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wmbusmeters

The program receives and decodes C1,T1 or S1 telegrams (using the wireless mbus protocol or the wired mbus protocol) to acquire utility meter readings. The readings can then be published using MQTT, curled to a REST api, inserted into a database or stored in a log file.

FAQ/WIKI/MANUAL pages

The program runs on GNU/Linux, MacOSX, FreeBSD, and Raspberry Pi.

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Distributions

wmbusmeters package is available on Fedora (version 31 or newer) and can be simply installed by using:

dnf install wmbusmeters

Availability of wmbusmeters for other Linux distributions can be checked on release-monitoring project page.

Docker

Experimental docker containers are available here: https://hub.docker.com/r/weetmuts/wmbusmeters

Snap

Experimental snaps are available here: https://snapcraft.io/wmbusmeters Read the wiki for more info on how to use the snap: https://weetmuts.github.io/wmbusmeterswiki/SNAP.html

Build from source and run as a daemon

Building and installing from source is easy and recommended since the development progresses quickly. First remove the wmbus dongle (im871a,amb8465,cul,rc1180) or the generic rtlsdr dongle (RTL2832U) from your computer. Then do:

./configure; make; sudo make install will install wmbusmeters as a daemon.

Usage

Check the contents of your /etc/wmbusmeters.conf file, assuming it has device=auto:t1 and you are using a im871a,amb8465,rc1180,cul or rtlsdr device, then you can now start the daemon with sudo systemctl start wmbusmeters or you can try it from the command line wmbusmeters auto:t1

Wmbusmeters will scan for wmbus devices every few seconds and detect whenever a device is plugged in or removed. However since wmbusmeters now supports several dongle types, the scan can take some time!

Use auto for testing and to find your dongle. For production it is very much recommended that you change auto:t1 to the device name with the full device path (eg /dev/ttyUSB0:im871a:c1,t1). This will skip the slow probing for all possible wmbus dongles when wmbusmeters startup.

If the serial device (ttyUSB0) might change you can also use device=im871a:c1,t1 which will probe all serial devices but only scans for im871a which also speeds it up.

If you have to scan serial devices, then remember that some Raspberry PIs are upset when random data is sent to /dev/ttyAMA0 when it is configured in bluetooth mode. To solve this, add donotprobe=/dev/ttyAMA0

To have the wmbusmeters daemon start automatically when the computer boots do: sudo systemctl enable wmbusmeters

You can trigger a reload of the config files with sudo killall -HUP wmbusmetersd

(Note! make install only works for GNU/Linux. For MacOSX try to start wmbusmetersd /tmp/thepidfile from a script instead.)

You can also start the daemon with another set of config files: wmbusmetersd --useconfig=/home/me/.config/wmbusmeters /tmp/thepidfile

When using useconfig, the files/dir should be: /home/me/.config/wmbusmeters/wmbusmeters.conf and the meters dir: /home/me/.config/wmbusmeters/wmbusmeters.d

Check the config file /etc/wmbusmeters.conf and edit the device. For example: /dev/ttyUSB1:amb8465:c1,t1 or im871a:c1,t1 or im871a[457200101056]:t1.

Adding a device like auto or im871a will trigger an automatic probe of all serial ttys to auto find or to find on which tty the im871a resides.

If you specify a full device path like /dev/ttyUSB0:im871a:c1 or rtlwmbus or rtl433 then it will not probe the serial devices. If you must be really sure that it will not probe something you can add donotprobe=/dev/ttyUSB0 or donotprobe=all.

You can specify combinations like: device=rc1180:t1 device=auto:c1 to set the rc1180 dongle to t1 but any other auto-detected dongle to c1.

Some dongles have identifiers (im871a,amb8465 and rtlsdrs) (for example: rtlsdr can be set with rtl_eeprom -s myname) You might have two rtlsdr dongles, one attached to an antenna tuned to 433MHz and the other attached to an antenna tuned for 868.95MHz, then a more complicated setup could look like this:

device=rtlwmbus[555555]:433M
device=rtlwmbus[112233]
device=/dev/ttyUSB0:im871a[00102759]:c1,t1
device=/dev/ttyUSB1:rc1800:t1

Bus aliases and polling

To poll an C2/T2/S2 wireless meter or an wired m-bus meter you need to give the (w)mbus device a bus-alias, for example here we pick the bus alias MAIN for the mbus using 2400 bps for all meters on this bus.

