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#!/usr/bin/env python
""" makes web apps ("""
__version__ = "0.137"
__revision__ = "$Rev: 53 $"
__license__ = "Public domain"
__author__ = "Aaron Swartz <>"
__contributors__ = "see"
from __future__ import generators
# long term todo:
# - new form system
# - new templating system
# - unit tests?
# todo:
# - get rid of upvars
# - break up into separate files
# - provide an option to use .write()
# - allow people to do $ from inside a reparam
# - add sqlite support
# - convert datetimes, floats in WebSafe
# - locks around memoize
# - fix memoize to use cacheify style techniques
# - merge curval query with the insert
# - figure out how to handle squid, etc. for web.ctx.ip
import os, os.path, sys, time, types, traceback
import cgi, re, urllib, urlparse, Cookie, pprint
from threading import currentThread
from tokenize import tokenprog
iters = (list, tuple)
if hasattr(__builtins__, 'set') or __builtins__.has_key('set'):
iters += (set,)
from sets import Set
iters += (Set,)
except ImportError:
import datetime, itertools
except ImportError:
from Cheetah.Compiler import Compiler
from Cheetah.Filters import Filter
_hasTemplating = True
except ImportError:
_hasTemplating = False
from DBUtils.PooledDB import PooledDB
_hasPooling = True
except ImportError:
_hasPooling = False
# hack for compatibility with Python 2.3:
if not hasattr(traceback, 'format_exc'):
from cStringIO import StringIO
def format_exc(limit=None):
strbuf = StringIO()
traceback.print_exc(limit, strbuf)
return strbuf.getvalue()
traceback.format_exc = format_exc
## general utils
class WrongDirection(Exception):
"""raised for unsupported direction
Currently supported: r, l
def _strips(direction, text, remove):
"""strips 'remove' from 'text' at 'direction' end"""
if direction == 'l':
if text.startswith(remove):
return text[len(remove):]
elif direction == 'r':
if text.endswith(remove):
return text[:-len(remove)]
raise WrongDirection, "Needs to be r or l."
return text
def rstrips(text, remove):
"""removes the string `remove` from the right of `text`"""
return _strips('r', text, remove)
def lstrips(text, remove):
"""removes the string `remove` from the left of `text`"""
return _strips('l', text, remove)
def strips(text, remove):
"""removes the string `remove` from the both sides of `text`"""
return rstrips(lstrips(text, remove), remove)
def autoassign(self, locals):
Automatically assigns local variables to `self`.
Generally used in `__init__` methods, as in:
def __init__(self, foo, bar, baz=1): autoassign(self, locals())
#locals = sys._getframe(1).f_locals
#self = locals['self']
for (key, value) in locals.iteritems():
if key == 'self':
setattr(self, key, value)
class Storage(dict):
A Storage object is like a dictionary except `` can be used
instead of `obj['foo']`. Create one by doing `storage({'a':1})`.
def __getattr__(self, key):
if self.has_key(key):
return self[key]
raise AttributeError, repr(key)
def __setattr__(self, key, value):
self[key] = value
def __repr__(self):
return '<Storage ' + dict.__repr__(self) + '>'
storage = Storage
def storify(mapping, *requireds, **defaults):
Creates a `storage` object from dictionary `mapping`, raising `KeyError` if
d doesn't have all of the keys in `requireds` and using the default
values for keys found in `defaults`.
For example, `storify({'a':1, 'c':3}, b=2, c=0)` will return the equivalent of
`storage({'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3})`.
stor = Storage()
for key in requireds + tuple(mapping.keys()):
value = mapping[key]
if isinstance(value, list):
value = value[-1]
if hasattr(value, 'value'):
value = value.value
setattr(stor, key, value)
for (key, value) in defaults.iteritems():
result = value
if hasattr(stor, key):
result = stor[key]
if value == () and not isinstance(result, tuple):
result = (result,)
setattr(stor, key, result)
return stor
class Memoize:
"Memoizes" a function, caching its return values for each input.
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
self.cache = {}
def __call__(self, *args, **keywords):
key = (args, tuple(keywords.items()))
if key not in self.cache:
self.cache[key] = self.func(*args, **keywords)
return self.cache[key]
memoize = Memoize
re_compile = memoize(re.compile) #@@ threadsafe?
re_compile.__doc__ = """
A memoized version of re.compile.
class _re_subm_proxy:
def __init__(self):
self.match = None
def __call__(self, match):
self.match = match
return ''
def re_subm(pat, repl, string):
"""Like re.sub, but returns the replacement _and_ the match object."""
compiled_pat = re_compile(pat)
proxy = _re_subm_proxy()
compiled_pat.sub(proxy.__call__, string)
return compiled_pat.sub(repl, string), proxy.match
def group(seq, size):
Returns an iterator over a series of lists of length size from iterable.
For example, `list(group([1,2,3,4], 2))` returns `[[1,2],[3,4]]`.
if not hasattr(seq, 'next'):
seq = iter(seq)
while True:
yield [ for i in xrange(size)]
class IterBetter:
Returns an object that can be used as an iterator
but can also be used via __getitem__ (although it
cannot go backwards -- that is, you cannot request
`iterbetter[0]` after requesting `iterbetter[1]`).
def __init__(self, iterator):
self.i, self.c = iterator, 0
def __iter__(self):
while 1:
self.c += 1
def __getitem__(self, i):
#todo: slices
if i > self.c:
raise KeyError, "already passed "+str(i)
while i < self.c:
self.c += 1
# now self.c == i
self.c += 1
except StopIteration:
raise KeyError, repr(i)
iterbetter = IterBetter
def dictreverse(mapping):
"""Takes a dictionary like `{1:2, 3:4}` and returns `{2:1, 4:3}`."""
return dict([(value, key) for (key, value) in mapping.iteritems()])
def dictfind(dictionary, element):
Returns a key whose value in `dictionary` is `element`
or, if none exists, None.
for (key, value) in dictionary.iteritems():
if element is value:
return key
def dictfindall(dictionary, element):
Returns the keys whose values in `dictionary` are `element`
or, if none exists, [].
res = []
for (key, value) in dictionary.iteritems():
if element is value:
return res
def dictincr(dictionary, element):
Increments `element` in `dictionary`,
setting it to one if it doesn't exist.
dictionary.setdefault(element, 0)
dictionary[element] += 1
return dictionary[element]
def dictadd(dict_a, dict_b):
Returns a dictionary consisting of the keys in `a` and `b`.
