Skip to content

Latest commit



521 lines (381 loc) · 20.1 KB

File metadata and controls

521 lines (381 loc) · 20.1 KB

m4TITLE({"Mergetools: Stop doing three-way merges!"}) m4CATEGORY({"computing"}) m4DATE({"2020-12-08"}) m4SUMMARY({"A three-way merge will not help you resolve merge conflicts."})

Mergetools: Stop doing three-way merges!

A three-way merge will not help you resolve merge conflicts.

Git mergetools can be an amazing, concise, and precise way of resolving tricky merge conflicts. But for the most part they're all very hard to use, especially for beginners, and it's because they all make the exact same mistake.

Prefer video?

The problem and solution from this post is demonstrated in the video below. Ignore the Vim-specific parts as the problem and solution is relevant for all mergetools.

<iframe width="560" height="315" src="" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>

Why use a mergetool?

Mergetools exist because nobody wants to edit conflict markers by hand. It's very difficult to do reliably, especially for subtle changes. Try to resolve the following conflict without accidentally losing a wanted change from either side. (Hint: there are five wanted changes.)

<<<<<<< HEAD
twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
all mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
All mimsy were the borogroves
And the mome raths outgabe.
>>>>>>> branchA

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch!"

Manually removing conflict markers and manually moving individual changes from one section to another is just generally boring, error-prone work.


When you start a merge in Git and there is a conflict there are several versions of the file that are in play:

  • LOCAL - the version of the file on your current branch.
  • REMOTE - the version of the file from the branch that you're merging into your current branch.
  • BASE - the version of the file that your branch and the remote branch started from.
  • MERGED - the version of the file that contains every change from LOCAL and REMOTE -- including conflicts that Git was able to automatically resolve, and conflicts that Git wasn't able to automatically resolve. (Hint: this is important!)

Almost every mergetool works the same way: they open LOCAL, REMOTE, and MERGED and then perform a three-way diff between them.


The common mistake is that most every mergetool diffs LOCAL against REMOTE. Look again at the description of MERGED: Git automatically resolves a bunch of stuff and that hard work is only represented in MERGED.

A mergetool that diffs LOCAL and REMOTE will display a bunch of changes that Git may have already resolved for you, and the tool is asking you to resolve them yet again but manually. A mergetool is supposed to help you resolve conflicts and avoid dealing with conflict markers but almost every mergetool makes it harder and makes it more work to resolve conflicts. It's no wonder that mergetools aren't more widely used.

Compare the example above with conflict markers to the default vimdiff view:

It's a mess. Yes, vimdiff is particularly egregious but other mergetools have the exact same problem just with fewer awful colors.


The goal of this post is to encourage all mergetools to adopt some variant of the simple approach of "unmerging" MERGED and diffing both halves.

A file containing conflict markers is a two-way diff.

It can be demonstrated with two lines of sed:

sed -E -e '/^=======\r?$/,/^>>>>>>> /d' -e '/^<<<<<<< /d' "$MERGED" > "$LEFT_CONFLICTS"
sed -E -e '/^<<<<<<< /,/^=======\r?$/d' -e '/^>>>>>>> /d' "$MERGED" > "$RIGHT_CONFLICTS"

Or in English: Make two copies of MERGED. One with all the right-hand conflicts removed; one with all the left-hand conflicts removed.

Diff those two files. Allow users to combine individual changes from both left and right. Replace MERGED with the result.

That's it.

This is what the above conflict looks like as a two-way merge. The resolution suddenly becomes much, much more clear and obvious.

LOCAL and REMOTE and BASE are very useful to understand the history leading up to the conflict. You can (and should!) read the relevant parts from those files. You should use Git's merge log for even more understanding. You should even individually compare the relevant sections of thsoe files with the left or right half of MERGED -- and maybe that does mean temporarily showing a diff between them.

After you understand the history of the conflict and when it comes time to resolve those conflicts, you should only resolve them as a diff between the left half of MERGED and the right half of MERGED.


Mergetool authors:

Please continue to display LOCAL and REMOTE! Please display BASE. Please highlight the relevant sections of those files. But don't include those files in the diff. It doesn't help.

Do show the "left" and "right" sides of the conflict markers as a two-way diff. Allow the user to grab individual changes from either side.

I want this technique adopted by every tool. Software is hard. The world will be a better place if it's easier to avoid accidentally losing changes during a merge conflict.

A comparison of default mergetools

I've tested all the default mergetools that ship with Git that were easily installable on Fedora or Brew, plus Sublime Merge and VS Code. I'll try to add others to the list over time.