MAIN=/dev/ttyUSB0:mbus:2400

and here we pick the bus alias RADIOMAIN for an im871a dongle:

RADIOMAIN=/dev/ttyUSB1:im871a:c2

The bus alias is then used in the meter driver specification to specify which bus the mbus poll request should be sent to.

wmbusmeters --pollinterval=60s MAIN=/dev/ttyUSB0:mbus:2400 MyTempMeter piigth:MAIN:mbus 12001932 NOKEY

Example wmbusmeter.conf file

loglevel=normal
# You can use auto:t1 to find the device you have connected to your system.
# But do not use auto here since it will cause unnecessary and slow probing of the serial ports.
device=/dev/ttyUSB0:im871a:c1,t1
# And mbus
device=MAIN=/dev/ttyUSB1:mbus:2400
# But do not probe this serial tty.
donotprobe=/dev/ttyACM2
logtelegrams=false
format=json
meterfiles=/var/lib/wmbusmeters/meter_readings
meterfilesaction=overwrite
meterfilesnaming=name
meterfilestimestamp=day
logfile=/var/log/wmbusmeters/wmbusmeters.log
shell=/usr/bin/mosquitto_pub -h localhost -t wmbusmeters/$METER_ID -m "$METER_JSON"
alarmshell=/usr/bin/mosquitto_pub -h localhost -t wmbusmeters_alarm -m "$ALARM_TYPE $ALARM_MESSAGE"
alarmtimeout=1h
alarmexpectedactivity=mon-sun(00-23)
ignoreduplicates=true

Then add a meter file in /etc/wmbusmeters.d/MyTapWater

name=MyTapWater
id=12345678
key=00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF
driver=multical21

And an mbus meter file in /etc/wmbusmeters.d/MyTempHygro

name=MyTempHygro
id=11223344
driver=piigth:mbus
pollinterval=60s

Important information about meter drivers and their names.

You can use driver=auto to have wmbusmeters automatically detect and use the best driver for your meter, but you should >not< use auto in production.

You can find out which driver is recommended by running wmbusmeters im871a:t1. This will print information like:

Received telegram from: 71727374
          manufacturer: (BMT) BMETERS, Italy (0x9b4)
                  type: Heat/Cooling load meter (0x0d) encrypted
                   ver: 0x0b
                driver: hydrocalm3

For production use it is very much recommended that you specify the exact driver in the meter file. The reason is that new and better drivers might be developed for your meter, where the keys and the content of the json might change. Such new drivers are guaranteed to have a different driver name. The auto look up will change to the new driver, but the old driver will still work.

So wmbusmeters strives to guarantee that if you have specified the driver name, then wmbusmeters can be safely upgraded at any time. The json will not change in an incompatible way. (The only allowed changes are: adding new fields and changing the ordering.)

Now plugin your wmbus dongle.

Wmbusmeters should start automatically, check with tail -f /var/log/syslog and tail -f /var/log/wmbusmeters/wmbusmeters.log (If you are using an rtlsdr dongle, then make sure that either the binaries /usr/bin/rtl_sdr and /usr/bin/rtl_wmbus exists and are executable. Or that the executable rtl_sdr/rtl_wmbus binaries exists inside the same directory as the wmbusmeters executable. If not you will see the error message (rtlwmbus) error: when starting as daemon, wmbusmeters looked for .../rtl_wmbus and /usr/bin/rtl_wmbus, but found neither! and the daemon will refuse to start.)

The latest reading of the meter can also be found here: /var/lib/wmbusmeters/meter_readings/MyTapWater

You can use several ids using id=1111111,2222222,3333333 or you can listen to all meters of a certain type id=* or you can suffix with star id=8765* to match all meters with a given prefix. If you supply at least one positive match rule, then you can add negative match rules as well. For example id=*,!2222* which will match all meter ids, except those that begin with 2222.

You can add the static json data "address":"RoadenRd 456","city":"Stockholm" to every json message with the wmbusmeters.conf setting:

field_address=RoadenRd 456
field_city=Stockholm

If you add field_floor=5 to the meter file MyTapWater, then you can have the meter tailored static json "floor":"5" added to telegrams handled by that particular meter. (The old prefix json_ still works.)

If you are running on a Raspberry PI with flash storage and you relay the data to another computer using a shell command (mosquitto_pub or curl or similar) then you might want to remove meterfiles and meterfilesaction to minimize the writes to the local flash file system.

Also when using the Raspberry PI it can get confused by the serial ports, in particular the bluetooth port might come and go as a serial tty depending on the config. Therefore it can be advantageous to use the auto device to find the proper tty (eg /dev/ttyUSB0) and then specify this tty device explicitly in the config file, instead of using auto. This assumes that you only have a single usb dongle otherwise the USB tty names can change depending on how and when the devices are unplugged/replugged and the pi restarted. If you have multiple devies with different antennas, then you should instead use donotprobe to avoid the ttys that can never have a wmbus dongle.

