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</div> <div id="footer"> <h1>Ogden Area Linux User Group</h1> <h2>X Power Tools (O'Reilly, 0-596-10195-3)</h2> </div> </div> <div class="presentation"> <div class="slide" id="slide0"> <h1 class="title">Ogden Area Linux User Group</h1>

</div> <div class="slide" id="book-review-x-power-tools"> <h1>Book Review: X Power Tools</h1> <table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none"> <col class="field-name" /> <col class="field-body" /> <tbody valign="top"> <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Presenter:</th><td class="field-body">Seth House</td> </tr> <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Date:</th><td class="field-body">2008-03-29</td> </tr> <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Book:</th><td class="field-body">X Power Tools (O'Reilly)</td> </tr> <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">ISBN:</th><td class="field-body">0-596-10195-3</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="slide" id="history"> <h1>History</h1> <p class="handout">Version 11 came out in 1987 under the more liberal MIT license, and a vendor-neutral group called the X Consortium was formed to oversee development. Vendors used X11 sample code a starting point, then tuned specific versions for their specific needs and hardware.</p> <p class="handout">In 1992 a particular implementation, X386, became popular. When it went commercial, a free version was created called XFree86. Most X innovations came from the XFree86 project over the next several years.</p> <p class="handout">Starting around 1996, development stagnated for nearly four years due to internal politics and rigidity in the organization.</p> <p class="handout">Control of X passed from group to group. In 1999 it was passed to The Open Group who formed</p> <p class="handout">Ultimately a license dispute in 2003 caused many key developers to leave the project and move to back to the successor to the X Consortium, forming the Foundation. Development has been fast-paced since then.</p> <p class="incremental">X was born in 1984 at MIT.</p> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li>1987 — Version 11</li> <li>1992 — X386 became popular, gave rise to XFree86</li> <li>1996 — <cite>zzz</cite></li> <li>1999 — formed</li> <li>2003 — Mass exodus to</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="old-x-vs-new-x"> <h1>Old X vs. New X</h1> </div> <div class="slide" id="old-x-1984-1996"> <h1>Old X (1984-1996)</h1> <ul class="simple"> <li>Core protocol development</li> <li>Essential extensions</li> <li>Xt-based toolkits</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="new-x-2000-present"> <h1>New X (2000-present)</h1> <p class="handout">You may have noticed packages in your distro recently got small and numerous. This modularizing of X is a good thing that allows you to selectivly upgrade or change parts of X without having to recompile the whole thing (which is not for the feint of heart).</p> <ul class="simple"> <li>RENDER extension (2000)</li> <li>Xft</li> <li>OpenGL</li> <li>COMPOSE</li> <li>non-Xt toolkits (GTK and qt)</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="the-name-check-the-manpage"> <h1>The Name (Check the manpage!)</h1> <div class="sidebar"> <p class="first sidebar-title">nübs</p> <p class="last">“X Windows” is generally considered used only by beginners, and is frowned on due to possible confusion with Microsoft Windows.</p> </div> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li>X</li> <li>X11</li> <li>X Window System</li> <li>X Version 11</li> <li>X Window System, Version 11</li> </ul> <p class="incremental">Nowadays “Xorg” or “X dot org” is also acceptable.</p> </div> <div class="slide" id="terminology"> <h1>Terminology</h1> <div class="sidebar"> <p class="first sidebar-title">Note</p> <p class="last">The terminology gets tricky if a user has multiple video cards or monitors using Xinerama</p> </div> <dl class="docutils"> <dt>Display</dt> <dd>Generally, the user interface for one person. Keyboard, pointer, video card, and monitor.</dd> <dt>Device</dt> <dd>Video card</dd> <dt>Screen</dt> <dd>Video card and monitor</dd> </dl> </div> <div class="slide" id="display-specification"> <h1>Display Specification</h1> <code>host:display[.screen]</code><p>Set the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$DISPLAY</span></tt> environment variable or pass <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-display</span></tt> to a client.</p> </div> <div class="slide" id="id1"> <h1>Display Specification</h1> <code><strong>host</strong>:display[.screen]</code><dl class="docutils"> <dt>Host</dt> <dd><ul class="first last simple"> <li>A DNS hostname or IP address</li> <li>Blank, or the word <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unix</span></tt></li> <li>(Rarely) DecNET or IPX/SPX designation</li> <li>Open source operating systems use Unix domain sockets for local connections</li> </ul> </dd> </dl> </div> <div class="slide" id="id2"> <h1>Display Specification</h1> <code>host:<strong>display</strong>[.screen]</code><dl class="docutils"> <dt>Display</dt> <dd><ul class="first last simple"> <li>The display number, starting at 0</li> </ul> </dd> </dl> </div> <div class="slide" id="id3"> <h1>Display Specification</h1> <code>host:display[.<strong>screen</strong>]</code><dl class="docutils"> <dt>Screen</dt> <dd><ul class="first last simple"> <li>Optional screen number within the display, starting at 0</li> </ul> </dd> </dl> </div> <div class="slide" id="server-extensions"> <h1>Server Extensions</h1> <dl class="handout docutils"> <dt>Composite</dt> <dd>Off-screen rendering of windows are combined (composited) into the final screen image by hardware under control of a compositing manager. During compositing, images can be distorted, blended, and resized which makes it easy to add drop shadows, transparency, icons, and thumbnails.