and 'signalCondition'. Code that
does not use these new facilities should remain unaffected.
o A triple colon operator can be used to access values of internal
variables in a name space (i.e. a:::b is the value of the internal
variable b in name space a).
o Non-syntactic variable names can now be specified by inclusion
between backticks `Like This`. The deparse() code has been
changed to output non-syntactical names with this convention,
when they occur as operands in expressions. This is controlled
by a `backtick' argument, which is by default TRUE for
composite expressions and FALSE for single symbols. This
should give minimal interference with existing code.
o Variables in formulae can be quoted by backticks, and such
formulae can be used in the common model-fitting functions.
terms.formula() will quote (by backticks) non-syntactic names
in its "term.labels" attribute. [Note that other code using
terms objects may expect syntactic names and/or not accept
quoted names: such code will still work if the new feature is
not used.]
o New function bquote() does partial substitution like LISP backquote.
o capture.output() takes arbitrary connections for `file' argument.
o contr.poly() has a new `scores' argument to use as the base set
for the polynomials.
o cor() has a new argument `method = c("pearson","spearman","kendall")'
as cor.test() did forever. The two rank based measures do work with
all three missing value strategies.
o New utility function cov2cor() {Cov -> Corr matrix}.
o cut.POSIXt() now allows `breaks' to be more general intervals
as allowed for the `by' argument to seq.POSIXt().
o data() now has an 'envir' argument.
o det() uses an LU decomposition and LAPACK. The `method'
argument to det() no longer has any effect.
o dev.control() now accepts "enable" as well as "inhibit".
(Wishlist PR#3424)
o *, - and / work more generally on "difftime" objects, which now
have a diff() method.
o dt(*, ncp = V) is now implemented, thanks to Claus Ekstrom.
o dump() only quotes object names in the file where necessary.
o eval() of a promise forces the promise
o file.path() now returns an empty character vector if given at
least one zero-length argument.
o format() and hence print() make an effort to handle corrupt
data frames, with a warning.
o now also works with `nsmall' in analogy with
o gamma(n) is very slightly more precise for integer n in 11:50.
o ? and help() will accept more un-quoted arguments, e.g. NULL.
o The "?" operator has new forms for querying documentation on
S4 methods. See the online documentation.
o New argument frame.plot = axes (== TRUE) for filled.contour().
o New argument fixed = TRUE for grep() and regexpr() to avoid the
need to escape strings to match.
o grep(x, ..., value = TRUE) preserves names of x.
o hist.POSIXt() can now pass arguments to hist.default()
o legend() and symbols() now make use of xy.coords() and accept
a wider range of coordinate specifications.
o Added function library.dynam.unload() to call dyn.unload() on
a loaded DLL and tidy up. This is called for all the standard
packages in namespaces with DLLs if their namespaces are unloaded.
o lm(singular.ok = FALSE) is now implemented.
o Empty lm() and glm() fits are now handled by the normal
code: there are no methods for classes "lm.null" and
"glm.null". Zero-rank fits are handled consistently.
o make.names() has improvements, and there is a new auxiliary
function make.unique(). (Based on code contributed by Tom
Minka, since converted to a .Internal function.) In
particular make.names() now recognises that names beginning
with a dot are valid and that reserved words are not.
o methods() has a print method which asterisks functions which
are not user-visible. methods(class = "foo") now lists
non-visible functions, and checks that there is a matching generic.
o model.matrix() now warns when it removes the response from the
rhs of the formula: that this happens is now documented on its
help page.
o New option `locatorBell' to control the confirmation beep
during the use of locator() and identify().
o New option("scipen") provides some user control over the
printing of numbers in fixed-point or exponential notation.
(Contributed by David Brahm.)
o plot.formula() now accepts horizontal=TRUE and works correctly
when boxplots are produced. (Wishlist PR#1207) The code has
been much simplified and corrected.
o polygon() and rect() now interpret density < 0 or NA to mean
filling (by colour) is desired: this allows filling and
shading to be mixed in one call, e.g. from legend().
o The predict() methods for classes lm, glm, mlm and lqs take a
`na.action' argument that controls how missing values in
`newdata' are handled (and defaults to predicting NA).
[Previously the value of getOption("na.action") was used and
this by default omitted cases with missing values, even if set
to `na.exclude'.]
o print.summary.glm() now reports omitted coefficients in the
same way as print.summary.lm(), and both show them as NAs in
the table of coefficients.
o print.table() has a new argument `zero.print' and is now
o rank(x, na.last = "keep") now preserves NAs in `x', and the
argument `ties.method' allows to use non-averaging ranks in the
presence of ties.
o read.table()'s '' argument can be character, naming columns
not to be converted.
o rep() is now a generic function, with default, POSIXct and
POSIXlt methods. For efficiency, the base code uses
rather than rep() where possible.
o New function replicate() for repeated evaluation of expression
and collection of results, wrapping a common use of sapply()
for simulation purposes.
o rev() is now a generic function, with default and dendrogram
o serialize() and unserialize() functions are available for
low-level serialization to connections.
o socketSelect() allows waiting on multiple sockets.
o sort(method = "quick", decreasing = TRUE) is now implemented.
o sort.list() has methods "quick" (a wrapper for sort(method =
"quick", index.return = TRUE) and "radix" (a very fast method
for small integers). The default "shell" method works faster
on long vectors with many ties.
o stripchart() now has `log', `add' and `at' arguments.
o strsplit(x, *) now preserves names() but won't work for
non-character `x' anymore {formerly used as.character(x),
destroying names(x)}.
o textConnection() now has a local argument for use with output
connections. local = TRUE means the variable containing the
output is assigned in the frame of the caller.
o Using UseMethod() with more than two arguments now gives a
warning (as R-lang.texi has long claimed it did).
o New function vignette() for viewing or listing vignettes.
o which.min(x) and which.max(x) now preserve names.
o xy.coords() coerces "POSIXt" objects to "POSIXct", allowing
lines etc to added to plot.POSIXlt() plots.
o .Machine has a new entry, sizeof.pointer.
o .Random.seed is only looked for and stored in the user's
workspace. Previously the first place a variable of that name
was found on the search path was used.
o Subscripting for data.frames has been rationalized:
- Using a single argument now ignores any `drop' argument
(with a warning). Previously using `drop' inhibited list-like
- adf$name <- value now checks for the correct length of
`value', replicating a whole number of times if needed.
- adf[j] <- value and adf[[j]] <- value did not convert
character vectors to factors, but adf[,j] <- value did.
Now none do. Nor is a list `value' coerced to a data frame
(thereby coercing character elements to factors).
- Where replicating the replacement value a whole number of
times will produce the right number of values, this is
always done (rather than some times but not others).
- Replacement list values can include NULL elements.
- Subsetting a data frame can no longer produce duplicate
column names.
- Subsetting with drop=TRUE no longer sometimes drops
dimensions on matrix or data frame columns of the data frame.
- Attributes are no longer stripped when replacing part of a column.
- Columns added in replacement operations will always be
named, using the names of a list value if appropriate.
- did not cope with list names such as
`check.rows', and formatting/printing data frames with such
column names now works.
- Row names in extraction are still made unique, but without
forcing them to be syntactic names.