If you specify --meterfilesaction=append --meterfilestimestamp=day then wmbusmeters will append all todays received telegrams in for example the file Water_2019-12-11, the day after the telegrams will be recorded in Water_2019-12-12. You can change the resolution to day,hour,minute and micros. Micros means that every telegram gets their own file.

The purpose of the alarm shell and timeout is to notify you about problems within wmbusmeters and the wmbus dongles, not the meters themselves. Thus the timeout is for a dongle to receive some telegram at all. It does not matter from which meter.

Run using config files

If you cannot install as a daemon, then you can also start wmbusmeters in your terminal using the config files in /etc/wmbusmeters.

wmbusmeters --useconfig=/etc

Or you can start wmbusmeters with your own config files:

wmbusmeters --useconfig=/home/me/.config/wmbusmeters

If you already have config with a device specified, and you want to use the config with another device. You might have multiple meters in the config that you want to listen to. Then you can add --device to override the settings in the config. Like this:

wmbusmeters --useconfig=/home/me/.config/wmbusmeters --device=rtlwmbus

You must have both --useconfig= and --device= for it to work.

The files/dir should then be located here: /home/me/.config/wmbusmeters/wmbusmeters.conf and /home/me/.config/wmbusmeters/wmbusmeters.d

The option --useconfig= can only be combined with a few other options: --device= --listento= --exitafter= --oneshot= --silent --normal --verbose --debug --trace

When running using config files then you can trigger a reload of the config files using sudo killall -HUP wmbusmetersd or killall -HUP wmbusmeters depending on if you are running as a daemon or not.

Running without config files, good for experimentation and test.

wmbusmeters version: 1.8.0
Usage: wmbusmeters {options} [device] { [meter_name] [meter_driver] [meter_id] [meter_key] }*
       wmbusmeters {options} [hex]    { [meter_name] [meter_driver] [meter_id] [meter_key] }*
       wmbusmetersd {options} [pid_file]

As {options} you can use:

    --addconversions=<unit>+ add conversion to these units to json and meter env variables (GJ)
    --alarmexpectedactivity=mon-fri(08-17),sat-sun(09-12) Specify when the timeout is tested, default is mon-sun(00-23)
    --alarmshell=<cmdline> invokes cmdline when an alarm triggers
    --alarmtimeout=<time> Expect a telegram to arrive within <time> seconds, eg 60s, 60m, 24h during expected activity.
    --analyze Analyze a telegram to find the best driver.
    --analyze=<key> Analyze a telegram to find the best driver use the provided decryption key.
    --analyze=<driver> Analyze a telegram and use only this driver.
    --analyze=<driver>:<key> Analyze a telegram and use only this driver with this key.
    --debug for a lot of information
    --device=<device> override device in config files. Use only in combination with --useconfig= option
    --donotprobe=<tty> do not auto-probe this tty. Use multiple times for several ttys or specify "all" for all ttys.
    --exitafter=<time> exit program after time, eg 20h, 10m 5s
    --format=<hr/json/fields> for human readable, json or semicolon separated fields
    --help list all options
    --ignoreduplicates=<bool> ignore duplicate telegrams, remember the last 10 telegrams
    --field_xxx=yyy always add "xxx"="yyy" to the json output and add shell env METER_xxx=yyy (--json_xxx=yyy also works)
    --license print GPLv3+ license
    --listento=<mode> listen to one of the c1,t1,s1,s1m,n1a-n1f link modes
    --listento=<mode>,<mode> listen to more than one link mode at the same time, assuming the dongle supports it
    --listenvs=<meter_driver> list the env variables available for the given meter driver
    --listfields=<meter_driver> list the fields selectable for the given meter driver
    --listmeters list all meter drivers
    --listmeters=<search> list all meter drivers containing the text <search>
    --listunits list all unit suffixes that can be used for typing values
    --logfile=<file> use this file for logging
    --logtelegrams log the contents of the telegrams for easy replay
    --logtimestamps=<when> add log timestamps: always never important
    --meterfiles=<dir> store meter readings in dir
    --meterfilesaction=(overwrite|append) overwrite or append to the meter readings file
    --meterfilesnaming=(name|id|name-id) the meter file is the meter's: name, id or name-id
    --meterfilestimestamp=(never|day|hour|minute|micros) the meter file is suffixed with a
                          timestamp (localtime) with the given resolution.
    --nodeviceexit if no wmbus devices are found, then exit immediately
    --normal for normal logging
    --oneshot wait for an update from each meter, then quit
    --ppjson pretty print the json
    --pollinterval=<time> time between polling of meters, must be set to get polling.
    --resetafter=<time> reset the wmbus dongle regularly, default is 23h
    --selectfields=id,timestamp,total_m3 select only these fields to be printed (--listfields=<meter> to list available fields)
    --separator=<c> change field separator to c
    --shell=<cmdline> invokes cmdline with env variables containing the latest reading
    --silent do not print informational messages nor warnings
    --trace for tons of information
    --useconfig=<dir> load config <dir>/wmbusmeters.conf and meters from <dir>/wmbusmeters.d
    --usestderr write notices/debug/verbose and other logging output to stderr (the default)
    --usestdoutforlogging write debug/verbose and logging output to stdout
    --verbose for more information
    --version print version