</dd> <dt>RENDER</dt> <dd>Composite images such as Adobe's Flash player or anti-aliased fonts.</dd> <dt>DPMS</dt> <dd>Displays Power Management Signalling.</dd> <dt>GLX</dt> <dd>OpenGL extension for X11.</dd> <dt>MIT-SCREEN-SAVER</dt> <dd>Informs screen savers when to start and stop.</dd> <dt>RANDR</dt> <dd>Rotate and resize. Notifies clients when the display is changed, and allows hot-plugging of monitors.</dd> <dt>SHAPE</dt> <dd>Enables nonrectangular windows (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xeyes</span></tt>).</dd> <dt>XKEYBOARD</dt> <dd>Enables complex keyboard mapping. The most poorly documented X extension.</dd> <dt>XINERAMA</dt> <dd>Single-screen multimonitor support.</dd> <dt>XVideo</dt> <dd>Allows video streams to be converted, transformed, and then overlaid on the X display. Done with hardware support and can dramatically improve video performance.</dd> <dt>XVideo-MotionComposition</dt> <dd>Utilized hardware support for video decompression—useful for MPEG video playback.</dd> </dl> <table border="1" class="small borderless docutils"> <colgroup> <col width="49%" /> <col width="51%" /> </colgroup> <tbody valign="top"> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>Composite</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>RENDER</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>DAMAGE</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>SECURITY</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>DPMS</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>SHAPE</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>GLX</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>SYNC</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>LBX</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>XINERAMA</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>MIT-BIG-REQUESTS</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>XInputExtension</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>MIT-SCREEN-SAVER</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>XKEYBOARD</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>MIT-SHM</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>XTEST</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>RANDR</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>XVideo</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr><td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>RECORD</li> </ul> </td> <td><ul class="first last simple"> <li>XVideo-MotionComposition</li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="slide" id="starting-a-server-manually"> <h1>Starting a Server Manually</h1> <dl class="incremental docutils"> <dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span> <span class="pre">:1</span> <span class="pre">vt10</span> <span class="pre">-config</span> <span class="pre">CONFIG</span> <span class="pre">-layout</span> <span class="pre">LAYOUT</span></tt></dt> <dd><ul class="first last simple"> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">:1</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vt10</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-config</span> <span class="pre">CONFIG</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-layout</span> <span class="pre">LAYOUT</span></tt></li> </ul> </dd> </dl> <p class="incremental"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span> <span class="pre">:1</span> <span class="pre">-terminate</span> <span class="pre">&amp;</span> <span class="pre">sleep</span> <span class="pre">2;</span> <span class="pre">DISPLAY=:1</span> <span class="pre">xterm</span></tt></p> </div> <div class="slide" id="using-a-display-manager"> <h1>Using a Display Manager</h1> <p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gdm</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">kdm</span></tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xdm</span></tt></p> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li>Usually runlevel 5</li> <li>Starts a local server</li> <li>Authenticates</li> <li>Starts session manager, window manager, and desktop environment</li> <li>Either started by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">init</span></tt> or an init script.</li> <li>Can start multiple servers (automatically or on-demand)</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="config-files"> <h1>Config Files</h1> <p class="handout"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span> <span class="pre">-configure</span></tt> writes to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"></span></tt>.</p> <p class="handout">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xorg.conf-4</span></tt> file is a holdover from the XFree86 3.x to 4.x transition.</p> <p class="handout">The files <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/X11R6/etc/X11/xorg.conf-HOSTNAME</span></tt> are assumed to be on a network share, thus the file name is postfixed with a hostname.