- adf[x] <- list() failed if x was of length zero.
o Setting dimnames to a factor now coerces to character, as S
does. (Earlier versions of R used the internal codes.)
o When coercion of a list fails, a meaningful error message is given.
o Adding to NULL with [[ ]] generates a list if more than one
element is added (as S does).
o There is a new command-line flag --args that causes the rest of
the command line to be skipped (but recorded in commandArgs()
for further processing).
o S4 generic functions and method dispatch have been modified to
make the generic functions more self-contained (e.g., usable
in apply-type operations) and potentially to speed dispatch.
o The data editor is no longer limited to 65535 rows, and will
be substantially faster for large numbers of columns.
o Standalone Rmath now has a get_seed function as requested (PR#3160).
o GC timing is not enabled until the first call to gc.time(); it
can be disabled by calling gc.time(FALSE). This can speed up
the garbage collector and reduce system calls on some
o New package 'mle'. This is a simple package to find maximum
likelihood estimates, and perform likelihood profiling and
approximate confidence limits based upon it. A well-behaved
likelihood function is assumed, and it is the responsibility
of the user to gauge the applicability of the asymptotic
theory. This package is based on S4 methods and classes.
o Changes in package 'mva':
- factanal() now returns the test statistic and P-value formerly
computed in the print method.
- heatmap() has many more arguments, partly thanks to Wolfgang
Huber and Andy Liaw.
- Arguments `unit' and `hmin' of plclust() are now implemented.
- prcomp() now accepts complex matrices, and there is biplot()
method for its output (in the real case).
- dendrograms are slightly better documented, methods working with
"label", not "text" attribute. New rev() method for dendrograms.
- plot.dendrogram() has an explicit `frame.plot' argument
defaulting to FALSE (instead of an implicit one defaulting to TRUE).
o Changes in package 'tcltk':
- The package is now in a namespace. To remove it you will
now need to use unloadNamespace("tcltk").
- The interface to Tcl has been made much more efficient by
evaluating Tcl commands via a vector of Tcl objects rather
than by constructing the string representation.
- An interface to Tcl arrays has been introduced.
- as.tclObj() has gained a `drop' argument to resolve an
ambiguity for vectors of length one.
o Changes in package 'tools':
- Utilities for testing and listing files, manipulating file
paths, and delimited pattern matching are now exported.
- Functions checkAssignFuns(), checkDocArgs() and checkMethods()
have been renamed to checkReplaceFuns(), checkDocFiles(), and
checkS3methods, to given better descriptions of what they do.
- R itself is now used for analyzing the markup in the \usage
sections. Hence in particular, replacement functions or S3
replacement methods are no longer ignored.
- checkDocFiles() now also determines 'over-documented' arguments
which are given in the \arguments section but not in \usage.
- checkDocStyle() and checkS3Methods() now know about internal S3
generics and S3 group generics.
- S4 classes and methods are included in the QC tests.
Warnings will be issued from undoc() for classes and
methods defined but not documented. Default methods
automatically generated from nongeneric functions do not
need to be documented.
- New (experimental) functions codocClasses() and codocData()
for code/documentation consistency checking for S4 classes and
data sets.
o Changes in package 'ts':
- arima.sim() now checks for inconsistent order specification
(as requested in PR#3495: it was previously documented not to).
- decompose() has a new argument `filter'.
- HoltWinters() has new arguments `optim.start' and
`optim.control', and returns more components in the fitted
values. The plot method allows `ylim' to be set.
- plot.ts() has a new argument `nc' controlling the number of
columns (with default the old behaviour for plot.mts).
- StructTS() now allows the first value of the series to be
missing (although it is better to omit leading NAs). (PR#3990)
o library() has a pos argument, controlling where the package is
attached (defaulting to pos=2 as before).
o require() now maintains a list of required packages in the
toplevel environment (typically, .GlobalEnv). Two features
use this: detach() now warns if a package is detached that is
required by an attached package, and packages that install
with saved images no longer need to use require() in the
.First as well as in the main source.
o Packages with name spaces can now be installed using --save.
o Packages that use S4 classes and methods should now work with
or without saved images (saved images are still recommended
for efficiency), writing setMethod(), etc. calls with the
default for argument `where'. The topenv() function and
sys.source() have been changed correspondingly. See the
online help.
o Users can specify in the DESCRIPTION file the collation order
for files in the R source directory of a package.
o Changes in R documentation format:
- New logical markup commands for emphasizing (\strong) and
quoting (\sQuote and \dQuote) text, for indicating the usage
of an S4 method (\S4method), and for indicating specific kinds
of text (\acronym, \cite, \command, \dfn, \env, \kbd, \option,
\pkg, \samp, \var).
- New markup \preformatted for pre-formatted blocks of text
(like \example but within another section). (Based on a
contribution by Greg Warnes.)
- New markup \concept for concept index entries for use by
o Rdconv now produces more informative output from the special
\method{GENERIC}{CLASS} markup for indicating the usage of S3
methods, providing the CLASS info in a comment.
o \dontrun sections are now marked within comments in the
user-readable versions of the converted help pages.
o \dontshow is now the preferred name for \testonly.
o The zlib code in the sources is used unless the external
version found is at least version 1.1.4 (up from 1.1.3).
o The regression checks now have to be passed exactly, except
those depending on recommended packages (which cannot be
assumed to be present).
o The target make check-all now runs R CMD check on all the
recommended packages (and not just runs their examples).
o There are new macros DYLIB_* for building dynamic libraries,
and these are used for the dynamic Rmath library (which was
previously built as a shared object).
o If a system function log1p is found, it is tested for accuracy
and if inadequate the substitute function in src/nmath is
used, with name remapped to Rlog1p. (Apparently needed on
o There is a new installed header file R_ext/Parse.h which
allows R_ParseVector to be called by those writing extensions.
(Note that the interface is changed from that used in the
unexported header Parse.h in earlier versions, and is not
guaranteed to remain unchanged.)
o The header R_ext/Mathlib.h has been removed. It was replaced by
Rmath.h in R 1.2.0.
o PREXPR has been replaced by two macros, PREXPR for obtaining the
expression and PRCODE for obtaining the code for use in eval.
The macro BODY_EXPR has been added for use with closures.
For a closure with a byte compiled body, the macro BODY_EXPR
returns the expression that was compiled; if the body is not
compiled then the body is returned. This is to support byte
o Internal support for executing byte compiled code has been added.
A compiler for producing byte compiled code will be made available
separately and should become part of a future R release.
o On Unix-like systems calls to the popen() and system() C library
functions now go through R_popen and R_system. On Mac OS X these
suspend SIGALRM interrupts around the library call. (Related to
o R CMD check accepts "ORPHANED" as package maintainer. Package
maintainers can now officially orphan a package, i.e., resign
from maintaining a package.
o R CMD INSTALL (Unix only) is now 'safe': if the attempt to
install a package fails, leftovers are removed. If the package
was already installed, the old version is restored.
o R CMD build excludes possible (obsolete) data and vignette
indices in DCF format (and hence also no longer rebuilds them).
o R CMD check now tests whether file names are valid across file
systems and supported operating system platforms. There is some
support for code/documentation consistency checking for data
sets and S4 classes. Replacement functions and S3 methods in
\usage sections are no longer ignored.
o R CMD Rdindex has been removed.
o The assignment operator `_' has been removed.
o printNoClass() is defunct.
o The classic Mac OS port is no longer supported, and its files
have been removed from the sources.
o The deprecated argument 'white' of parse() has been removed.
o Methods pacf/plot.mts() have been removed and their functionality
incorporated into pacf.default/plot.ts().
o print.coefmat() is deprecated in favour of printCoefmat()
(which is identical apart from the default for na.print which
is changed from "" to "NA", and better handling of the 0-rank
case where all coefficients are missing).
