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COPYRIGHT STATUS
The bulk of this code is copyright by members of or all of the R
Development Core Team.
See the file COPYING for the exact conditions under which you may
redistribute it. R as a whole is distributed under GPL version 2 or
3: most source files contain a copyright statement allowing use of
that file under GPL version 2 or later: the main exceptions are the
included versions of packages 'MASS', 'class', 'nnet', 'rpart' and
'spatial' (GPL-2 or GPL-3).
The status of files used only in the Windows port is in file
src/gnuwin32/COPYRIGHTS.win, which is appended to this file in binary
Windows distributions.
Note that all the code *is* copyright and may only be reproduced if
the copyright notice (that in the file or this notice) is preserved.
---------------------------------------------------
Some (but not all) of the public header files are distributed under
the more permissive terms of version 2.1 or later of the LGPL: see
files R_HOME/share/licenses/LGPL-2.1 and R_HOME/share/licenses/LGPL-3.
This applies only to the header files
src/include/R.h
src/include/Rdefines.h
src/include/Rgraphics.h
src/include/Rinternals.h
src/include/Rmath.h
src/include/S.h
src/include/R_ext/*.h
Note that it does not apply to the header files such as Rembedded.h
and Rinterface.h used for third-party front ends.
From the announcement of the change (2001-Feb-05)
It came to our attention that some projects are interpreting GPL to
mean that compiling against the header files or linking against a
Windows import library brings the compiled code under the scope of
GPL. This would mean it would be impossible to distribute binary
versions of non-GPL packages with compiled code which called entry
points in the R executable or DLL, of which there are many on CRAN.
We encourage packages to be distributed under Open Source conditions,
but accept that this is not possible for some contributions. Our
intention is that export files and import libraries be `accessors'
under clause 5 of the LGPL, so that in most cases no (additional)
restrictions are imposed by compiling a package using the LGPL-ed
components of R.
To avoid any anomalies, the versions of the same files in R versions
1.0.0 to 1.2.1 may also be used under LGPL or GPL.
As from R 2.3.0 import libraries are no longer used under Windows, and
as from R 2.4.0 fewer export files are used under AIX.
Some contributed files are also covered by the Library General Public License.
These include (see also below)
src/library/stats/R/embed.R
src/library/stats/src/PPsum.c
---------------------------------------------------
Some of the code contains different copyright statements. It is used
here in accordance with the copyright conditions in that code. A
not-necessarily-complete list of such files is:
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/*___.afm
Copyright (c) 1984 to 1992 Adobe Systems Incorporated.
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/MustRead.html
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/Courier*.afm
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/Helvetica*.afm
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/Times*.afm
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/Symbol.afm
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/ZapfDingbats.afm
Copyright (c) 1985, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1997 Adobe Systems
Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/*l.afm
Copyright 1999 by (URW)++ Design & Development
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/CM_*.afm
src/library/grDevices/inst/afm/cm*.afm
are derived from afms which are copyright by the American
Mathematical Society, but `the AMS does require that the
AMS copyright notice be removed from any derivative versions
of the fonts which have been altered in any way'.
doc/manual/R-intro.texi
in part
Copyright (C) 1990 W. N. Venables
Copyright (C) 1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. Smith
Copyright (C) 1997 R. Gentleman & R. Ihaka
Copyright (C) 1997, 1998 M. Maechler
shares/licenses/*
See the individual files.
share/texmf/bibtex/bst/jss.bst
Copyright 1994-2005 Patrick W Daly
share/texmf/tex/latex/jss.cls
Copyright: (C) Achim Zeileis
share/texmf/tex/latex/upquote.sty
Copyright 2000 Michael A. Covington.