</p> <p>Not needed for general configurations. <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span> <span class="pre">-configure</span></tt></p> <ol class="incremental arabic simple"> <li>File specified on the command line (must exist in the directories below)</li> <li>Environment variable <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$XORGCONFIG</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/etc/X11/xorg.conf-4</span></tt> then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/etc/X11/xorg.conf</span></tt> then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/etc/xorg.conf</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/X11R6/etc/X11/xorg.conf-HOSTNAME</span></tt> then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xorg.conf-HOSTNAME</span></tt></li> </ol> </div> <div class="slide" id="xorg-conf-sections"> <h1>xorg.conf Sections</h1> <dl class="handout docutils"> <dt>ServerLayout</dt> <dd><p class="first">Defines how screens and input devices are combined to form a display configuration.</p> <p class="last">Technically, this section is optional for simple configurations.</p> </dd> <dt>Screen</dt> <dd>Combines one video card and one monitor to form a screen. Defines color depth and resolutions.</dd> <dt>Monitor</dt> <dd>Characteristics of the monitor (DPMS, power saving timing, scan-rates).</dd> <dt>Device</dt> <dd>Video card. Driver-specific settings, check your driver’s manpage.</dd> <dt>InputDevice</dt> <dd>One section per mouse, keyboard, etc.</dd> </dl> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li>ServerLayout</li> <li>Screen</li> <li>Monitor</li> <li>Device<ul> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span> <span class="pre">:4</span> <span class="pre">-scanpci</span></tt></li> </ul> </li> <li>InputDevice</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="virtual-screen-size-zooming"> <h1>Virtual Screen Size (Zooming)</h1> <dl class="handout docutils"> <dt>Screen</dt> <dd><p class="first">When changing resolution, only the displayed resolution changes, not the size of the screen image, forming a kind of virtual desktop. This is called Zooming. The virtual screen size does not need to start with the largest resolution.</p> <p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Option</span> <span class="pre">&quot;DontZoom&quot;</span></tt> will disable Ctrl-alt + / -</p> <p class="last">By default the virtual screen size is the largest entry in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Modes</span></tt> entry. You can explicitly define the virtual scren size.</p> </dd> </dl> <pre class="literal-block"> SubSection &quot;Display&quot;

Modes &quot;800x600&quot; &quot;1280x1024&quot; &quot;1024x768&quot; Virtual 1280 1024 Viewport 0 0

EndSubSection </pre> </div> <div class="slide" id="xorg-conf-optional-sections"> <h1>xorg.conf Optional Sections</h1> <ul class="simple"> <li>Extensions (e.g. <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Option</span> <span class="pre">&quot;Composite&quot;</span> <span class="pre">&quot;On&quot;</span></tt>)</li> <li>Files (e.g. <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FontPath</span></tt>)</li> <li>ServerFlags (e.g. zap, zoom, VT switching)</li> <li>Module (typically optional extensions)</li> <li>Mode or ModeLine (scan rates and signal options)</li> <li>DRI (3d-acceleration)<ul> <li>Group (which group the device belongs to)</li> <li>Mode (specifies file permissions for the device)</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="useful-keyboard-shortcuts"> <h1>Useful Keyboard Shortcuts</h1> <ul class="simple"> <li>Zap — Ctrl-alt Backspace</li> <li>Zooming — Ctrl-alt + / -</li> <li>Mouse keys — Shift-numlock<ul> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">5</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/</span></tt> — Left click</li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">*</span></tt> — Middle click</li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-</span></tt> — Right click</li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">+</span></tt> — Double click</li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">0</span></tt> — Hold button</li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.</span></tt> — Release button</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="changing-resolution"> <h1>Changing Resolution</h1> <p class="handout">It’s often more useful to change both the screen resolution and the virtual screen size to eliminate scrolling. The Rotate and Resize (RANDR) extension enables this. You can also easily rotate the display with this tool.</p> <p class="handout">Gnome and KDE both come with applets to access this functionality.</p> <p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xrandr</span> <span class="pre">-q</span></tt>:</p> <pre class="literal-block"> Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 1440 x 900, maximum 1440 x 1024 default connected 1440x900+0+0 0mm x 0mm

1440x900 60.0* 1280x1024 75.0 70.0 60.0 1280x960 60.0 …

</pre> </div> <div class="slide" id="changing-x-settings-on-the-fly-with-xset"> <h1>Changing X Settings on the Fly with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span></tt></h1> <dl class="handout docutils"> <dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">q</span></tt></dt> <dd>Displays mostly settings that can be altered while the server is running such as screen saver and power management timing, keyboard repeat rates (even for individual keys), mouse acceleration, the system bell, and keyboard LED lights (recent versions of do not permit control of numlock and capslock LEDs).