o codes() and codes<-() are deprecated, as almost all uses
misunderstood what they actually do.
o The use of multi-argument return() calls is deprecated: use a
(named) list instead.
o anovalist.lm (replaced in 1.2.0) is now deprecated.
o - and Ops methods for POSIX[cl]t objects are removed: the
POSIXt methods have been used since 1.3.0.
o, and lm.wfit.null() are deprecated.
o Classes "lm.null" and "glm.null" are deprecated and all of their
methods have been removed.
o Method weights.lm(), a copy of weights.default(), has been removed.
o print.atomic() is now deprecated.
o The back-compatibility entry point Rf_log1p in standalone
Rmath has been removed.
o ARMAacf() sometimes gave too many results or failed if `lag.max'
was used.
o termplot() with a subset of terms now gives correct partial residuals
o Functions anova.glm(), contrasts(), getS3method(), glm() and
make.tables() were applying get() without asking for a
function and/or not starting the search in the environment of
the caller.
o ignored the `row.names' argument.
o = TRUE) was converting names, and
hence data.frame(list(...), check.names = FALSE) was. (PR#3280)
o as.dist(m) {mva} now obeys `diag=TRUE' or `upper=TRUE' in all cases.
o as.double(list()) etc was regarded as an error, because of a
bug in isVectorizable.
o On some platforms the wday component of the result of
as.POSIXlt() was corrupted when trying to guess the DST offset
at dates the OS was unable to handle.
o ave(x, g) didn't work when `g' had unused levels.
o biplot.default() allows xlim and ylim to be set. (PR#3168)
o bgroup with a null (.) delimiter was setting font to Greek. (PR#3099)
o body() and formals() were looking for named functions in
different places: they now both look starting at the
environment in which they are called. Several documentation
errors for these functions have been corrected.
o boxplot() was ignoring cex.axis. (PR#2628)
o cut.POSIXt() now passes on ... to cut.default(), as documented.
o crossprod() now works for 1d arrays with unnamed dimnames (PR#4092).
o data() sometimes failed with multiple files, as the paths
variable got corrupted.
o data.frame() failed with a nonsensical error message if it
grabbed row names from an argument that was subsequently
recycled. Now they are discarded, with a warning.
o data.matrix() was documented to replace factors by their
codes, but in fact re-coded into the alphabetical ordering of
the levels.
o decompose() with even frequency used an asymmetric moving
average window.
o demo() was using `topic' as a regexp rather than an exact match.
o dotchart() now does recycle the `color' argument and better
documents the `bg' one (PR#4343).
o getAnywhere() didn't not correctly check for S3 methods, when
the generic or the class name contains a "." (PR#4275).
o file.copy() ignored the overwrite argument. (PR#3529)
o filter(method="recursive") was unnecessarily requiring the
time series to be longer than the filter.
o format(*, nsmall = m) with m > 0 now returns exponential format
less often.
o get() and exists() were ignoring the `mode' argument for
variables in base. The error message for get() now mentions
the mode requested if not "any". A bug in setting the NAMED
field in do_get was fixed.
o getS3method(f, cl, optional=TRUE) now returns NULL if `f' does
not exist.
o HoltWinters() would segfault if only gamma was optimized, and
not converge if gamma=0 and seasonal="mult".
o hyperref.cfg now contains definitions for colors it uses.
o identify.default() detects zero-length arguments. (PR#4057)
o legend() allows shading without filling again.
o legend(x, y, leg) doesn't triple `leg' anymore when it is a call.
o Corrected many problems with 0-rank (but not necessarily empty
model) lm() and glm() fits.
o lm.influence() now handles 0-rank models, and names its output
appropriately. It also ensures that hat values are not greater
than one, and rounds values within rounding error of one.
o The `method' argument to loess() did not work. (PR#3332)
o lsfit() was returning incorrect residuals for 0-rank fits.
o methods("$") and methods("$<-") were failing to find methods.
o methods() and getS3method() find methods if the generic
dispatches on a name other than its own. (The cases of
coefficients() and fitted.values() were fixed in 1.7.1.)
o model.matrix.default() was throwing an error on 0-term models,
but now handles them correctly.
o Printing `nls' objects misbehaved when `data' was a composite
o .NotYetImplemented() gave "Error in .NotYet...(): .."
o numericDeriv() was failing if the first argument was a name
rather than a call. (PR#3746)
o pacf() was failing if called on a one-column matrix.
o paste() applied to 0-length vectors gave "" not a 0-length vector.
o The length of a string specification of par(lty=) is now checked: it
should be 2, 4, 6 or 8.
o Using lty=as.integer(NA) and as.double(NA) were being accepted
but giving nonsensical results. Those are not documented
valid values for lty. (PR#3217)
o Erroneously calling par(new=TRUE) with no plot was not caught
and so could result in invalid graphics files. (PR#4037)
o par(tck=) was being interpreted incorrectly. It is now
documented in the same way as S, and now behaves as
documented. (PR#3504)
o plclust() [and hence plot.hclust()] sometimes now uses correct `ylim's
also in unusual cases. (PR#4197)
o plot.POSIX[cl]t no longer passes col, lty, lwd to axis.POSIXt.
o The png(), jpeg(), png() and win.metafile() devices now
enforce the length limit on the filename. (PR#3466)
o pnorm(x, 1, 0) does not give NaN anymore;
also, pnorm(x, m, s=Inf) == lim{s -> Inf} pnorm(x,m,s).
Similar changes for dnorm(), cf PR#1218.
o On some machines the internal rounding used in postscript() was
imperfect, causing unnecessarily verbose output (-0.00 instead of
0) and problems with make check.
o qqnorm()'s result now keeps NAs from its input. (PR#3750)
o rank() sometimes preserved and sometimes dropped names.
o readBin(what = "foo") didn't convert `what' to its type. (PR#4043)
o reorder.dendrogram() now properly resets the "midpoint" attributes
such that reorder()ed dendrograms now plot properly.
o rmultinom(1,100, c(3, 4, 2, 0,0))[3] was NA. (PR#4431)
o sapply() for matrix result does not return list(NULL,NULL) dimnames
o scan() now interprets quoting in fields to be skipped. (PR#4128)
o seq.POSIXt(from, to, by="DSTday") was failing or calculating
the length incorrectly.
o sort() and unique.default() were failing on 0-level factors.
o step() adds a fuzz for reduction in AIC for 0-df terms. (PR#3491)
o str(x) gives better output when x is of mode "(". Its "dendrogram"
method obeys the `give.attr' argument which now defaults to FALSE.
o strwidth(f) and strheight(f) could seg.fault when `f' was a
function. The fix [to C-level coerceVector()] now gives an error
instead of passing through. This may catch other potential
o Sweave() reports the chunk number rather than the driver call when
a try error gets caught.
o trunc.POSIXt(x) for 0-length x does not return invalid structures
anymore. (PR#3763).
o warnings() now returns NULL instead of an error when no warnings
have occured yet. (PR#4389)
o Using write.table() setting the `dec' argument and with no
numeric columns failed. (PR#3532)
o $<- did not duplicate when it needed to.
o Recursive indexing of lists had too little error-checking.