As device you can use:

auto:c1, to have wmbusmeters probe for devices: im871a, amb8465, cul, rc1180 or rtlsdr (spawns rtlwmbus).

im871a:c1 to start all connected im871a devices in c1 mode, ignore all other devices.

/dev/ttyUSB1:amb8465:c1 to start only this device on this tty. Do not probe for other devices.

If you have two im871a you can supply both of them with their unique id:s and set different listening modes: im871a[12345678]:c1 im871a[11223344]:t1

You can also specify rtlwmbus and if you set the serial in the rtlsdr dongle using rtl_eeprom -s 1234 you can also refer to a specific rtlsdr dongle like this rtlwmbus[1234].

/dev/ttyUSB0:amb8465, if you have an amb8465 dongle assigned to ttyUSB0. Other suffixes are im871a,cul.

/dev/ttyUSB0, to have wmbusmeters auto-detect amb8465, im871a, rc1180 or cul device.

/dev/ttyUSB0:38400, to have wmbusmeters set the baud rate to 38400 and listen for raw wmbus telegrams. These telegrams are expected to have the data link layer crc bytes removed already!

MAIN=/dev/ttyUSB0:mbus:2400, assume ttyUSB0 is an serial to mbus-master converter. The speed is set to 2400 bps.

rtlwmbus, to spawn the background process: rtl_sdr -f 868.625M -s 1600000 - 2>/dev/null | rtl_wmbus -s for each attached rtlsdr dongle. This will listen to S1,T1 and C1 meters in parallel.

Note that this uses a noticeable amount of CPU time by rtl_wmbus. You can therefore use a tailored rtl_wmbus command that is more suitable for your needs.

rtlwmbus:CMD(<command line>), to specify the entire background process command line that is expected to produce rtlwmbus compatible output. The command line cannot contain parentheses. Likewise for rtl433.

Here is an example command line that reduces the rtl_wmbus CPU usage if you only need T1/C1 telegrams. It disable S1 decoding (-p s) and trades lower cpu usage for reception performance (-a):

rtlwmbus:CMD(rtl_sdr -f 868.95M -s 1600000 - 2>/dev/null | rtl_wmbus -p s -a)

rtlwmbus(ppm=17), to tune your rtlsdr dongle accordingly. Use this to tune your dongle and at the same time listen to S1,T1 and C1.

rtlwmbus:433M, to tune to this fq instead. This will listen to exactly to what is on this frequency.

rtl433, to spawn the background process: rtl_433 -F csv -f 868.95M

rtl433(ppm=17), to tune your rtlsdr dongle accordingly.

rtl433:433M, to tune to this fq instead.

stdin, to read raw binary telegrams from stdin. These telegrams are expected to have the data link layer crc bytes removed already!

telegrams.bin, to read raw wmbus telegrams from this file. These telegrams are expected to have the data link layer crc bytes removed already!

stdin:hex, to read hex characters wmbus telegrams from stdin. These telegrams are expected to have the data link layer crc bytes removed already!

telegrams.txt:hex, to read hex characters wmbus telegrams from this file. These telegrams are expected to have the data link layer crc bytes removed already!

stdin:rtlwmbus, to read telegrams formatted using the rtlwmbus format from stdin. Works for rtl433 as well.

telegrams.msg:rtlwmbus, to read rtlwmbus formatted telegrams from this file. Works for rtl433 as well.

simulation_abc.txt, to read telegrams from the file (the file must have a name beginning with simulation_....) expecting the same format that is the output from --logtelegrams. This format also supports replay with timing. The telegrams are allowed to have valid dll crcs, which will be automatically stripped.

