Skip to content


Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

971 lines (866 sloc) 38.098 kB
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "">
<html xmlns="" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<meta name="generator" content="Docutils 0.6:" />
<meta name="version" content="S5 1.1" />
<title>Ogden Area Linux User Group</title>
<meta name="date" content="2009-04-28" />
<style type="text/css">
:Author: David Goodger (
:Id: $Id: html4css1.css 5631 2008-08-24 13:01:23Z goodger $
:Copyright: This stylesheet has been placed in the public domain.
Default cascading style sheet for the HTML output of Docutils.
See for how to
customize this style sheet.
/* used to remove borders from tables and images */
.borderless, table.borderless td, table.borderless th {
border: 0 }
table.borderless td, table.borderless th {
/* Override padding for "table.docutils td" with "! important".
The right padding separates the table cells. */
padding: 0 0.5em 0 0 ! important }
.first {
/* Override more specific margin styles with "! important". */
margin-top: 0 ! important }
.last, .with-subtitle {
margin-bottom: 0 ! important }
.hidden {
display: none }
a.toc-backref {
text-decoration: none ;
color: black }
blockquote.epigraph {
margin: 2em 5em ; }
dl.docutils dd {
margin-bottom: 0.5em }
/* Uncomment (and remove this text!) to get bold-faced definition list terms
dl.docutils dt {
font-weight: bold }
div.abstract {
margin: 2em 5em }
div.abstract p.topic-title {
font-weight: bold ;
text-align: center }
div.admonition, div.attention, div.caution, div.danger, div.error,
div.hint, div.important, div.note, div.tip, div.warning {
margin: 2em ;
border: medium outset ;
padding: 1em }
div.admonition p.admonition-title, div.hint p.admonition-title,
div.important p.admonition-title, div.note p.admonition-title,
div.tip p.admonition-title {
font-weight: bold ;
font-family: sans-serif }
div.attention p.admonition-title, div.caution p.admonition-title,
div.danger p.admonition-title, div.error p.admonition-title,
div.warning p.admonition-title {
color: red ;
font-weight: bold ;
font-family: sans-serif }
/* Uncomment (and remove this text!) to get reduced vertical space in
compound paragraphs.
div.compound .compound-first, div.compound .compound-middle {
margin-bottom: 0.5em }
div.compound .compound-last, div.compound .compound-middle {
margin-top: 0.5em }
div.dedication {
margin: 2em 5em ;
text-align: center ;
font-style: italic }
div.dedication p.topic-title {
font-weight: bold ;
font-style: normal }
div.figure {
margin-left: 2em ;
margin-right: 2em }
div.footer, div.header {
clear: both;
font-size: smaller }
div.line-block {
display: block ;
margin-top: 1em ;
margin-bottom: 1em }
div.line-block div.line-block {
margin-top: 0 ;
margin-bottom: 0 ;
margin-left: 1.5em }
div.sidebar {
margin: 0 0 0.5em 1em ;
border: medium outset ;
padding: 1em ;
background-color: #ffffee ;
width: 40% ;
float: right ;
clear: right }
div.sidebar p.rubric {
font-family: sans-serif ;
font-size: medium }
div.system-messages {
margin: 5em }
div.system-messages h1 {
color: red }
div.system-message {
border: medium outset ;
padding: 1em }
div.system-message p.system-message-title {
color: red ;
font-weight: bold }
div.topic {
margin: 2em }
h1.section-subtitle, h2.section-subtitle, h3.section-subtitle,
h4.section-subtitle, h5.section-subtitle, h6.section-subtitle {
margin-top: 0.4em }
h1.title {
text-align: center }
h2.subtitle {
text-align: center }
hr.docutils {
width: 75% }
img.align-left {
clear: left }
img.align-right {
clear: right }
ol.simple, ul.simple {
margin-bottom: 1em }
ol.arabic {
list-style: decimal }
ol.loweralpha {
list-style: lower-alpha }
ol.upperalpha {
list-style: upper-alpha }
ol.lowerroman {
list-style: lower-roman }
ol.upperroman {
list-style: upper-roman }
p.attribution {
text-align: right ;
margin-left: 50% }
p.caption {
font-style: italic }
p.credits {
font-style: italic ;
font-size: smaller }
p.label {
white-space: nowrap }
p.rubric {
font-weight: bold ;
font-size: larger ;
color: maroon ;
text-align: center }
p.sidebar-title {
font-family: sans-serif ;
font-weight: bold ;
font-size: larger }
p.sidebar-subtitle {
font-family: sans-serif ;
font-weight: bold }
p.topic-title {
font-weight: bold }
pre.address {
margin-bottom: 0 ;
margin-top: 0 ;
font: inherit }
pre.literal-block, pre.doctest-block {
margin-left: 2em ;
margin-right: 2em }