(related to PR#3324)
o Removed warning about names in persistent strings when a
namespace is saved.
o Fixed some malformed error messages in the methods package.
o pipes were not opening properly when profiling on a Mac OS.
o Lapack error messages (PR#3494) and call to DGEQP3 (PR#2867) are
o Rd conversion was limiting a file to 1000 pairs of braces,
without any warning. Now the limit is 10000, with a warning.
o In the tcltk package, the tkimage.*() commands were defined
nonsensically as widget commands. They have been redefined to be
more useful now.
o Registered group generics were not being used. (PR#3536)
o Subsetting data frames did not always correctly detect that
non-existent columns were specified.
o There are many more checks for over-running internal buffers,
almost always reporting errors.
o Added some buffer overflow checking in gram.y.
o Internals for complex assignment did not check that function name
was a symbol, which could cause a segfault.
o Fixed bug in S4 methods dispatch that made local variables in the
generic visible when executing the body of a method, thus violating
lexical scope.
* *
* *
o The help pages give appropriate references to the Blue,
White or Green books for functions based on the descriptions
of S functions given there. (E&OE)
o Function getAnywhere() can find non-exported objects, for
namespaces or registered methods.
o The (unimplemented) argument 'white' of parse() is deprecated.
o The tkfilefind demo in the tcltk library is deprecated, since
it never worked well, and apparently not at all with Tcl/Tk 8.4.
o print.table() used too much white space in some cases in 1.7.0.
o selectMethod() failed if `f' was a non-generic and
optional=TRUE, and gave a confusing error message if
o pchisq(*, ncp) and qchisq(*, ncp) work in more cases for large ncp
or quantile and give warning or error messages otherwise.
o str(x) now also works when x is an "externalptr" (or "weakref").
o rbeta(), rf(), and rt() now support infinite parameter values;
other distributions return NaN instead of NA for such.
o Redefining a class is now safer if the new definition
generates an error (previously some invalid metadata could be
left behind).
o A number of errors are now caught in setClass() that
previously either went unchecked or waited until new() to
- classes may not contain themselves, directly or indirectly;
- classes appearing either as slots or as superclasses must
themselves be defined;
- slot names (direct or inherited) must be unique.
In related changes, prototype() now works as documented, and is the
recommended way to provide prototype objects.
o Sorting an ordered factor would return an unordered one.
This caused some trouble with panel.superpose (PR#974).
o methods() could return duplicates if a method in a namespace
was both exported and registered.
o The internal zip.unpack() could crash if more than 500 files
were to be extracted. (PR#2818)
o The "r+" and "r+b" modes of opening file connections disallowed
o library() now warns the user if the chosen package name
doesn't match the internal package name, and corrects the
error. (PR#2816)
o qr(LAPACK=TRUE) (and qr for complex arguments) might have failed
to pivot for rank-deficient inputs. (PR#2867)
o Only re-mapped symbols are exported by regex.o, to avoid
problems with embedded R on RedHat 9.
o arima() did not set to FALSE if AR parameters
were fixed, although it claimed to.
o pnorm() was slower than necessary in the outer tails in some
cases due to a typo in the improvements from PR#699. (PR#2883)
o setGeneric() and setMethod() now catch some examples where the
generic and the method have different argument lists; the
evaluator checks for internal consistency of these argument lists.
o expand.grid(x) {the rare case of one argument} now treats factor
levels as in the typical case of two or more arguments.
o Some implicit coercions to lists could cause segfaults, e.g.
x <- matrix(nrow=20000, ncol=20); x$any <- numeric(0)
due to a PROTECT bug. (PR#2923)
o The replacement functions for colnames() and rownames() did not
work for arrays with more than two dimensions. They could
create dimnames of the form list(NULL, NULL) rather than
remove the dimnames attribute.
o termplot() gave incorrect answers with rug=TRUE or
partial=TRUE for factors whose levels were not in
lexicographical order.
o A serious performance flaw in as() computations was fixed (the
methods were not being cached properly.)
o model.frame(~1, data) always returned 1 row. (PR#2958)
o The data editor was truncating objects to 65535 rows. Pro
tem, editing objects with more than 65535 rows is an error,
and objects cannot be extended beyond that row. This restriction
will be removed in 1.8.0. (PR#2962)
o A bug could produce apparent loops in formal method selection
when inheritance was restricted (used for the as() function).
A related problem sometimes broke attaching a package that had
methods for basic functions, such as names(), used in method
o Empty expressions as in return(x,) could generate subsequent
segfaults: they are now errors. (PR#2880)
o The Kinderman-Ramage Normal Random Generator had several
problems leading to not-quite normally distributed variates
(PR#2846). One problem was traced to an error in the original
1976 JASA paper! Thanks to Josef Leydold and his team for
investigating this. The old generator has been retained for
reproducibility of older results, under the name
"Buggy Kinderman-Ramage". A warning is issued if you select it
(also indirectly via RNGversion()).
o promptMethods() now puts the \alias lines for methods in the
normal place, near the top of the file, and quotes class
names in signatures.
o getS3method() and methods() were not finding methods for
coefficients() and fitted.values() (which dispatch on "coef"
and "fitted" respectively).
o scan() (and hence read.table) was not finding matches for
separator chars with the upper bit set. (PR#3035)
o lm.(w)fit failed if the fit had rank 0.
o lqs() did not report explicitly that it had failed if all
samples gave singular fits.
o predict.lm(*, se=TRUE) {w/ weights, w/o newdata} now gives correct
SE's. (PR#3043)
o cor.test(x, y, method="spearman") now also works for
length(x) > 1290.
o Matrices were printed mis-aligned if right=TRUE and na.print
was specified. (PR#3058)
o R CMD check gives now a clearer message when latex produces
errors on the package manual. (PR#3070)
o isSeekable() was incorrectly returning FALSE on all file connections.
o tkpager() wasn't quite using its title and header arguments in
the way prescribed by
o legend(*, pch=p, lty=l) now works better when `p' or `l' have
o All braces in regular expressions used by Sweave() are now
escaped by a backslash.
o unloadNamespace() failed because getNamespaceImports() now coerces a
string argument to a name space.
o deriv3 gave incorrect Hessians for some very simple
expressions such as expression(x*y) (since the comments in the
C code were incorrect). (PR#2577)
o power.t.test(..., delta=NULL,alternative='two.sided') failed. (PR#2993)
o Lines on postscript() plots with thousands of segments might
have been plotted inaccurately in 1.7.0. (PR#3132)
Solid lines in postscript() output are split into groups of 1000
segments to help some PostScript interpreters (typically old
level-1 interpreters).
o cut.POSIXt failed when the breaks were date/time objects. (PR#3181)
o Usage of methods in dist.Rd is now correctly documented
(as.matrix.dist() is not an exported symbol).
o The predict() method for ar fits was not retrieving the series
from the parent environment.
o eigen() and La.eigen() were not returning a matrix of
eigenvectors for a 1x1 input.
o hsv() and rgb() now return character(0) when one of their args has
length 0. This also fixes terrain.color(1). (PR#3233)
o [[< checked if a replacment was too short, but not
if it was too long. (related to PR#3229)
o qt(x, df) was quite inaccurate for df=1+epsilon; it is now much more
accurate for df in (1,2) and more precise for other df. (PR#2991)
o qbeta() now has slightly improved C code in two places, as suggested
in the 2nd followup to PR#2894.
o solve(), chol(), eigen() and svd() now use LAPACK routines
unless a new back-compatibility option is turned on. The
signs and normalization of eigen/singular vectors may change
from earlier versions.
o The `methods', `modreg', `mva', `nls' and `ts' packages
are now attached by default at startup (in addition to `ctest').
The option "defaultPackages" has been added which contains the
initial list of packages. See ?Startup and ?options for details.