As meter quadruples you specify:

  • <meter_name>: a mnemonic for this particular meter (!Must not contain a colon ':' character!)
  • <meter_driver>: use auto or one of the supported meters (can be suffixed with: :<bus_alias> for selecting which bus where we should send the poll requests :<mode> to specify which mode you expect the meter to use when transmitting)
  • <meter_id>: an 8 digit mbus id, usually printed on the meter
  • <meter_key>: an encryption key unique for the meter if the meter uses no encryption, then supply NOKEY
Supported wmbus dongles:
IMST 871a (im871a)
Amber 8465/8665/8665-M (amb8465)
CUL family (cul)
Radiocraft (RC1180)
rtl_wmbus (rtlwmbus)
rtl_433 (rtl433)

Supported mbus dongles:
Any bus controller dongle/board behaving like a plain serial port.

Supported water meters:
Aventies (aventieswm)
Apator at-wmbus-08   (apator08) (non-standard protocol)
Apator at-wmbus-16-2 (apator162) (non-standard protocol)
Apator at-wmbus-17-2 (apator172) (non-standard protocol)
Apator Ultrimis (ultrimis)
Aquametro/Integra Topas Es Kr (topaseskr)
Axioma W1 (q400)
Bmeters Hydrodigit (hydrodigit) (partly non-standard protocol)
Diehl/Sappel IZAR RC 868 I R4 PL and R3 (izar) (non-standard protocol)
Diehl HYDRUS (hydrus)
Diehl IZAR RC I G4 (dme_07)
Elster Merlin 868 (emerlin868)
Elster V200H (ev200)
Maddalena EVO 868 (evo868)
Honeywell Q400 (q400)
Itron (itron)
Kamstrup Multical 21 (multical21)
Kamstrup flowIQ 2200 (flowiq2200)
Kamstrup flowIQ 3100 (flowiq3100)
Qundis QWater5.5 (lse_07_17)
Sontex Supercom 587 (supercom587)
Sensus iPERL (iperl)
Techem MK Radio 3 and 4 (mkradio3,mkradio4) (non-standard protocols)
Waterstar M (waterstarm)
Zenner Minomess (minomess)

Supported heat cost allocators:
Innotas EurisII  (eurisii)
Qundis Q caloric (qcaloric)
Sontex 868 (sontex868)
Techem FHKV data II/III (fhkvdataiii)
Siemens WHE542 (whe5x)
BMeters Hydroclima RFM (hydroclima)

Supported heat meters:
Heat meter Techem Compact V / Compact Ve (compact5) (non-standard protocol)
Heat meter Techem Vario 4 (vario451) (non-standard protocol)
Heat meter Kamstrup Multical 302 (multical302) (in C1 mode, please open issue for T1 mode)
Heat and Cooling meter Kamstrup Multical 403 (multical403) (in C1 mode)
Heat and Cooling meter Kamstrup Multical 602 (multical602) (in C1 mode)
Heat and Cooling meter Kamstrup Multical 603 (multical603) (in C1 mode)
Heat and Cooling meter Kamstrup Multical 803 (multical803) (in C1 mode)
Heat meter Apator Elf (elf)
Heat meter Diehl Sharky 775 (sharky)
Heat meter Diehl Sharky 774 (sharky774)
Heat meter Maddelena microClima (microclima)
Heat and Cooling meter BMeters Hydrocal-M3 (hydrocalm3)
Heat and Cooling meter Axioma Qualcosonic E3 (qualcosonic)
Heat meter Qundis Q heat 5.5 (qheat)

Supported room sensors:
Bmeters RFM-AMB Thermometer/Hygrometer (rfmamb)
Elvaco CMa12w Thermometer (cma12w)
Lansen Thermometer/Hygrometer (lansenth)
Weptech Munia Thermometer/Hygrometer (munia)
PiiGAB Thermometer/Hygrometer (piigth) wired

Supported smoke detectors:
Lansen Smoke Detector (lansensm)
EI Electronics Smoke Detector ei6500-oms (ei6500)

Supported door/window detectors:
Lansen Door/Window Detector (lansendw)

Supported pulse counter:
Lansen Pulse Counter (lansenpu)

Supported electricity meters:
Easy Meter ESYS-WM20 (esyswm)
eBZ wMB-E01 (ebzwmbe)
EMH Metering (ehzp)
Tauron Amiplus (amiplus) (includes vendor apator and echelon)
Gavazzi EM24 (em24)
Gransystems 301 and 303 (gransystems)
Kamstrup Omnipower (omnipower)

Supported gas meters:
uniSMART (unismart)

Supported pressure sensors:
Kamstrup Pressure Sensor (kampress)


The wmbus dongle im871a can listen to either s1, c1 or t1. However with the latest firmware version (0x15) im871a can also listen to c1 and t1 telegrams at the same time. (Use --verbose to see your dongles firmware version.) If you have the older firmware you can download the upgrader here: https://wireless-solutions.de/downloadfile/wireless-m-bus-software/

The amb8465 dongle can listen to either s1, c1 or t1. However it can also listen to c1 and t1 at the same time.