I'm using a script in the diffconflicts repository that generates subtle merge conflicts. Here are some results to watch out for in a good mergetool:

  1. The bri1lig -> brillig conflict was automatically resolved. It should not be shown to the user.
  2. The m0me -> mome conflict was automatically resolved. It should not be shown to the user.
  3. The did -> Did conflict was automatically resolved. It should not be shown to the user.
  4. All conflicts in the second stanza were automatically resolved. They should not be shown to the user.
  5. The conflict on the first line is an "ours vs. theirs" situation. We only want theirs.
  6. The conflict on the third line is not an "ours vs. theirs" situation. We want changes from both:
    • Want the capitalization change from theirs.
    • Want the extra 'r' removal from ours.
    • Want the hanging punctuation change from ours.
  7. The conflict on the fourth line should be easily noticeable. We want the 'r'.

All of them tested so far get it wrong by diffing LOCAL against REMOTE and sometimes also against BASE. All of them.


Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. A mess of changes, most of which Git already resolved, and those resolutions in MERGED are not even present at all.

Beyond Compare

Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. A mess of changes, most of which Git already resolved. The bottom pane is an odd jumble of multiple versions from all three files and completely ignores the resolutions Git already performed. In addition the bottom pane is diffed against the above three which makes the highlighted changes meaningless.

Beyond compare has a "show conflicts" mode which removes some noise, but it still only show conflicts between LOCAL and REMOTE, ignoring MERGED and repeating automatically resolved conflicts.


Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. A mess of changes, most of which Git already resolved, and those resolutions in MERGED are not even present at all.

DiffMerge automatically resolves conflicts itself by also looking at BASE and while it did resolve some conflicts Git did a much, much better job.


Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. A mess of changes, most of which Git already resolved, and those resolutions in MERGED are not even present at all. The bottom pane unhelpfully shows the conflicts as <Merge Conflicts> and doesn't try to show them at all.


Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. A mess of changes, most of which Git already resolved, and those resolutions in MERGED are not even present at all. The lack of character-level differences just shows solid blocks of changes that don't help with resolution at all or even a little bit.

Sublime Merge

Wrong. (But gorgeous!) Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE or MERGED. It hides the conflicts behind an unhelpful CONFLICT marker.

Sublime Merge gets it wrong like most the others however the way it represents differences is much less visually distracting. It's tantalizing close to being useful in grasping the history of the conflict at-a-glance.

Unfortunately it doesn't try to display complex conflicts at all, and you can only choose "hunks" of a conflict which makes grabbing part of one change and part of another very difficult.

I would love to see a two-way diff between each side of MERGED in the middle, bookended by LOCAL and REMOTE with those wisp lines to direct your eyes to the relevant sections. It could be greatness.


Wrong, but close. SmartGit shows the merge conflicts but like some of the other more sophisticated graphical tools it does so in a way that brilliantly removes visual clutter.

If SmartGit displayed each side of the merge conflict with the same visual flair it could be amazing. The tool does an excellent job of navigating a repository and giving easy-access to history. This is exactly the kind of tool that helps new programmers to see what needs to happen and helps seasoned programmers find relevant info quickly. So close!


Wrong. Fork displays the traditional three-way LOCAL, REMOTE, merge conflicts which isn't helpful in resolving the conflict.


Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. Like with Sublime the wispy lines that guide your eye between changes are a great visual effect. Unfortunately between the three-way diff p4merge can't make heads-or-tails of which change corresponds to which. And the bottom pane the familiar view of MERGED also diffed against the top panes which produces a mess of unhelpful colors and no straightforward resolution.


Wrong. Diffs LOCAL against REMOTE against BASE. A mess of changes, most of which Git already resolved, and those resolutions in MERGED are not even present at all.

Tortoise Merge

Wrong. Tortoise does the usual diff between LOCAL and REMOTE which doesn't show the conflicts that Git already resolved. In addition MERGED appears to be trying to display BASE. (I invoked it using Git-for-Windows with git mergetool -t tortoisemerge but perhaps I have something misconfigured?)


Wrong (but has an effective auto-merge). WinMerge diffs LOCAL and REMOTE as usual so the conflict resolution Git already performed is not visible. It also appears to generate it's own version of MERGED rather than using the one Git generated.

There is an auto-merge button that does an admirable job of resolving conflicts:

An effort worthy of praise and if we were diffing files without Git it would be a helpful tool. However, in the context of Git it is mostly repeating work that Git already performed.


Wrong. (But closer!) A two-way diff between LOCAL and REMOTE but it appears to have also used BASE and resolved some of the conflicts by itself. The two-way diff and character-level difference highlights make the resolution steps very, very clear and straightforward.

An effort worthy of praise and if we were diffing files without Git it would be a useful tool indeed. Unfortunately Git resolved those conflicts better and we don't see that work reflected anywhere here.

So close!


(I would very much appreciate help filling this subsection out!)

Emacs + Magit

Right! I need to do some code diving to see how they're achiving this result but the two-way diff on the top looks great. All the resolved conflicts are missing which frees the user to resolve only the remaining conflicts. The diff highlights show just the relevant conflicts. The bottom pane is somewhat noisy but still useful context to look at when resolving in the top panes.