Note that .First() is no longer used by R itself.
class() now always (not just when `methods' is attached) gives
a non-null class, and UseMethod() always dispatches on the
class that class() returns. This means that methods like
foo.matrix and foo.integer will be used. Functions oldClass()
and oldClass<-() get and set the "class" attribute as R
without `methods' used to.
o The default random number generators have been changed to
`Mersenne-Twister' and `Inversion'. A new RNGversion()
function allows you to restore the generators of an earlier R
version if reproducibility is required.
o Namespaces can now be defined for packages other than `base':
see `Writing R Extensions'. This hides some internal objects
and changes the search path from objects in a namespace. All
the base packages (except methods and tcltk) have namespaces,
as well as the recommended packages `KernSmooth', `MASS',
`boot', `class', `nnet', `rpart' and `spatial'.
o Formulae are not longer automatically simplified when terms()
is called, so the formulae in results may still be in the
original form rather than the equivalent simplified form
(which may have reordered the terms): the results are now
much closer to those of S.
o The tables for plotmath, Hershey and Japanese have been moved
from the help pages (example(plotmath) etc) to demo(plotmath) etc.
o Errors and warnings are sent to stderr not stdout on
command-line versions of R (Unix and Windows).
o The R_X11 module is no longer loaded until it is needed, so
do test that x11() works in a new Unix-alike R installation.
o if() and while() give a warning if called with a vector condition.
o Installed packages under Unix without compiled code are no
longer stamped with the platform and can be copied to other
Unix-alike platforms (but not to other OSes because of
potential problems with line endings and OS-specific help files).
o The internal random number generators will now never return
values of 0 or 1 for runif. This might affect simulation
output in extremely rare cases. Note that this is not
guaranteed for user-supplied random-number generators, nor
when the standalone Rmath library is used.
o When assigning names to a vector, a value that is too short is
padded by character NAs. (Wishlist part of PR#2358)
o It is now recommended to use the 'SystemRequirements:' field in
the DESCRIPTION file for specifying dependencies external to the
R system.
o Output text connections no longer have a line-length limit.
o On platforms where vsnprintf does not return the needed buffer
size the output line-length limit for fifo(), gzfile() and
bzfile() has been raised from 10k to 100k chars.
o The Math group generic does not check the number of arguments
supplied before dispatch: it used to if the default method had
one argument but not if it had two. This allows trunc.POSIXt()
to be called via the group generic trunc().
o Logical matrix replacement indexing of data frames is now
implemented (interpreted as if the lhs was a matrix).
o Recursive indexing of lists is allowed, so x[[c(4,2)]] is
shorthand for x[[4]][[2]] etc. (Wishlist PR#1588)
o Most of the time series functions now check explicitly for a
numeric time series, rather than fail at a later stage.
o The postscript output makes use of relative moves, and so is
somewhat more compact.
o %*% and crossprod() for complex arguments make use of BLAS
routines and so may be much faster on some platforms.
o arima() has coef(), logLik() (and hence AIC) and vcov() methods.
o New function as.difftime() for time-interval data.
o basename() and dirname() are now vectorized.
o biplot.default() {mva} allows `xlab' and `ylab' parameters to
be set (without partially matching to `xlabs' and `ylabs').
(Thanks to Uwe Ligges.)
o New function capture.output() to send printed output from an expression
to a connection or a text string.
o ccf() (pckage ts) now coerces its x and y arguments to class "ts".
o chol() and chol2inv() now use LAPACK routines by default.
o as.dist(.) is now idempotent, i.e., works for "dist" objects.
o Generic function confint() and `lm' method (formerly in
package MASS, which has `glm' and `nls' methods).
o New function constrOptim() for optimisation under linear inequality
o Add `difftime' subscript method and methods for the group
generics. (Thereby fixing PR#2345)
o download.file() can now use HTTP proxies which require `basic'
username/password authentication.
o dump() has a new argument `envir'. The search for named
objects now starts by default in the environment from which
dump() is called.
o The edit.matrix() and editors can now handle
logical data.
o New argument `local' for example() (suggested by Andy Liaw).
o New function file.symlink() to create symbolic file links
where supported by the OS.
o New generic function flush() with a method to flush connections.
o New function force() to force evaluation of a formal argument.
o New functions getFromNamespace(), fixInNamespace() and
getS3method() to facilitate developing code in packages with
o glm() now accepts `etastart' and `mustart' as alternative ways
to express starting values.
o New function gzcon() which wraps a connection and provides
(de)compression compatible with gzip.
load() now uses gzcon(), so can read compressed saves from
suitable connections.
o can now reliably match individual aliases and
keywords, provided that all packages searched were installed
using R 1.7.0 or newer.
o hist.default() now returns the nominal break points, not those
adjusted for numerical tolerances.
To guard against unthinking use, `include.lowest' in
hist.default() is now ignored, with a warning, unless `breaks'
is a vector. (It either generated an error or had no effect,
depending how prettification of the range operated.)
o New generic functions influence(), hatvalues() and dfbeta()
with lm and glm methods; the previously normal functions rstudent(),
rstandard(), cooks.distance() and dfbetas() became generic.
These have changed behavior for glm objects -- all originating from
John Fox' car package.
o interaction.plot() has several new arguments, and the legend
is not clipped anymore by default. It internally uses axis(1,*)
instead of mtext().
This also addresses "bugs" PR#820, PR#1305, PR#1899.
o New isoreg() function and class for isotonic regression
(`modreg' package).
o La.chol() and La.chol2inv() now give interpretable error
messages rather than LAPACK error codes.
o legend() has a new `plot' argument. Setting it `FALSE' gives
size information without plotting (suggested by U.Ligges).
o library() was changed so that when the methods package is
attached it no longer complains about formal generic functions
not specific to the library.
o list.files()/dir() have a new argument `recursive'.
o lm.influence() has a new `do.coef' argument allowing *not* to
compute casewise changed coefficients. This makes plot.lm() much
quicker for large data sets.
o load() now returns invisibly a character vector of the names
of the objects which were restored.
o New convenience function loadURL() to allow loading data files
from URLs (requested by Frank Harrell).
o New function mapply(), a multivariate lapply().
o New function md5sum() in package tools to calculate MD5
checksums on files (e.g. on parts of the R installation).
o medpolish() {package eda} now has an `na.rm' argument (PR#2298).
o methods() now looks for registered methods in namespaces, and
knows about many objects that look like methods but are not.
o mosaicplot() has a new default for `main', and supports the
`las' argument (contributed by Uwe Ligges and Wolfram Fischer).
o An attempt to open() an already open connection will be detected
and ignored with a warning. This avoids improperly closing
some types of connections if they are opened repeatedly.
o optim(method = "SANN") can now cover combinatorial optimization
by supplying a move function as the `gr' argument (contributed
by Adrian Trapletti).
o PDF files produced by pdf() have more extensive information
fields, including the version of R that produced them.
o On Unix(-alike) systems the default PDF viewer is now determined
during configuration, and available as the 'pdfviewer' option.
o pie(...) has always accepted graphical pars but only passed
them on to title(). Now pie(, cex=1.5) works.
o plot.dendrogram (`mva' package) now draws leaf labels if present
by default.
o New function as in S.
o The postscript() and PDF() drivers now allow the title to be set.
o New function power.anova.test(), contributed by Claus Ekstrom.
o power.t.test() now behaves correctly for negative delta in the
two-tailed case.