span.classifier {
font-family: sans-serif ;
font-style: oblique }
span.classifier-delimiter {
font-family: sans-serif ;
font-weight: bold }
span.interpreted {
font-family: sans-serif }
span.option {
white-space: nowrap }
span.pre {
white-space: pre }
span.problematic {
color: red }
span.section-subtitle {
/* font-size relative to parent (h1..h6 element) */
font-size: 80% }
table.citation {
border-left: solid 1px gray;
margin-left: 1px }
table.docinfo {
margin: 2em 4em }
table.docutils {
margin-top: 0.5em ;
margin-bottom: 0.5em }
table.footnote {
border-left: solid 1px black;
margin-left: 1px }
table.docutils td, table.docutils th,
table.docinfo td, table.docinfo th {
padding-left: 0.5em ;
padding-right: 0.5em ;
vertical-align: top }
table.docutils th.field-name, table.docinfo th.docinfo-name {
font-weight: bold ;
text-align: left ;
white-space: nowrap ;
padding-left: 0 }
h1 tt.docutils, h2 tt.docutils, h3 tt.docutils,
h4 tt.docutils, h5 tt.docutils, h6 tt.docutils {
font-size: 100% } {
list-style-type: none }
<!-- configuration parameters -->
<meta name="defaultView" content="slideshow" />
<meta name="controlVis" content="hidden" />
<!-- style sheet links -->
<script src="ui/small-black/slides.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="ui/small-black/slides.css"
type="text/css" media="projection" id="slideProj" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="ui/small-black/outline.css"
type="text/css" media="screen" id="outlineStyle" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="ui/small-black/print.css"
type="text/css" media="print" id="slidePrint" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="ui/small-black/opera.css"
type="text/css" media="projection" id="operaFix" />
<style type="text/css">
#currentSlide {display: none;}
<div class="layout">
<div id="controls"></div>
<div id="currentSlide"></div>
<div id="header">
<div id="footer">
<h1>Ogden Area Linux User Group</h1>
<div class="presentation">
<div class="slide" id="slide0">
<h1 class="title">Ogden Area Linux User Group</h1>
<h2 class="subtitle" id="linux-basics">Linux Basics</h2>
<table class="docinfo" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="docinfo-name" />
<col class="docinfo-content" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="docinfo-name">Presenter:</th><td class="field-body">Seth House</td>
<tr><th class="docinfo-name">Date:</th>
<!-- Definitions of interpreted text roles (classes) for S5/HTML data. -->
<!-- This data file has been placed in the public domain. -->
<!-- Colours
======= -->
<!-- Text Sizes
========== -->
<!-- Display in Slides (Presentation Mode) Only
========================================== -->
<!-- Display in Outline Mode Only
============================ -->
<!-- Display in Print Only
===================== -->
<!-- Display in Handout Mode Only
============================ -->
<!-- Incremental Display
=================== -->
<!-- footer: -->
<!-- Outline
* Distro differences
* Fedora, RHEL, CentOS, Mandriva (Mandrake)
* yum (RPM)
* Anaconda (Install from NFS, FTP, HTTP, CDROM and HDD; do automated
installs from Kickstart; perform upgrades of older installs)
* RPM has built-in HIDS, easy to create custom repo with ``createrepo``.
* Kickstart for automating installs
* ``system-config-*`` tools (note: some of these come with Ubuntu) such as
``system-config-printer``, ``system-config-samba``
* Oracle
* SELinux
* Ubuntu, Debian
* apt
* Upgrade without rebooting. “If your sources has 'stable' instead of
'lenny', for example, you'll get it automatically upon release.”
* ‘meta packages’ that bring down several so you don’t have to remember the
individual packages such as the 'build-essential' package package is all
that's needed to install the necessary dependencies for building C/C++
* Four kernels and 15 architectures.
* OpenSUSE
* yast (RPM)
* AppArmor
* Slack, Arch
* slackbuilds / pacman
* simple, vanilla
* excellent for learning
* Gnome vs KDE
* Installation
* Partitioning (quick, Aaron presenting next month)
* Extended partitions or logical & physical volumes
* Resizing volumes
* Swap
* A note about Windows partitions
* File Systems
* File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
* Upgrading (having /home on a separate partition)
* Post-Installation
* Installing Software
* Drivers
* Graphic Cards
* Wireless
* Sound/Volume & Microphones
* Terminal Basics
* Everything is a file!