With the latest rtlwmbus you can listen to s1, c1 and t1 at the same time.

The cul dongle can listen to c1 and t1 at the same time, but only if you specify c1! If you specify t1 or s1, then it will only listen to t1 or s1.

Imporant!!!! Note that the cul dongle is limited to shorter telegrams. There is a firmware fix that allows somewhat longer, but still not full length telegrams. This can be a serious blocker if you want to receive long telegrams from advanced meters. Read the wiki to find this firmware.

The rc1180 dongle can listen only to t1.

Usage examples

wmbusmeters auto:c1

Listens for C1 telegrams using any of your available wmbus dongles:

Received telegram from: 12345678
          manufacturer: (KAM) Kamstrup Energi (0x2c2d)
           device type: Cold water meter (0x16) encrypted
            device ver: 0x1b
                device: im871a[12345678]
                  rssi: -77 dBm
                driver: multical21

You can see that this telegram is encrypted and therefore you need a key. Now listen to this specific meter, since the driver is auto-detected, we can use auto for the meter driver.

wmbusmeters auto:c1 MyTapWater auto 12345678 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF

(The Multical21 and other meters use compressed telegrams, which means that you might have to wait up to 8 telegrams (8*16 seconds) until you receive a full length telegram which gives all the information needed to decode the compressed telegrams.)

Example output:

MyTapWater 12345678 6.388 m3 6.377 m3 0.000 m3/h 8°C 23°C DRY(dry 22-31 days) 2018-03-05 12:02.50

(Here the multical21 itself, is configured to send target volume, therefore the max flow is 0.000 m3/h.)

Example format json output:

wmbusmeters --format=json /dev/ttyUSB0:im871a MyTapWater multical21:c1 12345678 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF MyHeater multical302 22222222 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF
{"media":"cold water","meter":"multical21","name":"MyTapWater","id":"12345678","total_m3":6.388,"target_m3":6.377,"max_flow_m3h":0.000,"flow_temperature":8,"external_temperature":23,"current_status":"DRY","time_dry":"22-31 days","time_reversed":"","time_leaking":"","time_bursting":"","timestamp":"2018-02-08T09:07:22Z","device":"im871a[1234567]","rssi_dbm":-40}
{"media":"heat","meter":"multical302","name":"MyHeater","id":"22222222","total_kwh":0.000,"total_volume_m3":0.000,"current_kw":"0.000","timestamp":"2018-02-08T09:07:22Z"}

Example format fields output and use tuned rtlsdr dongle with rtlwmbus.

wmbusmeters --format=fields 'rtlwmbus(ppm=72)' GreenhouseWater multical21:c1 33333333 NOKEY
GreenhouseTapWater;33333333;9999.099;77.712;0.000;11;31;;2018-03-05 12:10.24

You can select a subset of all available fields, where we also select to print the timestamp as a unix timestamp. The timestamp field is UTC time for json and local time when hr and fields. To explicitly select utc you can specify timestamp_utc and timestamp_lt for local time.

wmbusmeters --format=fields --selectfields=id,total_m3,timestamp_ut,timestamp_utc /dev/ttyUSB0:im871a GreenhouseWater multical21:c1 33333333 NOKEY
33333333;9999.099;1628434800;2021-08-08T15:00.00Z

You can list all available fields for a meter: wmbusmeters --listfields=multical21

You can list all meters: wmbusmeters --listmeters

You can search for meters: wmbusmeters --listmeters=water or wmbusmeters --listmeters=q

Eaxmple of using the shell command to publish to MQTT:

wmbusmeters --shell='HOME=/home/you mosquitto_pub -h localhost -t water -m "$METER_JSON"' /dev/ttyUSB0:im871a GreenhouseWater multical21:c1 33333333 NOKEY

Example of using the shell command to inject data into postgresql database:

wmbusmeters --shell="psql waterreadings -c \"insert into readings values ('\$METER_ID',\$METER_TOTAL_M3,'\$METER_TIMESTAMP') \" " /dev/ttyUSB0:amb8465 MyColdWater multical21:c1 12345678 NOKEY

(It is much easier to add shell commands in the conf file since you do not need to quote the quotes.)