Copyright 2003 Michael A. Covington, Frank Mittelbach.
src/library/graphics/R/mosaicplot.R
Original code copyright (C) 1998 John W. Emerson
src/library/graphics/R/pairs.R
In part, Copyright 1999 Dr. Jens Oehlschlaegel-Akiyoshi
src/library/graphics/R/polygon.R
Copyright (C) 2001 by Kevin Buhr <buhr@stat.wisc.edu>
src/library/splines/R/splineClasses.R
Copyright (C) 1998 Douglas M. Bates and William N. Venables.
src/library/datasets/man/austres.Rd
src/library/datasets/man/beavers.Rd
src/library/datasets/man/lh.Rd
src/library/datasets/man/rock.Rd
src/library/datasets/man/UKLungDeaths.Rd
src/library/datasets/man/USAccDeaths.Rd
src/library/stats/R/bandwidths.R
src/library/stats/R/cpgram.R
src/library/stats/R/spectrum.R
src/library/stats/src//bandwidths.c
src/appl/maxcol.c
Copyright (C) various dates W. N. Venables and B. D. Ripley
src/appl/interv.c : moved to API from code originally in
src/library/stats/src/bvalue.f, see
src/library/stats/COPYRIGHTS.modreg
src/library/stats:
See the files src/library/stats/COPYRIGHTS.modreg and
src/library/stats/COPYRIGHTS.portsrc for further details
src/library/stats/R/diffinv.R
src/library/stats/R/embed.R
src/library/stats/R/kernel.R
src/library/stats/src/PPsum.c
Copyright (C) 1997-1999 Adrian Trapletti
src/library/stats/src/carray.c, mburg.c, myw.c, qr.c
Copyright (C) 1999 Martyn Plummer
src/library/stats/R/nls.R
In part, Copyright 1999-1999 Saikat DebRoy
src/library/stats/R/nlsFunc.R
src/library/stats/R/selfStart.R
src/library/stats/R/zzModels.R
Copyright 1997,1999 Jose C. Pinheiro
src/library/stats/R/runmed.R
src/library/stats/src/Trunmed.c
In part Copyright (C) 1995 Berwin A. Turlach
src/library/stats/src/loessc.c
src/library/stats/src/loessf.f
In part Copyright (c) 1989, 1992 by AT&T
src/library/tcltk/exec/{hierarchy,util*,widget}.tcl
Copyright (c) various dates Jeffrey Hobbs
src/modules/X11/rotated.[ch]
Copyright (c) 1993 Alan Richardson
src/appl/loglin.c
src/library/stats/src/chisqsim.c
src/library/stats/src/nscor.c
src/library/stats/src/prho.c
src/library/stats/src/swilk.c
src/library/stats/src/kmns.f
src/library/ts/src/starma.c
src/nmath/pgamma.c
src/nmath/pnbeta.c
src/nmath/pnchisq.c
src/nmath/pnt.c
src/nmath/qbeta.c
src/nmath/qgamma.c
src/nmath/qnorm.c
src/nmath/qtukey.c
src/nmath/sunif.c
are based in whole or in part on Applied Statistics algorithms
(C) Royal Statistical Society
src/nmath/stirlerr.c
src/nmath/dbinom.c
src/nmath/dpois.c
are partly based on Clive Loader's (1999) work,
(C) 1999-2000 Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories.
src/main/RNG.c
The Mersenne-Twister part is
Copyright (C) 1997, 1999 Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura.
src/main/xspline.c
* Copyright (c) 1985-1988 by Supoj Sutanthavibul
* Parts Copyright (c) 1989-2002 by Brian V. Smith
* Parts Copyright (c) 1991 by Paul King
* Parts Copyright (c) 1992 by James Tough
* Parts Copyright (c) 1998 by Georg Stemmer
* Parts Copyright (c) 1995 by C. Blanc and C. Schlick
* Any party obtaining a copy of these files is granted, free of charge, a
* full and unrestricted irrevocable, world-wide, paid up, royalty-free,
* nonexclusive right and license to deal in this software and
* documentation files (the "Software"), including without limitation the
* rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish and/or distribute copies of
* the Software, and to permit persons who receive copies from any such
* party to do so, with the only requirement being that this copyright
* notice remain intact.
src/modules/lapack/dlapack[0123].f, cmplx.f, dlamc.f
Extracted from
* -- LAPACK routine (version 3.1) --
* Univ. of Tennessee, Univ. of California Berkeley, NAG Ltd.,
* Courant Institute, Argonne National Lab, and Rice University
The README says
It is freely-available software, and is copyrighted.
although no actual copyright statement appears in the code.
src/extra/xdr/*
Copyright (undated) Sun Microsystems, Inc.