If they share a key, the value from b is used.
result = {}
return result
sumdicts = dictadd # deprecated
def listget(lst, ind, default=None):
"""Returns `lst[ind]` if it exists, `default` otherwise."""
if len(lst)-1 < ind:
return default
return lst[ind]
def upvars(level=2):
"""Guido van Rossum doesn't want you to use this function."""
return dictadd(
class CaptureStdout:
Captures everything func prints to stdout and returns it instead.
**WARNING:** Not threadsafe!
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
def __call__(self, *args, **keywords):
from cStringIO import StringIO
# Not threadsafe!
out = StringIO()
oldstdout = sys.stdout
sys.stdout = out
self.func(*args, **keywords)
sys.stdout = oldstdout
return out.getvalue()
capturestdout = CaptureStdout
class Profile:
Profiles `func` and returns a tuple containing its output
and a string with human-readable profiling information.
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
def __call__(self, *args): ##, **kw): kw unused
import hotshot, hotshot.stats, tempfile ##, time already imported
temp = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile()
prof = hotshot.Profile(
stime = time.time()
result = prof.runcall(self.func, *args)
stime = time.time() - stime
stats = hotshot.stats.load(
stats.sort_stats('time', 'calls')
x = '\n\ntook '+ str(stime) + ' seconds\n'
x += capturestdout(stats.print_stats)(40)
x += capturestdout(stats.print_callers)()
return result, x
profile = Profile
def tryall(context, prefix=None):
Tries a series of functions and prints their results.
`context` is a dictionary mapping names to values;
the value will only be tried if it's callable.
For example, you might have a file `test/`
with a series of functions testing various things in it.
At the bottom, have a line:
if __name__ == "__main__": tryall(globals())
Then you can run `python test/` and get the results of
all the tests.
context = context.copy() # vars() would update
results = {}
for (key, value) in context.iteritems():
if not hasattr(value, '__call__'):
if prefix and not key.startswith(prefix):
print key + ':',
r = value()
dictincr(results, r)
print r
print 'ERROR'
dictincr(results, 'ERROR')
print ' ' + '\n '.join(traceback.format_exc().split('\n'))
print '-'*40
print 'results:'
for (key, value) in results.iteritems():
print ' '*2, str(key)+':', value
class ThreadedDict:
Takes a dictionary that maps threads to objects.
When a thread tries to get or set an attribute or item
of the threadeddict, it passes it on to the object
for that thread in dictionary.
def __init__(self, dictionary):
self.__dict__['_ThreadedDict__d'] = dictionary
def __getattr__(self, attr):
return getattr(self.__d[currentThread()], attr)
def __getitem__(self, item):
return self.__d[currentThread()][item]
def __setattr__(self, attr, value):
return setattr(self.__d[currentThread()], attr, value)
def __setitem__(self, item, value):
self.__d[currentThread()][item] = value
def __hash__(self):
return hash(self.__d[currentThread()])
threadeddict = ThreadedDict
## ip utils
def validipaddr(address):
"""returns True if `address` is a valid IPv4 address"""
octets = address.split('.')
assert len(octets) == 4
for x in octets:
assert 0 <= int(x) <= 255
except (AssertionError, ValueError):
return False
return True
def validipport(port):
"""returns True if `port` is a valid IPv4 port"""
assert 0 <= int(port) <= 65535
except (AssertionError, ValueError):
return False
return True
def validip(ip, defaultaddr="", defaultport=8080):
"""returns (ip_address, port) from string `ip_addr_port`"""
addr = defaultaddr
port = defaultport
ip = ip.split(":", 1)
if len(ip) == 1:
if not ip[0]:
elif validipaddr(ip[0]):
addr = ip[0]
elif validipport(ip[0]):
port = int(ip[0])
raise ValueError, ':'.join(ip) + ' is not a valid IP address/port'
elif len(ip) == 2:
addr, port = ip
if not validipaddr(addr) and validipport(port):
raise ValueError, ':'.join(ip) + ' is not a valid IP address/port'
port = int(port)
raise ValueError, ':'.join(ip) + ' is not a valid IP address/port'
return (addr, port)
## url utils
def prefixurl(base=''):
Sorry, this function is really difficult to explain.
Maybe some other time.
url = ctx.path.lstrip('/')
for i in xrange(url.count('/')):
base += '../'
if not base:
base = './'
return base
urlquote = urllib.quote
## formatting
from markdown import markdown #
except ImportError:
r_url = re_compile('(?<!\()(http://(\S+))')
def safemarkdown(text):
Converts text to HTML following the rules of Markdown, but blocking any
outside HTML input, so that only the things supported by Markdown
can be used. Also converts raw URLs to links.
(requires [](
if text:
text = text.replace('<', '&lt;')
# TODO: automatically get page title?
text = r_url.sub(r'<\1>', text)
text = markdown(text)
return text
## db api
class ItplError(ValueError):
"""String Interpolation Error
(cf. below for license)
def __init__(self, text, pos):
self.text = text
self.pos = pos
def __str__(self):
return "unfinished expression in %s at char %d" % (
repr(self.text), self.pos)
def _interpolate(format):
Takes a format string and returns a list of 2-tuples of the form
(boolean, string) where boolean says whether string should be evaled
or not.
from (public domain, Ka-Ping Yee)
def matchorfail(text, pos):
match = tokenprog.match(text, pos)
if match is None:
raise ItplError(text, pos)
return match, match.end()
namechars = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" \
chunks = []
pos = 0
while 1:
dollar = format.find("$", pos)
if dollar < 0:
nextchar = format[dollar + 1]
if nextchar == "{":
chunks.append((0, format[pos:dollar]))
pos, level = dollar + 2, 1
while level:
match, pos = matchorfail(format, pos)
tstart, tend = match.regs[3]
token = format[tstart:tend]
if token == "{":
level = level + 1
elif token == "}":
level = level - 1
chunks.append((1, format[dollar + 2:pos - 1]))
elif nextchar in namechars:
chunks.append((0, format[pos:dollar]))
match, pos = matchorfail(format, dollar + 1)
while pos < len(format):
if format[pos] == "." and \
pos + 1 < len(format) and format[pos + 1] in namechars:
match, pos = matchorfail(format, pos + 1)
elif format[pos] in "([":
pos, level = pos + 1, 1
while level:
match, pos = matchorfail(format, pos)
tstart, tend = match.regs[3]
token = format[tstart:tend]
if token[0] in "([":
level = level + 1
elif token[0] in ")]":
level = level - 1
chunks.append((1, format[dollar + 1:pos]))
chunks.append((0, format[pos:dollar + 1]))
pos = dollar + 1 + (nextchar == "$")
if pos < len(format):
chunks.append((0, format[pos:]))
return chunks
def sqlors(left, lst):
`left is a SQL clause like `tablename.arg = `
and `lst` is a list of values. Returns a reparam-style
pair featuring the SQL that ORs together the clause
for each item in the lst.