o power.t.test() and power.prop.test() now have a `strict'
argument that includes rejections in the "wrong tail" in the
power calculation. (Based in part on code suggested by Ulrich
o prcomp() is now fast for n x m inputs with m >> n.
o princomp() no longer allows the use of more variables than
units: use prcomp() instead.
o princomp.formula() now has principal argument `formula', so
update() can be used.
o Printing an object with attributes now dispatches on the
class(es) of the attributes. See ?print.default for the fine
print. (PR#2506)
o print.matrix() and prmatrix() are now separate functions.
prmatrix() is the old S-compatible function, and
print.matrix() is a proper print method, currently identical
to print.default(). prmatrix() and the old print.matrix()
did not print attributes of a matrix, but the new print.matrix()
o print.summary.{lm,glm} now default to symbolic.cor = FALSE, but
symbolic.cor can be passed to the print methods from the
summary methods. print.summary.{lm,glm} print correlations to
2 decimal places, and the symbolic printout avoids abbreviating
o If a prompt() method is called with 'filename' as 'NA', a
list-style representation of the documentation shell generated
is returned. New function promptData() for documenting objects
as data sets.
o qqnorm() and qqline() have an optional logical argument
`datax' to transpose the plot (S-PLUS compatibility).
o qr() now has the option to use LAPACK routines, and the
results can be used by the helper routines qr.coef(), qr.qy()
and qr.qty(). The LAPACK-using versions may be much faster
for large matrices (using an optimized BLAS) but are less
o QR objects now have class "qr", and solve.qr() is now just the
method for solve() for the class.
o New function r2dtable() for generating random samples of two-way
tables with given marginals using Patefield's algorithm.
o rchisq() now has a non-centrality parameter `ncp', and there's a
C API for rnchisq().
o New generic function reorder() with a dendrogram method;
new order.dendrogram() and heatmap().
o require() has a new argument, character.only,
-- to make it align with library.
o New functions rmultinom() and dmultinom(), the first one with
a C API.
o New function runmed() for fast runnning medians (`modreg' package).
o New function slice.index() for identifying indexes with respect
to slices of an array.
o solve.default(a) now gives the dimnames one would expect.
o stepfun() has a new `right' argument for right-continuous step
function construction.
o str() now shows ordered factors different from unordered ones.
It also differentiates "NA" and as.character(NA), also for factor
o symnum() has a new logical argument `abbr.colnames'.
o summary(<logical>) now mentions NA's as suggested by
Goran Brostrom.
o summaryRprof() now prints times with a precision appropriate
to the sampling interval, rather than always to 2dp.
o New function Sys.getpid() to get the process ID of the R session.
o table() now allows exclude= with factor arguments (requested by
Michael Friendly).
o The tempfile() function now takes an optional second argument
giving the directory name.
o The ordering of terms for terms.formula(keep.order=FALSE) is
now defined on the help page and used consistently, so that
repeated calls will not alter the ordering (which is why
delete.response() was failing: see the bug fixes). The
formula is not simplified unless the new argument `simplify'
is true.
o added "[" method for terms objects.
o New argument `silent' to try().
o ts() now allows arbitrary values for y in start/end = c(x, y):
it always allowed y < 1 but objected to y > frequency.
o unique.default() now works for POSIXct objects, and hence so
does factor().
o Package tcltk now allows return values from the R side to the
Tcl side in callbacks and the R_eval command. If the return
value from the R function or expression is of class "tclObj"
then it will be returned to Tcl.
o A new HIGHLY EXPERIMENTAL graphical user interface using the tcltk
package is provided. Currently, little more than a proof of concept.
It can be started by calling "R -g Tk" (this may change in later
versions) or by evaluating tkStartGUI(). Only Unix-like systems
for now. It is not too stable at this point; in particular, signal
handling is not working properly.
o Changes to support name spaces:
- Placing base in a name space can no longer be disabled by
defining the environment variable R_NO_BASE_NAMESPACE.
- New function topenv() to determine the nearest top level
environment (usually .GlobalEnv or a name space environment).
- Added name space support for packages that do not use methods.
o Formal classes and methods can be `sealed', by using the
corresponding argument to setClass or setMethod. New
functions isSealedClass() and isSealedMethod() test sealing.
o packages can now be loaded with version numbers. This allows
for multiple versions of files to be installed (and potentially
loaded). Some serious testing will be going on, but it should
have no effect unless specifically asked for.
o TITLE files in packages are no longer used, the Title field
in the DESCRIPTION file being preferred. TITLE files will be
ignored in both installed packages and source packages.
o When searching for a Fortran 77 compiler, configure by default
now also looks for Fujitsu's frt and Compaq's fort, but no
longer for cf77 and cft77.
o Configure checks that mixed C/Fortran code can be run before
checking compatibility on ints and doubles: the latter test
was sometimes failing because the Fortran libraries were not
o PCRE and bzip2 are built from versions in the R sources if the
appropriate library is not found.
o New configure option --with-lapack to allow high-performance
LAPACK libraries to be used: a generic LAPACK library will be
used if found. This option is not the default.
o New configure options --with-libpng, --with-jpeglib, --with-zlib,
--with-bzlib and --with-pcre, principally to allow these
libraries to be avoided if they are unsuitable.
o If the precious variable R_BROWSER is set at configure time
it overrides the automatic selection of the default browser.
It should be set to the full path unless the browser appears
at different locations on different client machines.
o Perl requirements are down again to 5.004 or newer.
o Autoconf 2.57 or later is required to build the configure
o Configure provides a more comprehensive summary of its results.
o Index generation now happens when installing source packages
using R code in package tools. An existing 'INDEX' file is used
as is; otherwise, it is automatically generated from the \name
and \title entries in the Rd files. Data, demo and vignette
indices are computed from all available files of the respective
kind, and the corresponding index information (in the Rd files,
the 'demo/00Index' file, and the \VignetteIndexEntry{} entries,
respectively). These index files, as well as the package Rd
contents data base, are serialized as R objects in the 'Meta'
subdirectory of the top-level package directory, allowing for
faster and more reliable index-based computations (e.g., in For vignettes an HTML index is generated
and linked into the HTML help system.
o The Rd contents data base is now computed when installing source
packages using R code in package tools. The information is
represented as a data frame without collapsing the aliases and
keywords, and serialized as an R object. (The 'CONTENTS' file
in Debian Control Format is still written, as it is used by the
HTML search engine.)
o A NAMESPACE file in root directory of a source package is copied
to the root of the package installation directory. Attempting to
install a package with a NAMESPACE file using --save signals an
error; this is a temporary measure.
o The defaults for configure for Darwin systems is
--with-blas='-framework vecLib' --with-lapack --with-aqua
that by default builds R as a framework and installs it in
/Library/Frameworks as R.framework. Then, make install just
installs the R.framework in /Library/Frameworks unless specified
at configure time using the -enable-R-framework=[DIR] or using
the --prefix flag at installation time.
o The assignment operator `_' will be removed in the next
release and users are now warned on every usage: you may even see
multiple warnings for each usage.