* 40-year history of working with plain text
* ls cd pwd mkdir rm rmdir cp find touch mv
* more less ed vi emacs head tail
* echo cat grep sort uniq sed awk cut tr split printf
* comm cmp diff patch
* yes test xargs tee
* chmod chown ps su w who
* mail telnet ftp finger ssh
File Utilities
chcon Change file security context (SELinux)
chgrp Changes file group ownership
chown Changes file ownership
chmod Changes the permissions of a file or folder
cp Copies a file or folder
dd Copies and converts a file
df Shows disk free space on filesystems
dir Is exactly like "ls -C -b". (Files are by default listed in columns and sorted vertically.)
dircolors Setup color for ls
install Copies files and set attributes
ln Creates a link to a file
ls Lists the files in a directory
mkdir Creates a directory
mkfifo Makes named pipes (FIFOs)
mknod Makes block or character special files
mktemp Create a temporary file or directory
mv Moves files or rename files
rm Removes (deletes) files
rmdir Removes empty directories
shred Overwrites a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it
sync Flushes file system buffers
touch Changes file timestamps
truncate Shrink or extend the size of a file to the specifed size
vdir Is exactly like "ls -l -b". (Files are by default listed in long format.)
Text utilities
base64 base64 encode/decode data and print to standard output
cat Concatenates and prints files on the standard output
cksum Checksums and count the bytes in a file
comm Compares two sorted files line by line
csplit Splits a file into sections determined by context lines
cut Removes sections from each line of files
expand Converts tabs to spaces
fmt Simple optimal text formatter
fold Wraps each input line to fit in specified width
head Outputs the first part of files
join Joins lines of two files on a common field
md5sum Computes and checks MD5 message digest
nl Numbers lines of files
od Dumps files in octal and other formats
paste Merges lines of files
ptx Produces a permuted index of file contents
pr Converts text files for printing
sha512sum Computes and checks SHA-1, SHA-224/256/384/512 message digest
shuf generate random permutations
sort sort lines of text files
split split a file into pieces
sum Checksums and counts the blocks in a file
tac Concatenates and prints files in reverse
tail Outputs the last part of files
tr Translates or deletes characters
tsort Performs a topological sort
unexpand Converts spaces to tabs
uniq Removes duplicate lines from a sorted file
wc Prints the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
Shell utilities
arch print machine hardware name (same as uname -m)
basename Removes the path prefix from a given pathname
chroot Changes the root directory
date Prints/sets the system date and time
dirname Strips non-directory suffix from file name
du Shows disk usage on file systems
echo Displays a specified line of text
env Displays and modifies environment variables
expr Evaluates expressions
factor Factors numbers
false Does nothing, but exits unsuccessfully
groups Prints the groups of which the user is a member
hostid Prints the numeric identifier for the current host
id Prints real/effective UID and GID
link Creates a link to a file
logname Print the user's login name
nice Modifies scheduling priority
nohup Allows a command to continue running after logging out
pathchk Checks whether file names are valid or portable
pinky A lightweight version of finger
printenv Prints environment variables
printf Formats and prints data
pwd Prints the current working directory
readlink Displays value of a symbolic link
runcon Run command with specified security context
seq Prints a sequence of numbers
sleep Delays for a specified amount of time
stat Returns useful data about an inode
stty Changes and prints terminal line settings
su Run a shell or command with substitute user and group IDs
tee Sends output to multiple files
test Evaluates an expression
timeout Run a command with a time limit
true Does nothing, but exits successfully
tty Prints terminal name
uname Prints system information
unlink Removes the specified file using the unlink function
uptime Tell how long the system has been running
users Prints the user names of users currently logged in to the current host
who Prints a list of all users currently logged in.
whoami Prints the effective userid
yes Prints a string repeatedly * sudo su login passwd
* Configuring Startup Services
* Security
* Dual-booting, Wine, and VirtualBox/VMWare
* Where to Go For Help
* What happens at Boot?
* Init
* Runlevels
* X
* Servers (Headless Machines)
* File Servers (Samba) - Windows File Sharing- -but stable!