You can have multiple shell commands and they will be executed in the order you gave them on the command line.

To list the shell env variables available for a meter, run wmbusmeters --listenvs=multical21 which outputs:

METER_JSON
METER_TYPE
METER_NAME
METER_ID
METER_TOTAL_M3
METER_TARGET_M3
METER_MAX_FLOW_M3H
METER_FLOW_TEMPERATURE_C
METER_EXTERNAL_TEMPERATURE_C
METER_CURRENT_STATUS
METER_TIME_DRY
METER_TIME_REVERSED
METER_TIME_LEAKING
METER_TIME_BURSTING
METER_TIMESTAMP

(If you have supplied --field_floor=5 then you will also see METER_floor in the list)

Note that the METER_TIMESTAMP and the timestamp in the json output, is in UTC format, this is not your localtime. However the hr and fields output will print your localtime.

You can add shell=commandline to a meter file stored in wmbusmeters.d, then this meter will use this shell command instead of the command stored in wmbusmeters.conf.

You can use --debug to get both verbose output and the actual data bytes sent back and forth with the wmbus usb dongle.

If the meter does not use encryption of its meter data, then enter NOKEY on the command line.

wmbusmeters --format=json --meterfiles /dev/ttyUSB0:im871a:c1 MyTapWater multical21:c1 12345678 NOKEY

Using wmbusmeters in a pipe

rtl_sdr -f 868.625M -s 1600000 - 2>/dev/null | rtl_wmbus -s | wmbusmeters --format=json stdin:rtlwmbus MyMeter auto 12345678 NOKEY | ...more processing...

Or you can send rtl_wmbus formatted telegrams using nc over UDP to wmbusmeters.

rtl_sdr -f 868.95M -s 1600000 - 2>/dev/null | rtl_wmbus -p s -a | nc -u localhost 4444

And receive the telegrams with nc spawned by wmbusmeters.

wmbusmeters 'rtlwmbus:CMD(nc -lku 4444)'

Or start nc explicitly in a pipe.

nc -lku 4444 | wmbusmeters stdin:rtlwmbus

Decoding hex string telegrams

If you have a single telegram as hex, which you want decoded, you do not need to create a simulation file, you can just supply the telegram as a hex string on the command line.

wmbusmeters 234433300602010014007a8e0000002f2f0efd3a1147000000008e40fd3a341200000000

which will output:

No meters configured. Printing id:s of all telegrams heard!
Received telegram from: 00010206
          manufacturer: (LAS) Lansen Systems, Sweden (0x3033)
                  type: Other (0x00)
                   ver: 0x14
                driver: lansenpu

You can of course decode the meter on the fly:

wmbusmeters --format=json 234433300602010014007a8e0000002f2f0efd3a1147000000008e40fd3a341200000000 MyCounter auto 00010206 NOKEY

which will output:

{"media":"other","meter":"lansenpu","name":"MyCounter","id":"00010206","a_counter":4711,"b_counter":1234,"timestamp":"2021-09-12T08:45:52Z"}

You can also pipe the hex into wmbusmeters like this:

echo 234433300602010014007a8e0000002f2f0efd3a1147000000008e40fd3a341200000000 | ./build/wmbusmeters --silent --format=json stdin:hex MyCounter auto 00010206 NOKEY

or read hex data from a a file, wmbusmeters myfile.txt:hex

Any non-hex characters are ignored when using the suffix :hex. However when the hex string is supplied on the command line it must be a proper hex string with no spaces.

When a telegram is supplied on the command line, then any valid dll crcs will be automatically removed, like when the telegram is suppled in a simulation file.

You can analyze a telegram, this is useful when developing new drivers or trying to find which driver is the best fit for an unknown mfct,type,ver combo.

wmbusmeters --analyze 3E44A5119035246141047A1A0030052F2F#0C06026301000C13688609040B3B0802000C2B220000F00A5A71020A5E72020AA61800004C0636370100426CBF25

Fields marked with C! (and green background) are content that is understood and put to use in the json. For example:

019 C!: 02630100 ("total_energy_consumption_kwh":16302)

Which shows the telegram raw data bytes and the json field into which the decoded value was presented. Fields marked with C? (and red background) are content that is not understood nor used in the json.