See the file src/extra/xdr/copyrght.txt
src/extra/zlib/README, *.c, *.h
Taken from zlib-1.2.6 (C) 1995-2012 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler
See src/extra/zlib/README for the licence.
src/main/connections.c, src/main/gzio.h
Contain code derived from the zlib 1.2.3 distribution
(C) 1995-2005 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler
src/main/dounzip.c, unzip.h
Contain code Copyright (C) 1998-2010 Gilles Vollant from contrib/minizip
in the zlib 1.2.3 distribution with updates taken from 1.2.5.
src/extra/pcre/LICENCE
src/extra/pcre/*.[ch]
src/main/valid_utf8.h
Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge
All rights reserved.
Copyright(c) 2009-2012 Zoltan Herczeg
See file src/extra/pcre/LICENCE. For binary builds of R that requires
us to include
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the name of Google
Inc. nor the names of their contributors may be used to endorse or
promote products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
src/extra/bzip2/LICENSE
src/extra/bzip2/blocksort.c
src/extra/bzip2/bzlib.c
src/extra/bzip2/bzlib.h
src/extra/bzip2/bzlib_private.h
src/extra/bzip2/compress.c
src/extra/bzip2/crctable.c
src/extra/bzip2/decompress.c
src/extra/bzip2/huffman.c
src/extra/bzip2/randtable.c
copyright (C) 1996-2010 Julian R Seward.
src/extra/tre/LICENSE
src/extra/tre/*.[ch]
Copyright (c) 2001-2009 Ville Laurikari <vl@iki.fi>
All rights reserved.
From tre-0.8.0 (http://laurikari.net/tre/). See file
src/extra/tre/LICENSE. For binary builds of R that requires us to
include
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the name of Google
Inc. nor the names of their contributors may be used to endorse or
promote products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
src/library/tools/src/md5.[ch]
Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
src/extra/intl/*
Based on gettextize from gettext 0.17
Copyright (C) various dates Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Distributed under the GNU Library General Public License
version 2 or later.
src/include/memcheck.h
src/include/valgrind.h
From valgrind,
Copyright (C) 2000-2005 Julian Seward. All rights reserved.
src/main/mkdtemp.c
From glibc via
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/bug-gnulib/2003-02/msg00019.html
Copyright (C) 1999, 2001-2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Distributed under the GNU Library General Public License
version 2 or later.
src/main/Rstrptime.h
Copyright (C) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Distributed under the GNU Library General Public License
version 2 or later.
po/*.po
src/library/*/po/*.po
Some of the translations are (C) the translator as marked in the files.
COPYING
doc/COPYING
doc/COPYING.LIB
m4/codeset.m4
m4/gettext.m4
m4/gettext-lib.m4
share/licenses/GPL-2
share/licenses/GPL-3
share/licenses/LGPL-2
share/licenses/LGPL-2.1
share/licenses/LGPL-3
src/main/strdup.c
tools/config.quess
tools/config.rpath
tools/config.sub
tools/help2man.pl
tools/ltmain.sh
tools/mdate-sh
tools/missing
Copyright various dates Free Software Foundation
tools/install-sh:
Copyright (C) 1994 X Consortium
m4/stat-time.m4
From GNU coreutils 8.12
# Copyright (C) 1998-1999, 2001, 2003, 2005-2007, 2009-2011 Free Software
# Foundation, Inc.
# This file is free software; the Free Software Foundation
# gives unlimited permission to copy and/or distribute it,
# with or without modifications, as long as this notice is preserved.
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