For example:
web.sqlors('foo =', [1,2,3])
would result in:
foo = 1 OR foo = 2 OR foo = 3
if isinstance(lst, iters):
lst = list(lst)
ln = len(lst)
if ln == 0:
return ("2+2=5", [])
if ln == 1:
lst = lst[0]
if isinstance(lst, iters):
return '(' + left + \
(' OR ' + left).join([aparam() for param in lst]) + ")", lst
return left + aparam(), [lst]
class UnknownParamstyle(Exception):
"""raised for unsupported db paramstyles
Currently supported: qmark,numeric, format, pyformat
def aparam():
"""Use in a SQL string to make a spot for a db value."""
style = ctx.db_module.paramstyle
if style == 'qmark':
return '?'
elif style == 'numeric':
return ':1'
elif style in ['format', 'pyformat']:
return '%s'
raise UnknownParamstyle, style
def reparam(string_, dictionary):
Takes a string and a dictionary and interpolates the string
using values from the dictionary. Returns a 2-tuple containing
the a string with `aparam()`s in it and a list of the matching values.
You can pass this sort of thing as a clause in any db function.
Otherwise, you can pass a dictionary to the keyword argument `vars`
and the function will call reparam for you.
vals = []
result = []
for live, chunk in _interpolate(string_):
if live:
vals.append(eval(chunk, dictionary))
else: result.append(chunk)
return ''.join(result), vals
class UnknownDB(Exception):
"""raised for unsupported dbms"""
def connect(dbn, **keywords):
Connects to the specified database.
db currently must be "postgres" or "mysql".
If DBUtils is installed, connection pooling will be used.
if dbn == "postgres":
import psycopg2 as db
except ImportError:
import psycopg as db
except ImportError:
import pgdb as db
keywords['password'] = keywords['pw']
del keywords['pw']
keywords['database'] = keywords['db']
del keywords['db']
elif dbn == "mysql":
import MySQLdb as db
keywords['passwd'] = keywords['pw']
del keywords['pw']
db.paramstyle = 'pyformat' # it's both, like psycopg
elif dbn == "sqlite":
try: ## try first sqlite3 version
from pysqlite2 import dbapi2 as db
db.paramstyle = 'qmark'
except ImportError: ## else try sqlite2
import sqlite as db
keywords['database'] = keywords['db']
del keywords['db']
raise UnknownDB, dbn
ctx.db_name = dbn
ctx.db_module = db
ctx.db_transaction = False
if _hasPooling:
if 'db' not in globals():
globals()['db'] = PooledDB(dbapi=db, **keywords)
ctx.db = globals()['db'].connection()
ctx.db = db.connect(**keywords)
ctx.dbq_count = 0
if globals().get('db_printing'):
def db_execute(cur, sql_query, d=None):
"""executes an sql query"""
ctx.dbq_count += 1
outq = sql_query % tuple(d)
except TypeError:
outq = sql_query
print >> debug, str(ctx.dbq_count)+':', outq
a = time.time()
out = cur.execute(sql_query, d)
b = time.time()
print >> debug, '(%s)' % round(b - a, 2)
return out
ctx.db_execute = db_execute
ctx.db_execute = lambda cur, sql_query, d=None: \
cur.execute(sql_query, d)
return ctx.db
def transact():
"""Start a transaction."""
# commit everything up to now, so we don't rollback it later
ctx.db_transaction = True
def commit():
"""Commits a transaction."""
ctx.db_transaction = False
def rollback():
"""Rolls back a transaction."""
ctx.db_transaction = False
def query(sql_query, vars=None, processed=False):
Execute SQL query `sql_query` using dictionary `vars` to interpolate it.
If `processed=True`, `vars` is a `reparam`-style list to use
instead of interpolating.
if vars is None:
vars = {}
db_cursor = ctx.db.cursor()
if not processed:
sql_query, vars = reparam(sql_query, vars)
ctx.db_execute(db_cursor, sql_query, vars)
if db_cursor.description:
names = [x[0] for x in db_cursor.description]
def iterwrapper():
row = db_cursor.fetchone()
while row:
yield Storage(dict(zip(names, row)))
row = db_cursor.fetchone()
out = iterbetter(iterwrapper())
out.__len__ = lambda: int(db_cursor.rowcount)
out.list = lambda: [Storage(dict(zip(names, x))) \
for x in db_cursor.fetchall()]
out = db_cursor.rowcount
if not ctx.db_transaction:
return out
def sqllist(lst):
If a list, converts it to a comma-separated string.
Otherwise, returns the string.
if isinstance(lst, str):
return lst
else: return ', '.join(lst)
def select(tables, vars=None, what='*', where=None, order=None, group=None,
limit=None, offset=None):
Selects `what` from `tables` with clauses `where`, `order`,
`group`, `limit`, and `offset. Uses vars to interpolate.
Otherwise, each clause can take a reparam-style list.
if vars is None:
vars = {}
values = []
qout = "SELECT " + what + " FROM "+sqllist(tables)
for (sql, val) in (
('WHERE', where),
('GROUP BY', group),
('ORDER BY', order),
('LIMIT', limit),
('OFFSET', offset)):
if isinstance(val, (int, long)):
if sql == 'WHERE':
nquery, nvalue = 'id = '+aparam(), [val]
nquery, nvalue = str(val), ()
elif isinstance(val, (list, tuple)) and len(val) == 2:
nquery, nvalue = val
elif val:
nquery, nvalue = reparam(val, vars)
qout += " " + sql + " " + nquery
return query(qout, values, processed=True)
def insert(tablename, seqname=None, **values):
Inserts `values` into `tablename`. Returns current sequence ID.