If environment variable R_NO_UNDERLINE is set to anything of
positive length then use of `_' becomes a syntax error.
o machine(), Machine() and Platform() are defunct.
o restart() is defunct. Use try(), as has long been recommended.
o The deprecated arguments `pkg' and `lib' of system.file() have
been removed.
o printNoClass() {methods} is deprecated (and moved to base,
since it was a copy of a base function).
o Primitives dataClass() and objWithClass() have been replaced
by class() and class<-(); they were internal support functions
for use by package methods.
o The use of SIGUSR2 to quit a running R process under Unix is
deprecated, the signal may need to be reclaimed for other
o R CMD check more compactly displays the tests of DESCRIPTION
meta-information. It now reports demos and vignettes without
available index information. Unless installation tests are
skipped, checking is aborted if the package dependencies cannot
be resolved at run time. Rd files are now also explicitly
checked for empty \name and \title entries. The examples are
always run with T and F redefined to give an error if used
instead of TRUE and FALSE.
o The Perl code to build help now removes an existing example
file if there are no examples in the current help file.
o R CMD Rdindex is now deprecated in favor of function Rdindex()
in package tools.
o Sweave() now encloses the Sinput and Soutput environments of
each chunk in an Schunk environment. This allows to fix some
vertical spacing problems when using the latex class slides.
o A full double-precision LAPACK shared library is made
available as -lRlapack. To use this include
o Header file R_ext/Lapack.h added. C declarations of BLAS
routines moved to R_ext/BLAS.h and included in R_ext/Applic.h
and R_ext/Linpack.h for backward compatibility.
o R will automatically call initialization and unload routines, if
present, in shared libraries/DLLs during dyn.load() and
dyn.unload() calls. The routines are named R_init_<dll name>
and R_unload_<dll name>, respectively. See the Writing R
Extensions Manual for more information.
o Routines exported directly from the R executable for use with
.C(), .Call(), .Fortran() and .External() are now accessed via
the registration mechanism (optionally) used by packages. The
ROUTINES file (in src/appl/) and associated scripts to
generate FFTab.h and FFDecl.h are no longer used.
o Entry point Rf_append is no longer in the installed headers
(but is still available). It is apparently unused.
o Many conflicts between other headers and R's can be avoided by
defining STRICT_R_HEADERS and/or R_NO_REMAP -- see `Writing R
Extensions' for details.
o New entry point R_GetX11Image and formerly undocumented
ptr_R_GetX11Image are in new header R_ext/GetX11Image. These
are used by package tkrplot.
o The redefinition of the internal do_dataentry by both the aqua and X11
modules, casued a bus error when launching R without the --gui=aqua option
under X11 using a version of R built to use the aqua module. This has
now been fixed. (PR#6438)
o Sys.sleep() on Unix was having trouble with waits of less than 0.5s
o The fix to PR#2396 broke read.table() on files with CR line
endings. (PR#2469) Separate problem with this on Carbon Mac OS
build fixed as well.
o Converting Sweave files to noweb syntax using SweaveSyntConv()
was broken.
o Printing numbers near the minimum could get the number of
significant figures wrong due to underflow: for example 4e-308
might print as 4.00000e-308. (Seen on some Windows builds,
and also on numbers around 1e-317 on Linux.)
o wilcox.test() could give integer overflow warnings on very long
vectors. Also added tests for numeric inputs, as per the help
page. (PR#2453)
o Printing unquoted character vectors containing escape
characters was computing the wrong length and hence
misaligning names. This was due to a bug in Rstrlen which
might have had other effects.
o if(logical(0)) and while(logical(0)) now report zero length,
not `missing value where logical is needed'.
o The gaussian() and inverse.gaussian() families were documented
to allow only one link, which has not been true in R for at
least four years.
o prmatrix() forced conversion to character if `na.print' was
used, and that conversion neither respected `digits' nor
o Rprof() might give misleading results for too small values of
`interval' and in practice the default 20ms was about as small
as is advisable on Linux. Now the interval is forced to be at
least one clock tick.
o was not giving interpretable results when
the data frame contained a data frame as a column. (PR#1891)
o delete.response() might re-order the rhs terms so prediction
might fail or even give incorrect results. (PR#2206)
o StructTS() now accepts numeric time series of integer storage mode.
o all(), any() now handle NAs as documented.
o Subsetting arrays to a result with 0 dimension(s) failed if
the array had dimnames. (PR#2507)
o If the call to data.frame() included 0-row arguments, it tried
to replicate them to the maximum number of rows, and failed if
this was 1 or more.
o replicate() now understands data frames to which na.omit() has
been applied.
o is.ts() was too liberal: a time series must have at least one point.
o methods() was sorting by package, not by name.
o symbols(thermometers=) was often giving a spurious warning about
the range.
o tcltk was using deprecated internals of the Tcl library when
accessing error messages. Not likely to be a user-visible
o The automatic search for BLAS libs now tries Sun's libsunperf
the way the latest versions require. (PR#2530)
o str(array(1)) now does show the array.
str(Surv(...)) now works again.
o step(), add1.default() and drop1.default() now work somewhat
better if called from a function.
o page() was searching from the wrong environment, and so
searching base before the workspace.
o crossprod(Z) for complex Z was returning nonsense.
o La.chol2inv() gave incorrect results unless the matrix was square.
o When the POSIXt date functions were required to guess DST,
they sometimes guessed correctly that DST was in force but
converted a POSIXlt time as if standard time was given.
o c/rbind were not handling zero col/row matrices correctly.
(PR#2541 was one symptom.)
o approx() and approxfun() now work with 1 knot if
method = "constant". stepfun(), ecdf() and plot.stepfun() do so
as well.
o AIC.lm/default was failing if multiple objects and k were
specified. (PR#2518)
o removeMethods{methods} was broken. (PR#2519)
o summary.glm() had two `aic' components in the returned object.
o autoload() was returning the value of its last command, a
promise, even though it was documented to have no value.
As a result some packages (e.g. nlme) were loading packages
they meant to autoload.
o Fixes to methods and classes:
- show() is consistent with using setOldClass for S3 classes.
- several problems with the coerce and replace methods
generated by setIs have been fixed.
- more thorough tests & informative messages for invalid
`def' arguments to setGeneric
- setGeneric will now create the generic function even when
a generic of the same name already exists (it does issue
a warning).
o unz() connections could no longer be opened. (PR#2579)
o unique(ordered factor) returned an unordered factor. (PR#2591)
o x[] <- value coerced x to the mode of value if and only if x
had length 0! (Should only happen if x is null: PR#2590)
o lm() mislabelled the cols of the qr decomposition. (cause of PR#2586)
o data() looks for file extensions in an order prescribed in the
help file: previously whether foo.R or foo.csv was used was
o sys.function() now returns the actual function being evaluated in
the specified frame rather than one inferred from the call.
o now uses the definition of the actual function being
evaluated rather than one inferred from the call.
o abbreviate(*, dot = TRUE) now only adds a "." where abbreviations
did happen.
o Changing timezones in the POSIXt functions was not working on
some Linux systems, and this has been corrected.
o ks.test() in package ctest had numerical problems in the lower
tail of the asymptotic distribution (PR#2571).
o Sweave() now handles empty chunks at the end of files correctly.
o [<-() lost the object bit if coercion was involved.
o package::object wasn't being deparsed properly.
o seq.POSIXt() with `by' an object of class "difftime" ignored
the units.
o rank(c("B", NA)) no longer returns character.
o reference to by() added in ?tapply
o ?lm describes what happens with matrix response
o The X11 device has improved event handling. In particular it
used to often miss the last of a series of resize events.
o lm.influence() and related functions now work again for the
multivariate case and when there are zero weights.
o format( <character> ) now always keeps names and dimnames.
o table(factor(c(2,NA), exclude=NULL)) prints better now.
o predict(foo, type = "terms") and hence
residuals(foo, type = "partial") now work for lm and glm objects
with weights zero. Further, model.matrix() is now only called once.
o R CMD config now works correctly when called from a Makefile
using GNU make.
o The data.frame method for rbind() was
- converting character columns to factors,
- converting ordered factor columns to unordered factors,
- failing to append correctly a factor to a character column
and vice versa.
o as.hclust.twins() now does provide proper `labels', `method' and
`call' components.
o cycle() sometimes failed on a time series which started at a cycle
other than 1.
o read.dcf() read incorrectly files which did not end in a new line.
o read.socket() dropped certain non-alphanumeric characters. (PR#2639)
o termplot() handles missing data better (PR#2687,
o Corrected MacRoman encoding for Icircumflex etc.