(Thank you to u/tech_addictede for investigating and creating the screenshot.)


Wrong. So, so wrong. A four-way diff between LOCAL, BASE, REMOTE, and MERGED make this a solid block of unhelpful red. The resolution must be performed in the bottom pane by manually editing the conflict markers. The diff tells you nothing and the resolution is every bit as hard as doing it without a mergetool.


The newer vimdiff2 also get it's wrong. Although the differences highlighting is much, much more clear it still diffs LOCAL against REMOTE which forces you to re-resolve conflicts that Git has already resolved. (Contrast with diffconflicts below.)

(Depending on your Git version it will open two or three windows instead of the default four, but in all cases it unfortunately diffs LOCAL against REMOTE. vimdiff2 is pictured above with :diffoff on the middle pane to showcase both the two-window and three-window results with a single screenshot.)


Lest you think I'm complaining without acting, I wrote a Vim plugin that makes vimdiff perform the way that I describe above. It's called diffconflicts and has a small following. It splits MERGED apart into two files and diffs those two files.

If you contrast it with the two-way diff in the vimdiff section above you can see that Vim automatically resolved the conflicts in the second stanza which is why they're not present in this screenshot. Yes, they are minor conflicts and easy to resolve but the point is that Git already resolved them -- imagine that but applied to conflicts within a large file of source code instead of a simple poem.

The purpose of this post is not to talk about my plugin but rather to try and convince other mergetools to take the same approach. I want to be able to recommend mergetools to coworkers and trainees regardless of which editor they use.

VS Code

So very, very close! A two-way diff between each side of MERGED! Exactly what you'd want to resolve the conflicts.

Unfortunately you must first view the file with the conflict markers, then avoid the temptation to of clicking the easy-buttons that just choose all the changes in one side or the other, and then click the "compare changes" button.

But then tragically it opens the above screenshot as a new, read-only view so you can't actually resolve conflicts in the two-way diff but must instead go back to the file with conflict markers, remember what change you wanted to make, and then make the fix manually.

It could be great if only the two-way diff was the default view and the buffer was editable.


This is a good place to stop reading. If you are interested to read more about such an esoteric topic then you are my kind of weird and we should be friends.

Ten years ago I was inspired by xxdiff to use an "unmerge" script to split a file containing conflict markers into two halves and diff those. I thought it was an obvious approach and other tools would also adopt it. They didn't.

The script eventually expanded to Vim Tips as A better Vimdiff Git mergetool, and (much) later became a standalone Vim plugin called diffconflicts.

I'm a Vim user and so my scripts use vimdiff but this technique should be even more effective in a rich, graphical tool that can more beautifully display a two-way diff in addition to useful surrounding context such as Git log integration and highlighting (not diffing!) LOCAL and REMOTE. There's no comparison between the aesthetics of vimdiff and Sublime Merge. ;-)

There is a script in the diffconflicts repository that generates subtle merge conflicts. It is useful to test Git behavior and compare mergetools.

How does Git generate MERGED?

It is worth asking how much work Git puts into creating the MERGED version of the file to appreciate how much work you lose by instead diffing LOCAL and REMOTE.

(The following snippets are from the Git manpages for version 2.28.0.)

First, find the common ancestor, the merge base, of both branches:

Given two commits A and B, git merge-base A B will output a commit which is reachable from both A and B through the parent relationship.

For example, with this topology:


the merge base between A and B is 1.


Second, trace the history of all the changes to the file between the merge base and the last commit on the branch (including renames):

git merge-file incorporates all changes that lead from the to into .


Then, try to perform the merge:

Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

      A---B---C topic
D---E---F---G master

Then "git merge topic" will replay the changes made on the topic branch since it diverged from master (i.e., E) until its current commit (C) on top of master, and record the result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message from the user describing the changes.

      A---B---C topic
     /	      \
D---E---F---G---H master


But when there is a conflict:

During a merge, the working tree files are updated to reflect the result of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor’s version, non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the file while the other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are incorporated in the final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same area, however, Git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.


Pretty cool. By default (with the recursive merge strategy) it will follow file renames and grab changes from both sides of the merge that don't change the same part of the file. For everything else it will wrap it in conflict markers.

A sophisticated mergetool could perform similar steps given LOCAL, REMOTE, and BASE but it couldn't follow renames, nor could it follow more complex merges like when the merge base is itself a merge (thus the "recursive" strategy name) and it's necessary to follow the ancestry even farther up.

Git also has other merge strategies (resolve, recursive, octopus, ours, subtree) and merge algorithms (patience, minimal, histogram, myers) that can be employed when useful. Some of those algorithms take arguments too (ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol, ignore-cr-at-eol, renormalize, rename-threshold).

So, yes, a mergetool can do some of what Git does. But Git is already a sophisticated and very configurable mergetool. It's just lacking that graphical visualization of the end-result.