Set `seqname` to the ID if it's not the default, or to `False`
if there isn't one.
db_cursor = ctx.db.cursor()
if values:
sql_query, v = "INSERT INTO %s (%s) VALUES (%s)" % (
", ".join(values.keys()),
', '.join([aparam() for x in values])
), values.values()
sql_query, v = "INSERT INTO %s DEFAULT VALUES" % tablename, None
if seqname is False:
elif ctx.db_name == "postgres":
if seqname is None:
seqname = tablename + "_id_seq"
sql_query += "; SELECT currval('%s')" % seqname
elif ctx.db_name == "mysql":
ctx.db_execute(db_cursor, sql_query, v)
sql_query = "SELECT last_insert_id()"
v = ()
elif ctx.db_name == "sqlite":
ctx.db_execute(db_cursor, sql_query, v)
# not really the same...
sql_query = "SELECT last_insert_rowid()"
v = ()
ctx.db_execute(db_cursor, sql_query, v)
out = db_cursor.fetchone()[0]
except Exception:
out = None
if not ctx.db_transaction:
return out
def update(tables, where, vars=None, **values):
Update `tables` with clause `where` (interpolated using `vars`)
and setting `values`.
if vars is None:
vars = {}
if isinstance(where, (int, long)):
vars = [where]
where = "id = " + aparam()
elif isinstance(where, (list, tuple)) and len(where) == 2:
where, vars = where
where, vars = reparam(where, vars)
db_cursor = ctx.db.cursor()
ctx.db_execute(db_cursor, "UPDATE %s SET %s WHERE %s" % (
', '.join([k + '=' + aparam() for k in values.keys()]),
values.values() + vars)
if not ctx.db_transaction:
return db_cursor.rowcount
def delete(table, where, using=None, vars=None):
Deletes from `table` with clauses `where` and `using`.
if vars is None:
vars = {}
db_cursor = ctx.db.cursor()
if isinstance(where, (int, long)):
vars = [where]
where = "id = " + aparam()
elif isinstance(where, (list, tuple)) and len(where) == 2:
where, vars = where
where, vars = reparam(where, vars)
q = 'DELETE FROM %s WHERE %s' % (table, where)
if using:
q += ' USING ' + sqllist(using)
ctx.db_execute(db_cursor, q, vars)
if not ctx.db_transaction:
return db_cursor.rowcount
## request handlers
def handle(mapping, fvars=None):
Call the appropriate function based on the url to function mapping in `mapping`.
If no module for the function is specified, look up the function in `fvars`. If
`fvars` is empty, using the caller's context.
`mapping` should be a tuple of paired regular expressions with function name
substitutions. `handle` will import modules as necessary.
for url, ofno in group(mapping, 2):
if isinstance(ofno, tuple):
ofn, fna = ofno[0], list(ofno[1:])
ofn, fna = ofno, []
fn, result = re_subm('^' + url + '$', ofn, ctx.path)
if result: # it's a match
if fn.split(' ', 1)[0] == "redirect":
url = fn.split(' ', 1)[1]
if ctx.method == "GET":
x = ctx.env.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
if x:
url += '?' + x
return redirect(url)
elif '.' in fn:
x = fn.split('.')
mod, cls = '.'.join(x[:-1]), x[-1]
mod = __import__(mod, globals(), locals(), [""])
cls = getattr(mod, cls)
cls = fn
mod = fvars or upvars()
if isinstance(mod, types.ModuleType):
mod = vars(mod)
cls = mod[cls]
except KeyError:
return notfound()
meth = ctx.method
if meth == "HEAD":
if not hasattr(cls, meth):
meth = "GET"
if not hasattr(cls, meth):
return nomethod(cls)
tocall = getattr(cls(), meth)
args = list(result.groups())
for d in re.findall(r'\\(\d+)', ofn):
args.pop(int(d) - 1)
return tocall(*([urllib.unquote(x) for x in args] + fna))
return notfound()
def autodelegate(prefix=''):
Returns a method that takes one argument and calls the method named prefix+arg,
calling `notfound()` if there isn't one. Example:
urls = ('/prefs/(.*)', 'prefs')
class prefs:
GET = autodelegate('GET_')
def GET_password(self): pass
def GET_privacy(self): pass
`GET_password` would get called for `/prefs/password` while `GET_privacy` for
`GET_privacy` gets called for `/prefs/privacy`.
If a user visits `/prefs/password/change` then `GET_password(self, '/change')`
is called.
def internal(self, arg):
if '/' in arg:
first, rest = arg.split('/', 1)
func = prefix + first
args = ['/' + rest]
func = prefix + arg
args = []
if hasattr(self, func):
return getattr(self, func)(*args)
except TypeError:
return notfound()
return notfound()
return internal
## http defaults
def httpdate(date_obj):
"""Formats a datetime object for use in HTTP headers."""
return date_obj.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT")
def parsehttpdate(string_):
"""Parses an HTTP date into a datetime object."""
t = time.strptime(string_, "%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %Z")
except ValueError:
return None
return datetime.datetime(*t[:6])
def expires(delta):
Outputs an `Expires` header for `delta` from now.
`delta` is a `timedelta` object or a number of seconds.
except NameError:
raise Exception, "requires Python 2.3 or later"
if isinstance(delta, (int, long)):
delta = datetime.timedelta(seconds=delta)
date_obj = datetime.datetime.utcnow() + delta
header('Expires', httpdate(date_obj))
def lastmodified(date_obj):
"""Outputs a `Last-Modified` header for `datetime`."""
header('Last-Modified', httpdate(date_obj))
def modified(date=None, etag=None):
n = ctx.env.get('HTTP_IF_NONE_MATCH')
m = parsehttpdate(ctx.env.get('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE', '').split(';')[0])
validate = False
if etag:
raise NotImplementedError, "no etag support yet"
# should really be a warning
if date and m:
# we subtract a second because
# HTTP dates don't have sub-second precision
if date-datetime.timedelta(seconds=1) <= m:
validate = True
if validate: ctx.status = '304 Not Modified'
return not validate
By default, these all return simple error messages that send very short messages
(like "bad request") to the user. They can and should be overridden
to return nicer ones.
def redirect(url, status='301 Moved Permanently'):
Returns a `status` redirect to the new URL.