* *
* *
o plot.stepfun() now obeys a `ylim=.' specification.
o removeClass() does a better job of removing inheritance
o setIs() will not allow mismatched representations between two
classes (without an explicit coerce method).
o The code underlying polygon drawing contained a memory leak.
This showed up in persp, but did not affect other graphics
functions. It is now possible to draw big DEMs.
o logLik.nls() gave wrong df. (PR#2295)
o rbind() with a mixture of data frames and matrices treated the
matrices as vectors. (PR#2266)
o stripchart(method="stack") was not handling missing values. (PR#2018)
o Arithmetic functions such as log() lost the object bit from
classed objects if coercion was needed. (PR#2315)
o exp_rand would go into an infinite loop if unif_rand returned 0.
o formatC(x, format="fg") could return exponential format if
rounding pushed x over a positive power of 10. (PR#2299)
o attr(x, foo) used partial matching for `foo' (even though not
documented to do so), and failed to find `foo' if there were
two or more partial matches before the exact match in the list
of attributes.
o Rdconv now creates direct HTML hyperlinks when linking to
documentation in the same package. The code now ensures that
links which can be resolved within the package are so resolved,
even when there are possible resolutions in other packages.
o If readBin(what=character()) is used incorrectly on a file which
does not contain C-style character strings, warnings (usually
many) are now given.
o Building with the zlib in the R sources was not
finding the local zlib headers.
o system(intern=TRUE) has an undocumented line length limit of
119 chars both on Unix and Windows. The limit is now 8096 and
documented. On Unix (only) every 120th character used to be
o plot.POSIX[cl]t were not passing graphics parameters on to
o On some HP-UX systems, installed scripts were not executable
when using the BSD-compatible install system program found by
configure. We now always use install-sh on HP-UX. (PR#2091)
o c() was converting NA names to "NA": now proper NA strings are
used wherever possible. (PR#2358)
o Checks in the C code prevent possible memory faults when
standardGeneric is called invalidly.
o Macros NEW_OBJECT (aka NEW) and MAKE_CLASS added; required by
the .Call interface to generate arbitrary objects.
o A typo was causing segfaults when using data.entry under SuSE.
o mostattributes<-() was failing to copy across dimnames when
one component was NULL, affecting pmax() and pmin() when the
first argument was a matrix. (root cause of PR#2357)
o The pdf() device now initialises graphical parameters
properly. (PR#2281)
o Checks in the C code prevent possible memory faults when
standardGeneric is called invalidly.
o Macros NEW_OBJECT (aka NEW) and MAKE_CLASS added; required by
the .Call interface to generate arbitrary objects.
o Problem that prevented package tcltk from working with Tcl/Tk
8.4 (crash on initialization) resolved. (Notice that binaries
may still require an older Tcl/Tk, for example on Windows).
o type.convert() was not getting the levels right if passed a
character vector containing <NA>s, and `na.strings' did not
contain "NA". This affected read.table().
o Internal match function did not check for nor handle 0-length
vectors. (The R function match() did.) This could cause
type.convert() to segfault.
o The line length limit in output text connections has been
raised to 8095 chars.
o Sweave now uses anonymous file rather than text connections
to avoid the limits of the latter (see previous item).
o parsing did not work on connections when pushback was used (as
it had never been implemented). (PR#2396)
o max.col() only found NAs in the first column (typo).
o Added a workaround for recent versions of glibc (e.g. RedHat 8.0)
with inconsistent mktime/localtime functions which caused
conversion to/from POSIXct times prior to 1970-01-01 to be
inconsistent. On such platforms this is a run-time test to
allow e.g. R compiled on RH7.2 to run on RH8.0.
o Clipping was not being reset properly between plots on the gtk()
device (the default under the GNOME interface). (PR#2366)
o axis(*, fg= cc) now works (again) the same as axis(*, col = cc).
o Added a few "trivial and obviously missing" functions to tcltk:
tkchooseDirectory, tkpopup, tkdialog, tkread
o barplot() has a new argument `axis.lty', which if set to 1
allows the pre-1.6.0 behaviour of plotting the axis and tick
marks for the categorical axis. (This was apparently not
intentional, but axis() used to ignore lty=0.)
The argument `border' is no longer ".NotYetUsed".
o hist(<datetime>, cex.axis = f) now works for x-axis too.
o prompt() gave wrong \usage{.} for long argument default expressions.
o summary(x) gives more information when `x' is a logical
(or a data frame with a logical column which is now quite customary).
o seq.POSIXt(from, to, length.out= . ) could give too long results
o summaryRprof() was counting nested calls to the same function
o Printing of objects of mode "expression" did strange things if
there were "%" characters in the deparsed expression (PR#2120).
o converted missings to "NA" not character NA.
o spec.pgram() was only interpolating zero freq for one series. (PR#2123)
o help(randu) had % unescaped in the example. (PR#2141)
o Making html links would fail if packages-head.html was not
writable. (PR#2133)
o Sweave.sty was not installed to $R_HOME/share/texmf when
builddir != srcdir. On Windows backslashes in latex paths have
to be replaced by slashes.
o A memory leak in deparsing was introduced when eliminating
static variables (thanks to Achim Zeileis for spotting this).
A similar problem in loading workspaces has been corrected.
o TclInterface.Rd incorrectly used \synopsis for \usage so that
the usage section wasn't output.
o Readline stack off-by-one error. (PR#2165)
o R_ExpandFileName had a memory leak in the case libreadline was
used under Unix-alikes.
o now closes all connections so it will work even
if the connection list has become full.
o loess() had an unstated limit of four predictors: this is now
documented and enforced.
o ${R_HOME}/etc/ is now not read if R_ENVIRON is
set, as documented. Previously it was read unless R_ENVIRON
pointed to an actual file.
o Startup.Rd described the processing under Unix-alikes but
incorrectly implied it happened that way on the Windows and
Mac OS ports. Neither use, for example.
o besselK(x,*) now returns 0 instead of Inf for large x. (PR#2179)
o The Tcl console code didn't work with Tcl/TK 8.0, and has been
#ifdef'd out. (PR#2090)
o format.AsIs() was not handling matrices.
o sd() was not passing na.rm to var() for matrices and data frames.
o dist() {mva} silently treated +/-Inf as NA.
o setwd() now returns NULL invisibly.
o basename() and dirname() did not check the length of their
input and ignored elements after the first. This affected
undoc {tools}.
o If A had dimnames, eigen(A) had inappropriate dimnames. (PR#2116)
o as.POSIXct.dates had a sign error for the origin (PR#2222)
o The claim that pie charts should be avoided (in pie.Rd) is now
supported by a quote from Cleveland (1985).
o The vsnprintf() functions supplied for systems that don't
supply their own had a bug in the output of fractional parts,
corrupting data if using save() with ascii=TRUE. (PR#2144)