To force a driver use: --analyze=<driver> to supply a decryption key: --analyze=<key> and to do both: --analyze=<key>:<driver>

You can run the analyze functionality online here: wmbusmeters.org

Additional tools

If you have a Kamstrup meter and you have received a KEM file and its password from your supplier, then you can use python2 utils/kem-import.py utils/kem-import.py to extract meter information from that file (including the AES key) and to create corresponding meter files in wmbusmeters' config directory.

You can also use the XMLExtract Java program. javac utils/XMLExtract and then java -cp utils XMLExtract to print the key on the command line.

You can run wmbusmeters with --logtelegrams to get log output that can be placed in a simulation.txt file. You can then run wmbusmeters and instead of an usb device, you provide the simulation.txt file as argument. See test.sh for more info.

If you do not specify any meters on the command line, then wmbusmeters will listen and print the header information of any telegram it hears.

Builds and runs on GNU/Linux MacOSX (with recent XCode), and FreeBSD

(For MacOSX do brew install librtlsdr libusb which takes such a long time that the MacOSX travis build is disabled for the moment.)

./configure && make && make test

Binary generated: ./build/wmbusmeters

make install will install this binary.

make HOST=arm to cross compile from GNU/Linux to Raspberry PI.

Binary generated: ./build_arm/wmbusmeters

make DEBUG=true

Binary generated: ./build_debug/wmbusmeters

make testd to run all tests using the debug build.

Debug builds only work on FreeBSD if the compiler is LLVM. If your system default compiler is gcc, set CXX=clang++ to the build environment to force LLVM to be used.

make DEBUG=true HOST=arm

Binary generated: ./build_arm_debug/wmbusmeters

System configuration

make install installs the files:

/etc/wmbusmeters.conf /usr/bin/wmbusmeters /usr/sbin/wmbusmetersd /etc/systemd/system/wmbusmeters.service /etc/logrotate.d/wmbusmeters

creates these directories:

/etc/wmbusmeters.d /var/lib/wmbusmeters/meter_readings

and adds the user wmbusmeters with no login account.

Common problems

If wmbusmeters detects no device, but you know you have plugged in your wmbus dongle, then run with --verbose to get more information on why the devices are not detected. Typically this is because you are not in the dialout (for usb-serial dongles) or plugdev (for rtlsdr) group.

Run sudo make install to add the current user to the dialout group and the wmbusmeters group.

If the daemon has started then the wmbus device will be taken and you cannot start wmbusmeters manually.

To run manually, first make sure the daemon is stopped sudo systemctl stop wmbusmeters if this hangs, then do sudo killall -9 wmbusmetersd and/or sudo killall -9 wmbusmeters.

How to receive telegrams over longer distances

I only have personal experience of the im871a,amb8465 and an rtlsdr compatible dongle. The commercial dongles (im871a,amb8464) receive well despite having tiny antennas inside the dongle. However the reception range is limited by walls and you must definitely get quite close to the meter if it is mounted underground in a concrete tube.

The rtlsdr/rtl-wmbus solution seems to work for a lot of users, but it does use more cpu-power since it decodes the radio traffic in software. Range seems to be similar to the other dongles, despite the antenna being much larger.

At least one professional collector use the same commercial dongles, but the versions with an external antenna connector, into which they attach a radio amplifier for the proper frequency, and then a larger antennna. This makes it possible to receive telegrams from meters underground and over larger distances.

Non-standard baud rate set for AMB8465 USB stick

Wmbusmeters expects the serial baud rate for the AMB8465 USB stick to be 9600 8n1. If you have used another tool and changed the baud rate to something else you need to restore the baud rate to 9600 8n1. You can do that with that other tool, or you can try wmbusmeters-admin and select Reset wmbus receives this command try all potential baud rates and send the factory reset command. Then you have to unplug and reinsert the dongle.

If you like to send the bytes manually, the correct bytes are:

  • Factory reset of the settings: 0xFF1100EE
  • Reset the stick to apply the factory defaults: 0xFF0500FA this is not necessary if you unplug and reinsert the dongle.

How to add a new driver

Drivers are self contained source code files named src/driver_xyz.cc They register themselves at startup. The source file also contains the necessary tests for that driver.

Read more here: doc/CreateDriver.md

Caveat

If you do not get proper readings from the meters with non-standard protocols. apator162, mkradio3, vario451 then you have to open an issue here and help out by logging a lot of messages and reverse engineer them even more..... :-/

Good free documents on the wireless mbus protocol standard EN 13757

https://oms-group.org/

There is also a lot of wmbus protocol implementation details that are missing. They will be added to the program as we figure out how the meters send their data.