`url` is joined with the base URL so that things like
`redirect("about") will work properly.
newloc = urlparse.urljoin(ctx.home + ctx.path, url)
ctx.status = status
header('Content-Type', 'text/html')
header('Location', newloc)
# seems to add a three-second delay for some reason:
# output('<a href="'+ newloc + '">moved permanently</a>')
def found(url):
"""A `302 Found` redirect."""
return redirect(url, '302 Found')
def seeother(url):
"""A `303 See Other` redirect."""
return redirect(url, '303 See Other')
def tempredirect(url):
"""A `307 Temporary Redirect` redirect."""
return redirect(url, '307 Temporary Redirect')
def badrequest():
"""Return a `400 Bad Request` error."""
ctx.status = '400 Bad Request'
header('Content-Type', 'text/html')
return output('bad request')
def notfound():
"""Returns a `404 Not Found` error."""
ctx.status = '404 Not Found'
header('Content-Type', 'text/html')
return output('not found')
def nomethod(cls):
"""Returns a `405 Method Not Allowed` error for `cls`."""
ctx.status = '405 Method Not Allowed'
header('Content-Type', 'text/html')
header('Allow', \
', '.join([method for method in \
['GET', 'HEAD', 'POST', 'PUT', 'DELETE'] \
if hasattr(cls, method)]))
return output('method not allowed')
def gone():
"""Returns a `410 Gone` error."""
ctx.status = '410 Gone'
header('Content-Type', 'text/html')
return output("gone")
def internalerror():
"""Returns a `500 Internal Server` error."""
ctx.status = "500 Internal Server Error"
ctx.headers = [('Content-Type', 'text/html')]
ctx.output = "internal server error"
# adapted from Django <>
# Copyright (c) 2005, the Lawrence Journal-World
# Used under the modified BSD license:
DJANGO_500_PAGE = """#import inspect
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "">
<html lang="en">
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<meta name="robots" content="NONE,NOARCHIVE" />
<title>$exception_type at $ctx.path</title>
<style type="text/css">
html * { padding:0; margin:0; }
body * { padding:10px 20px; }
body * * { padding:0; }
body { font:small sans-serif; }
body>div { border-bottom:1px solid #ddd; }
h1 { font-weight:normal; }
h2 { margin-bottom:.8em; }
h2 span { font-size:80%; color:#666; font-weight:normal; }
h3 { margin:1em 0 .5em 0; }
h4 { margin:0 0 .5em 0; font-weight: normal; }
table {
border:1px solid #ccc; border-collapse: collapse; background:white; }
tbody td, tbody th { vertical-align:top; padding:2px 3px; }
thead th {
padding:1px 6px 1px 3px; background:#fefefe; text-align:left;
font-weight:normal; font-size:11px; border:1px solid #ddd; }
tbody th { text-align:right; color:#666; padding-right:.5em; }
table.vars { margin:5px 0 2px 40px; }
table.vars td, table.req td { font-family:monospace; }
table td.code { width:100%;}
table td.code div { overflow:hidden; }
table.source th { color:#666; }
table.source td {
font-family:monospace; white-space:pre; border-bottom:1px solid #eee; }
ul.traceback { list-style-type:none; }
ul.traceback li.frame { margin-bottom:1em; }
div.context { margin: 10px 0; }
div.context ol {
padding-left:30px; margin:0 10px; list-style-position: inside; }
div.context ol li {
font-family:monospace; white-space:pre; color:#666; cursor:pointer; }
div.context ol.context-line li { color:black; background-color:#ccc; }
div.context ol.context-line li span { float: right; }
div.commands { margin-left: 40px; }
div.commands a { color:black; text-decoration:none; }
#summary { background: #ffc; }
#summary h2 { font-weight: normal; color: #666; }
#explanation { background:#eee; }
#template, #template-not-exist { background:#f6f6f6; }
#template-not-exist ul { margin: 0 0 0 20px; }
#traceback { background:#eee; }
#requestinfo { background:#f6f6f6; padding-left:120px; }
#summary table { border:none; background:transparent; }
#requestinfo h2, #requestinfo h3 { position:relative; margin-left:-100px; }
#requestinfo h3 { margin-bottom:-1em; }
.error { background: #ffc; }
.specific { color:#cc3300; font-weight:bold; }
<script type="text/javascript">
function getElementsByClassName(oElm, strTagName, strClassName){
// Written by Jonathan Snook,;
// Add-ons by Robert Nyman,
var arrElements = (strTagName == "*" && document.all)? document.all :
var arrReturnElements = new Array();
strClassName = strClassName.replace(/\-/g, "\\-");
var oRegExp = new RegExp("(^|\\s)" + strClassName + "(\\s|$)");
var oElement;
for(var i=0; i<arrElements.length; i++){
oElement = arrElements[i];
return (arrReturnElements)
function hideAll(elems) {
for (var e = 0; e < elems.length; e++) {
elems[e].style.display = 'none';
window.onload = function() {
hideAll(getElementsByClassName(document, 'table', 'vars'));
hideAll(getElementsByClassName(document, 'ol', 'pre-context'));
hideAll(getElementsByClassName(document, 'ol', 'post-context'));
function toggle() {
for (var i = 0; i < arguments.length; i++) {
var e = document.getElementById(arguments[i]);
if (e) { = == 'none' ? 'block' : 'none';
return false;
function varToggle(link, id) {
toggle('v' + id);
var s = link.getElementsByTagName('span')[0];
var uarr = String.fromCharCode(0x25b6);
var darr = String.fromCharCode(0x25bc);
s.innerHTML = s.innerHTML == uarr ? darr : uarr;
return false;
<div id="summary">
<h1>$exception_type at $ctx.path</h1>
<td>$lastframe.filename in $lastframe.function, line $lastframe.lineno</td>
<td>$ctx.method $ctx.home$ctx.path</td>
<div id="traceback">
<h2>Traceback <span>(innermost first)</span></h2>
<ul class="traceback">
#for frame in $frames
<li class="frame">
<code>$frame.filename</code> in <code>$frame.function</code>
#if $frame.context_line
<div class="context" id="c$">
#if $frame.pre_context
<ol start="$frame.pre_context_lineno" class="pre-context" id="pre$">#for line in $frame.pre_context#<li onclick="toggle('pre$', 'post$')">$line</li>#end for#</ol>
#end if
<ol start="$frame.lineno" class="context-line"><li onclick="toggle('pre$', 'post$')">$frame.context_line <span>...</span></li></ol>
#if $frame.post_context
<ol start='$(frame.lineno+1)' class="post-context" id="post$">#for line in $frame.post_context#<li onclick="toggle('pre$', 'post$')">$line</li>#end for#</ol>
#end if
#end if
#if $frame.vars
<div class="commands">
<a href='#' onclick="return varToggle(this, '$')"><span>&#x25b6;</span> Local vars</a>## $inspect.formatargvalues(*inspect.getargvalues(frame['tb'].tb_frame))
<table class="vars" id="v$">
#set frameitems = $frame.vars
#silent frameitems.sort(lambda x,y: cmp(x[0], y[0]))
#for (key, val) in frameitems
<td class="code"><div>$prettify(val)</div></td>
#end for
#end if
#end for
<div id="requestinfo">
#if $context_.output or $context_.headers
<h2>Response so far</h2>
#if $ctx.headers
<p class="req"><code>
#for (k, v) in $context_.headers
$k: $v<br />
#end for
<p>No headers.</p>
#end if
<p class="req" style="padding-bottom: 2em"><code>
#end if
<h2>Request information</h2>
#if $input_
<table class="req">
#set myitems = $input_.items()
#silent myitems.sort(lambda x,y: cmp(x[0], y[0]))
#for (key, val) in myitems
<td class="code"><div>$val</div></td>
#end for
<p>No input data.</p>
#end if
<h3 id="cookie-info">COOKIES</h3>
#if $cookies_
<table class="req">
#for (key, val) in $cookies_.items()
<td class="code"><div>$val</div></td>
#end for
<p>No cookie data</p>
#end if
<h3 id="meta-info">META</h3>
<table class="req">
#set myitems = $context_.items()
#silent myitems.sort(lambda x,y: cmp(x[0], y[0]))
#for (key, val) in $myitems
#if not $key.startswith('_') and $key not in ['env', 'output', 'headers', 'environ', 'status', 'db_execute']
<td class="code"><div>$prettify($val)</div></td>
#end if
#end for
<h3 id="meta-info">ENVIRONMENT</h3>
<table class="req">
#set myitems = $context_.env.items()
#silent myitems.sort(lambda x,y: cmp(x[0], y[0]))
#for (key, val) in $myitems
<td class="code"><div>$prettify($val)</div></td>
#end for
<div id="explanation">
You're seeing this error because you have <code>web.internalerror</code>
set to <code>web.debugerror</code>. Change that if you want a different one.