* Web Servers
* Print Servers (Cups)
* eBox (Landscape, Spacewalk?) -->
<div class="slide" id="linux-history">
<h1>Linux History</h1>
<p class="handout">The Unix philosophy:</p>
<blockquote class="handout">
The use of plain text for storing data; a hierarchical file system;
treating devices and certain types of inter-process communication as
files; and the use of a large number of software tools, small programs
that can be strung together through a command line interpreter using
pipes, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes
all of the same functionality.</blockquote>
<p class="handout">— <a class="reference external" href=""></a></p>
<p class="handout">The Berkeley Software Distribution, or Berkeley Unix, shared the initial
codebase and design with the original AT&amp;T UNIX. They started releasing
non-AT&amp;T code as open source and ran afoul of AT&amp;T lawyers. The lawsuit was
settled in 1994, largely in BSD’s favor, but the delay slowed BSD adoption
and prompted the creation of Linux.</p>
<p class="handout">GNU began with the goal of making a free software operating system. It also
nearly used the BSD kernel, but was also delayed by the legal hassles.</p>
<p class="handout">Linux began as a desire to run a Unix-like OS on commodity hardware. Linus
has stated that if either the GNU or 386BSD kernels were available at the
time, he likely would not have written his own.</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt>GNU Project</dt>
<dd>1984—GPL, Utilities &amp; libraries</dd>
<div class="slide" id="linux-distributions">
<h1>Linux Distributions</h1>
<p class="handout">Early distributions:</p>
<blockquote class="handout">
Before the first Linux distributions, a would-be Linux user was
required to be something of a Unix expert, not only knowing what
libraries and executables were needed to successfully get the system to
boot and run, but also important details concerning configuration and
placement of files in the system.</blockquote>
<p class="handout">— <a class="reference external" href=""></a></p>
<p class="handout">Yggdrasil last shipped in 1995.</p>
<p class="handout">Slackware was based on SLS, which was not well-maintained. It is the oldest
distribution that is still maintained. Slackware 1.0 came on 24 floppy
disks and was built on top of Linux kernel version 0.99pl11-alpha. Once the
most popular distribution with an install-base probably around 80%, it’s
popularity sharply declined in 1995 with the release of RedHat.</p>
<p class="handout">SUSE is the oldest existing commercial distribution.</p>
<p class="handout">Modern distributions are usually Debian, Gentoo, RPM, or Slackware-based.
Others do exist, however.</p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>H J Lu’s “Boot-root”, MCC Interim Linux, TAMU, SLS</li>
<li>1992—Yggdrasil, the first CD-ROM based distribution</li>
<div class="slide" id="distro-fedora">
<h1>Distro: Fedora</h1>
<p class="handout">Red Hat:</p>
<blockquote class="handout">
<p>Red Hat sponsors the Fedora Project, a community-supported open-source
project which aims to promote the rapid progress of free and
open-source software and content.</p>
<p>Red Hat went public on August 11, 1999, the eighth-biggest first-day
gain in the history of Wall Street.</p>
<p>In 2002, Red Hat introduced the first enterprise-class Linux operating
system: Red Hat Advanced Server, later re-named Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (RHEL). Dell, IBM, HP and Oracle Corporation announced their
support of the platform.</p>
<p class="handout">— <a class="reference external" href=""></a></p>
<p class="handout">If you need enterprise-level features such as Oracle support or SELinux
security, RHEL is the industry standard.</p>
<p class="handout">RPM has built-in intrusion detection.
Easy to create custom repo with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">createrepo</span></tt>.</p>
<p class="handout">Some of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">system-config</span></tt> tools are available in Ubuntu.</p>
<p class="handout">system-config-authentication
<p>Community-run base for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.</p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>“yum” package manager</li>
<li>Anaconda installer (NFS, FTP, HTTP, CDROM, &amp; HDD)</li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">system-config-*</span></tt> tools<ul>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">system-config-samba</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">system-config-printer</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="distro-opensuse">
<h1>Distro: OpenSUSE</h1>
<p class="handout">“The other” enterprise-level distribution from our own Novel in Provo.
Has AppArmor security, although SELinux is arguably replacing it.</p>
<p>“The other” enterprise-level distribution.</p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>“yast” package manager</li>
<div class="slide" id="distro-ubuntu-debian">
<h1>Distro: Ubuntu &amp; Debian</h1>
<p class="handout">Debian supports four different kernels and 15 architectures.</p>
<p class="handout">Arguably the best package manager.</p>
<p class="handout">Debian has a strong reputation for stability.</p>
<p class="handout">Ubuntu has a strong reputation for usability and ease-of-installation.