</dd> </dl> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">q</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">+dpms</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">-r</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">m</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">b</span></tt> <cite>volume pitch duration</cite></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xset</span> <span class="pre">led</span> <span class="pre">3</span></tt><ul> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Options</span> <span class="pre">&quot;Xleds&quot;</span>&nbsp; <span class="pre">&quot;1</span> <span class="pre">2</span> <span class="pre">3&quot;</span></tt></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="useful-tools"> <h1>Useful Tools</h1> <dl class="handout docutils"> <dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Xorg.0.log</span></tt></dt> <dd>Useful tools for diagnosing X start with the basic <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Xorg.0.log</span></tt> file (and sometimes <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dmesg</span></tt>). The X log file is self-documenting and easy to read.</dd> <dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xpyinfo</span></tt></dt> <dd>To verify that your <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xorg.conf</span></tt> file is being processed correctly, consult the output from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xpyinfo</span></tt>.</dd> <dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gtf</span></tt></dt> <dd>Creates ModeLines.</dd> <dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xmag</span></tt></dt> <dd>Useful for web developers because you can click on any pixel to get the color in 64-bit hexadecimal. (To convert to 24-bit hex just remove the first two digits from each group of four.)</dd> </dl> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Xorg.0.log</span></tt> (and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dmesg</span></tt>)<ul> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xpyinfo</span></tt></li> </ul> </li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xrandr</span> <span class="pre">-q</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Xnest</span></tt><ul> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">startx</span> <span class="pre">/usr/bin/startkde</span> <span class="pre">--</span> <span class="pre">/usr/bin/Xnest</span> <span class="pre">:1</span></tt></li> </ul> </li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gtf</span></tt></li> <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">xmag</span></tt><ul> <li>(3e3e, 4444, a9a9) = #3e44a9</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="the-clipboard"> <h1>The Clipboard</h1> <p class="handout">Because X is network-based the program placing data on the clipboard and the program receiving the data from the clipboard may not be on the same computer. Pasting speed is limited by network performance. Clients advertise clipboard data to other clients through the server. Data that is placed on the clipboard but never pasted is not transfered over the network. For example, Firefox may advertise that clipboard data is available in both <cite>text/plain</cite> and <cite>text/html</cite> formats. This is why clipboard data becomes unavailable once you’ve closed a client program.</p> <ul class="simple"> <li>Clients advertise clipboard data to other clients</li> <li>Multiple formats are advertised if available</li> <li>Pasting speed is limited by network performance</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="fonts"> <h1>Fonts</h1> <p class="handout">A big difference between Old X and New X is the way fonts are handled. The old font system is often called Core Fonts because fonts were handled in the X core protocols—that is, they were managed by the server, new fonts are handled by the client.</p> <ul class="incremental simple"> <li>Core Fonts vs. RENDER, Xft, and Fontconfig</li> <li>Install fonts to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">~/.fonts</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/share/fonts</span></tt> and run fc-cache.</li> <li>Configure font rendering with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/etc/fonts/local.conf</span></tt>.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="slide" id="remote-access"> <h1>Remote Access</h1> <p class="handout">X has been a “portable, network-transparent window system” from day-one, but unless you have a specific need, just use ssh tunneling. ssh provides an enhanced version of it’s regular tunneling ability specifically for X traffic. You can set up password-less ssh using public keys and ssh-agent. An (very) improperly configured X setup can allow users to view your screen over the network.</p> <p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span> <span class="pre">-nolisten</span> <span class="pre">tcp</span></tt> is a PITA.</p> <div class="section" id="just-use-x-tunneling-with-ssh"> <h2>Just use X Tunneling with SSH</h2> <p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ssh</span> <span class="pre">-X</span> <span class="pre">-C</span> <span class="pre">user&#64;host</span> <span class="pre">xeyes</span></tt></p> </div> </div> <div class="slide" id="conclusion"> <h1>Conclusion</h1> <p class="small">The Good</p> <ul class="small simple"> <li>X Power Tools is a great resource for starting to really grasp X.</li> </ul> <p class="small">The Bad</p> <ul class="small simple"> <li>The fonts chapter was far too Gnome and KDE focused.</li> <li>The Session managers, desktop environments, and window managers was very light and didn’t even begin to touch the variety that exists. I still don’t know the difference between a desktop environment and a window manager.</li> </ul> <p class="small">Other notes</p> <ul class="small simple"> <li>There’s a section at the end with tips on configuring X for use as a kiosk system.</li> </ul> <!-- vim:filetype=rst --> </div> </div> </body> </html>