def djangoerror():
def _get_lines_from_file(filename, lineno, context_lines):
Returns context_lines before and after lineno from file.
Returns (pre_context_lineno, pre_context, context_line, post_context).
source = open(filename).readlines()
lower_bound = max(0, lineno - context_lines)
upper_bound = lineno + context_lines
pre_context = \
[line.strip('\n') for line in source[lower_bound:lineno]]
context_line = source[lineno].strip('\n')
post_context = \
[line.strip('\n') for line in source[lineno + 1:upper_bound]]
return lower_bound, pre_context, context_line, post_context
except (OSError, IOError):
return None, [], None, []
exception_type, exception_value, tback = sys.exc_info()
frames = []
while tback is not None:
filename = tback.tb_frame.f_code.co_filename
function = tback.tb_frame.f_code.co_name
lineno = tback.tb_lineno - 1
pre_context_lineno, pre_context, context_line, post_context = \
_get_lines_from_file(filename, lineno, 7)
'tback': tback,
'filename': filename,
'function': function,
'lineno': lineno,
'vars': tback.tb_frame.f_locals.items(),
'id': id(tback),
'pre_context': pre_context,
'context_line': context_line,
'post_context': post_context,
'pre_context_lineno': pre_context_lineno,
tback = tback.tb_next
lastframe = frames[-1]
urljoin = urlparse.urljoin
input_ = input()
cookies_ = cookies()
context_ = ctx
def prettify(x):
out = pprint.pformat(x)
except Exception, e:
out = '[could not display: <' + e.__class__.__name__ + \
': '+str(e)+'>]'
return out
return render(DJANGO_500_PAGE, asTemplate=True, isString=True)
def debugerror():
A replacement for `internalerror` that presents a nice page with lots
of debug information for the programmer.
(Based on the beautiful 500 page from [Django](,
designed by [Wilson Miner](
Requires [Cheetah](
# need to do django first, so it can get the old stuff
if _hasTemplating:
out = str(djangoerror())
# Cheetah isn't installed
out = """<p>You've set to use the fancier debugerror error
messages, but these messages require you install the Cheetah template
system. For more information, see
<a href="">the website</a>.</p>
<p>In the meantime, here's a plain old error message:</p>
<p>(If it says something about 'Compiler', then it's probably
because you're trying to use templates and you haven't
installed Cheetah. See above.)</p>
""" % htmlquote(traceback.format_exc())
ctx.status = "500 Internal Server Error"
ctx.headers = [('Content-Type', 'text/html')]
ctx.output = out
## rendering
r_include = re_compile(r'(?!\\)#include \"(.*?)\"($|#)', re.M)
def __compiletemplate(template, base=None, isString=False):
if isString:
text = template
text = open('templates/'+template).read()
# implement #include at compile-time
def do_include(match):
text = open('templates/'+match.groups()[0]).read()
return text
while r_include.findall(text):
text = r_include.sub(do_include, text)
execspace = _compiletemplate.bases.copy()
tmpl_compiler = Compiler(source=text, mainClassName='GenTemplate')
exec str(tmpl_compiler) in execspace
if base:
_compiletemplate.bases[base] = execspace['GenTemplate']
return execspace['GenTemplate']
_compiletemplate = memoize(__compiletemplate)
_compiletemplate.bases = {}
def htmlquote(text):
"""Encodes `text` for raw use in HTML."""
text = text.replace("&", "&amp;") # Must be done first!
text = text.replace("<", "&lt;")
text = text.replace(">", "&gt;")
text = text.replace("'", "&#39;")
text = text.replace('"', "&quot;")
return text
def websafe(val):
if val is None: return ''
if isinstance(val, unicode): val = val.encode('utf8')
return htmlquote(str(val))
if _hasTemplating:
class WebSafe(Filter):
def filter(self, val, **keywords):
return websafe(val)
def render(template, terms=None, asTemplate=False, base=None,
Renders a template, caching where it can.
`template` is the name of a file containing the a template in
the `templates/` folder, unless `isString`, in which case it's the
template itself.
`terms` is a dictionary used to fill the template. If it's None, then
the caller's local variables are used instead, plus context, if it's not
already set, is set to `context`.
If asTemplate is False, it `output`s the template directly. Otherwise,
it returns the template object.
If the template is a potential base template (that is, something other templates)
can extend, then base should be a string with the name of the template. The
template will be cached and made available for future calls to `render`.
Requires [Cheetah](
# terms=['var1', 'var2'] means grab those variables
if isinstance(terms, list):
new = {}
old = upvars()
for k in terms:
new[k] = old[k]
terms = new
# default: grab all locals
elif terms is None:
terms = {'context': context, 'ctx':ctx}
# terms=d means use d as the searchList
if not isinstance(terms, tuple):
terms = (terms,)
if not isString and template.endswith('.html'):
header('Content-Type','text/html; charset=utf-8')
compiled_tmpl = _compiletemplate(template, base=base, isString=isString)
compiled_tmpl = compiled_tmpl(searchList=terms, filter=WebSafe)
if asTemplate:
return compiled_tmpl
return output(str(compiled_tmpl))
## input forms
def input(*requireds, **defaults):
Returns a `storage` object with the GET and POST arguments.
See `storify` for how `requireds` and `defaults` work.
from cStringIO import StringIO
if not '_inputfs' in ctx:
e = ctx.env.copy()
a = {}
a = cgi.FieldStorage(fp = StringIO(data()), environ=e,
a = storify(a)
b = storify(cgi.FieldStorage(environ=e, keep_blank_values=1))
ctx._inputfs = dictadd(a, b)
return storify(ctx._inputfs, *requireds, **defaults)
def data():
if 'data' not in ctx:
cl = int(ctx.env['CONTENT_LENGTH']) = ctx.env['wsgi.input'].read(cl)
## cookies
def setcookie(name, value, expires="", domain=None):
"""Sets a cookie."""
if expires < 0:
expires = -1000000000
kargs = {'expires': expires, 'path':'/'}
if domain:
kargs['domain'] = domain
# @@ should we limit cookies to a different path?
cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
cookie[name] = value
for key, val in kargs.iteritems():
cookie[name][key] = val
header('Set-Cookie', cookie.items()[0][1].OutputString())
def cookies(*requireds, **defaults):
Returns a `storage` object with all the cookies in it.
See `storify` for how `requireds` and `defaults` work.
cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
cookie.load(ctx.env.get('HTTP_COOKIE', ''))
return storify(cookie, *requireds, **defaults)
## WSGI Sugar
def header(hdr, value):
"""Adds the header `hdr: value` with the response."""
ctx.headers.append((hdr, value))
def output(string_):
"""Appends `string_` to the response."""
ctx.output += str(string_)
def write(cgi_response):
"""Converts a standard CGI-style string response into `header` and
`output` calls.
cgi_response = str(cgi_response)
cgi_response.replace('\r\n', '\n')
head, body = cgi_response.split('\n\n', 1)
lines = head.split('\n')
for line in lines:
if line.isspace():
hdr, value = line.split(":", 1)
value = value.strip()
if hdr.lower() == "status":
ctx.status = value
header(hdr, value)
def webpyfunc(inp, fvars=None, autoreload=False):
"""If `inp` is a url mapping, returns a function that calls handle."""
if not fvars:
fvars = upvars()
if not hasattr(inp, '__call__'):
if autoreload:
# black magic to make autoreload work:
mod = \
#@@probably should replace this with some inspect magic
name = dictfind(fvars, inp)
func = lambda: handle(getattr(mod, name), mod)
func = lambda: handle(inp, fvars)
func = inp
return func
def wsgifunc(func, *middleware):
"""Returns a WSGI-compatible function from a webpy-function."""
middleware = list(middleware)
if reloader in middleware:
relr = reloader(None)
relrcheck = relr.check
relr = None
relrcheck = lambda: None
def wsgifunc(env, start_resp):
result = func()
except StopIteration:
result = None
is_generator = result and hasattr(result, 'next')
if is_generator:
# we need to give wsgi back the headers first,
# so we need to do at iteration
firstchunk =
except StopIteration:
firstchunk = ''
status, headers, output = ctx.status, ctx.headers, ctx.output
start_resp(status, headers)
if is_generator:
return itertools.chain([firstchunk], result)
elif isinstance(output, str):
return [output] #@@ other stringlikes?
elif hasattr(output, 'next'):
return output
raise Exception, "Invalid web.ctx.output"
for mw_func in middleware:
wsgifunc = mw_func(wsgifunc)
if relr:
relr.func = wsgifunc
return wsgifunc
return wsgifunc
def run(inp, *middleware):
Starts handling requests. If called in a CGI or FastCGI context, it will follow
that protocol. If called from the command line, it will start an HTTP
server on the port named in the first command line argument, or, if there
is no argument, on port 8080.
`input` is a callable, then it's called with no arguments.
Otherwise, it's a `mapping` object to be passed to `handle(...)`.
**Caveat:** So that `reloader` will work correctly, input has to be a variable,
it can't be a tuple passed in directly.
`middleware` is a list of WSGI middleware which is applied to the resulting WSGI
autoreload = reloader in middleware
fvars = upvars()
return runwsgi(wsgifunc(webpyfunc(inp, fvars, autoreload), *middleware))
def runwsgi(func):
Runs a WSGI-compatible function using FCGI, SCGI, or a simple web server,
as appropriate.
#@@ improve detection
if os.environ.has_key('SERVER_SOFTWARE'): # cgi
os.environ['FCGI_FORCE_CGI'] = 'Y'
if (os.environ.has_key('PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN') #lighttpd fastcgi
or os.environ.has_key('SERVER_SOFTWARE')
or 'fcgi' in sys.argv or 'fastcgi' in sys.argv):
return runfcgi(func)
if 'scgi' in sys.argv:
return runscgi(func)
# command line:
return runsimple(func, validip(listget(sys.argv, 1, '')))
def runsimple(func, server_address=("", 8080)):
Runs a simple HTTP server hosting WSGI app `func`. The directory `static/`
is hosted statically.
Based on [WsgiServer] from [Colin Stewart].
[Colin Stewart]:
# Copyright (c) 2004 Colin Stewart (
# Modified somewhat for simplicity
# Used under the modified BSD license:
import SimpleHTTPServer, SocketServer, BaseHTTPServer, urlparse
import socket, errno
import traceback
class WSGIHandler(SimpleHTTPServer.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler):
def run_wsgi_app(self):
protocol, host, path, parameters, query, fragment = \
urlparse.urlparse('http://dummyhost%s' % self.path)
# we only use path, query
env = {'wsgi.version': (1, 0)
,'wsgi.url_scheme': 'http'
,'wsgi.input': self.rfile
,'wsgi.errors': sys.stderr
,'wsgi.multithread': 1
,'wsgi.multiprocess': 0
,'wsgi.run_once': 0
,'REQUEST_METHOD': self.command
,'REQUEST_URI': self.path
,'PATH_INFO': path
,'QUERY_STRING': query
,'CONTENT_TYPE': self.headers.get('Content-Type', '')
,'CONTENT_LENGTH': self.headers.get('Content-Length', '')
,'REMOTE_ADDR': self.client_address[0]
,'SERVER_NAME': self.server.server_address[0]
,'SERVER_PORT': str(self.server.server_address[1])
,'SERVER_PROTOCOL': self.request_version
for http_header, http_value in self.headers.items():
env ['HTTP_%s' % http_header.replace('-', '_').upper()] = \
# Setup the state
self.wsgi_sent_headers = 0
self.wsgi_headers = []
# We have there environment, now invoke the application
result =, self.wsgi_start_response)
for data in result:
if data:
if hasattr(result, 'close'):
except socket.error, socket_err:
# Catch common network errors and suppress them
if (socket_err.args[0] in \
(errno.ECONNABORTED, errno.EPIPE)):
except socket.timeout, socket_timeout:
print >> debug, traceback.format_exc(),
if not self.wsgi_sent_headers:
self.wsgi_start_response(ctx.status, ctx.headers)
if (not self.wsgi_sent_headers):
# We must write out something!
self.wsgi_write_data(" ")
do_POST = run_wsgi_app
do_PUT = run_wsgi_app
do_DELETE = run_wsgi_app
def do_GET(self):
if self.path.startswith('/static/'):
def wsgi_start_response(self, response_status, response_headers,
if (self.wsgi_sent_headers):
raise Exception \
("Headers already sent and start_response called again!")
# Should really take a copy to avoid changes in the application....
self.wsgi_headers = (response_status, response_headers)
return self.wsgi_write_data
def wsgi_write_data(self, data):
if (not self.wsgi_sent_headers):
status, headers = self.wsgi_headers
# Need to send header prior to data
status_code = status [:status.find(' ')]
status_msg = status [status.find(' ') + 1:]
self.send_response(int(status_code), status_msg)
for header, value in headers:
self.send_header(header, value)
self.wsgi_sent_headers = 1
# Send the data
class WSGIServer(SocketServer.ThreadingMixIn, BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer):
def __init__(self, func, server_address):
WSGIHandler) = func
self.serverShuttingDown = 0
print "Launching server: http://%s:%d/" % server_address
WSGIServer(func, server_address).serve_forever()
def makeserver(wsgi_server):
"""Updates a flup-style WSGIServer with error support."""
class MyServer(wsgi_server):
def error(self, req):
w = req.stdout.write
w('Status: ' + ctx.status + '\r\n')
for (h, v) in ctx.headers:
w(h + ': ' + v + '\r\n')
w('\r\n' + ctx.output)
return MyServer
def runfcgi(func):
"""Runs a WSGI-function with a FastCGI server."""
from flup.server.fcgi import WSGIServer
if len(sys.argv) > 2: # progname, scgi
args = sys.argv[:]
if 'fastcgi' in args: args.remove('fastcgi')
elif 'fcgi' in args: args.remove('fcgi')
hostport = validip(args[1])
elif len(sys.argv) > 1:
hostport = ('localhost', 8000)
hostport = None
return makeserver(WSGIServer)(func, multiplexed=True, bindAddress=hostport).run()
def runscgi(func):
"""Runs a WSGI-function with an SCGI server."""
from flup.server.scgi import WSGIServer
my_server = makeserver(WSGIServer)
if len(sys.argv) > 2: # progname, scgi
args = sys.argv[:]
hostport = validip(args[1])
hostport = ('localhost', 4000)
return my_server(func, bindAddress=hostport).run()
## debug
def debug(*args):
Prints a prettyprinted version of `args` to stderr.
out = ctx.environ['wsgi.errors']
out = sys.stderr
for arg in args:
print >> out, pprint.pformat(arg)
return ''
def debugwrite(x):
"""writes debug data to error stream"""
out = ctx.environ['wsgi.errors']
out = sys.stderr
debug.write = debugwrite
class Reloader:
Before every request, checks to see if any loaded modules have changed on
disk and, if so, reloads them.
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
self.mtimes = {}
global _compiletemplate
b = _compiletemplate.bases
_compiletemplate = globals()['__compiletemplate']
_compiletemplate.bases = b
def check(self):
for mod in sys.modules.values():
mtime = os.stat(mod.__file__).st_mtime
except (AttributeError, OSError, IOError):
if mod.__file__.endswith('.pyc') and \
mtime = max(os.stat(mod.__file__[:-1]).st_mtime, mtime)
if mod not in self.mtimes:
self.mtimes[mod] = mtime
elif self.mtimes[mod] < mtime:
except ImportError:
return True
def __call__(self, e, o):
return self.func(e, o)
reloader = Reloader
def profiler(app):
"""Outputs basic profiling information at the bottom of each response."""
def profile_internal(e, o):
out, result = profile(app)(e, o)
return out + ['<pre>' + result + '</pre>'] #@@encode
return profile_internal
## setting up the context
class _outputter:
"""Wraps `sys.stdout` so that print statements go into the response."""
def write(self, string_):
if hasattr(ctx, 'output'):
return output(string_)
def flush(self):
return _oldstdout.flush()
def close(self):
return _oldstdout.close()
_context = {currentThread():Storage()}
ctx = context = threadeddict(_context)
ctx.__doc__ = """
A `storage` object containing various information about the request:
`environ` (aka `env`)
: A dictionary containing the standard WSGI environment variables.
: The domain (`Host` header) requested by the user.
: The base path for the application.
: The IP address of the requester.
: The HTTP method used.
: The path request.
: The full path requested, including query arguments.
### Response Data
`status` (default: "200 OK")
: The status code to be used in the response.
: A list of 2-tuples to be used in the response.
: A string to be used as the response.
if not '_oldstdout' in globals():
_oldstdout = sys.stdout
sys.stdout = _outputter()
def _load(env):
_context[currentThread()] = Storage()
ctx.environ = ctx.env = env = env.get('HTTP_HOST')
ctx.home = 'http://' + env.get('HTTP_HOST', '[unknown]') + \
env.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '')
ctx.ip = env.get('REMOTE_ADDR')
ctx.method = env.get('REQUEST_METHOD')
ctx.path = env.get('PATH_INFO')
# requires:
if env.get('SERVER_SOFTWARE', '').startswith('lighttpd/'):
ctx.path = lstrips(env.get('REQUEST_URI').split('?')[0],
os.environ.get('REAL_SCRIPT_NAME', env.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '')))
ctx.fullpath = ctx.path
if env.get('QUERY_STRING'):
ctx.fullpath += '?' + env.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
ctx.status = '200 OK'
ctx.headers = []
ctx.output = ''
if 'db_parameters' in globals():
def _unload():
# ensures db cursors and such are GCed promptly
del _context[currentThread()]
if __name__ == "__main__":
urls = ('/', 'source')
class source:
def GET(self):
header('Content-Type', 'text/python')
print open(sys.argv[0]).read()
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.