Ubuntu is a Zulu word meaning “humanity to others”. The Ubuntu philosophy
is “I am what I am because of who we all are.” It was forked from Debian
with the goal of more frequently updated system. Ubuntu has stayed fairly
close to Debian’s philosophy of free (as in freedom) software with the
exception of some proprietary hardware drivers and contributes back to
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>“apt” package manager</li>
<div class="slide" id="distro-slackware-arch">
<h1>Distro: Slackware &amp; Arch</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>“slackbuilds” / “pacman” package manager</li>
<li>Simple &amp; vanilla</li>
<div class="slide" id="distro-kde-vs-gnome">
<h1>Distro: KDE vs. GNOME</h1>
<p class="handout">The creator of KDE was troubled that no applications on Linux looked, felt,
or worked alike. He proposed the formation of not only a set of
applications, but rather a desktop environment, in which users could expect
things to look, feel, and work consistently.</p>
<p class="handout">KDE is an umbrella project for many standalone applications and smaller
projects that are based on KDE technology. These include KOffice, KDevelop,
Amarok, K3b.</p>
<p class="handout">Members of the GNU project were concerned with KDE’s dependence on the then
non-free Qt widget toolkit. It became open source in 1998.</p>
<p class="handout">The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making
things “just work”. During the v2.0 rewrite, many settings were deemed to
be of little or no value to the majority of users and were removed. For
instance, the preferences section of the Panel were reduced from a dialog
of six tabs to one with two tabs.</p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<div class="slide" id="installation">
<p>Install straight from Windows with Wubi</p>
<p><a class="reference external" href=""></a>
<a class="reference external" href=""></a></p>
<div class="slide" id="installation-partitioning">
<h1>Installation: Partitioning</h1>
<p class="handout">This will be quick since Aaron is presenting on this next month.</p>
<p class="handout">Purposes:</p>
<ul class="handout simple">
<li>Separation of the operating system files from user files</li>
<li>Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging</li>
<li>Use of multi booting setups,</li>
<li>Protecting or isolating files, to make it easier to recover a corrupted
file system or operating system installation</li>
<p class="handout">A PC hard disk is divided into at most four, and at least one, primary
partitions. One of these can also be an extended partition. A primary
partition contains one file system.</p>
<p class="handout">A hard disk may contain only one extended partition; which can then be
sub-divided into logical drives.</p>
<p class="handout">Swap space (paging). With kernel 2.6 swap files are just as fast as
<p class="handout">A note about Windows partitions. Windows expects to be on the primary
master partition and will not work otherwise.</p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>Primary partitions, 4 max</li>
<li>Extended partitions, 1 max, subdivided into logical drives</li>
<li>Resizing partitions (non-destructively)<ul>
<li><a class="reference external" href=""></a></li>
<li>Swap partition</li>
<li>Home partition (for easy upgraes)</li>
<li>Windows partition caveat</li>
<div class="slide" id="installation-file-system">
<h1>Installation: File System</h1>
<p class="handout">A big effort in 1996 was started, along with the BSDs, to create a uniform
file system hierarchy for Unix called the File System Hierarchy Standard
(FHS). Most distributions, even those that participated in the formation of
the standard, do not completely conform to the standard.</p>
<dl class="handout docutils">
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/bin</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Essential command binaries that need to be available in single user
mode; for all users.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/boot</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Boot loader files, e.g., kernels, initrd; often a separate partition.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/dev</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Essential devices, e.g., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/dev/null</span></tt>.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/etc</span></tt></dt>
<dd>System-wide configuration files.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/home</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Users' home directories, containing saved files, personal settings,
etc.; often a separate partition.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/lib</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Libraries essential for the binaries in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/bin/</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/sbin/</span></tt>.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/media</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/mnt</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Temporarily mounted filesystems.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/proc</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Virtual filesystem documenting kernel and process status as text files,
e.g., uptime, network.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/root</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Home directory for the root user.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/sbin</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Essential system binaries, not for all users.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/srv</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Site-specific data which is served by the system.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/tmp</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Temporary files. Often not preserved between system reboots.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr</span></tt></dt>
<dd><em>Secondary hierarchy</em> for user data; contains the majority of user
utilities and applications.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/bin</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Non-essential command binaries (not needed in single user mode); for
all users.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/sbin</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Non-essential system binaries; not for all users.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/X11R6</span></tt></dt>
<dd>X Window System, Version 11, Release 6.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/local</span></tt></dt>
<dd><em>Tertiary hierarchy</em> for local data, specific to this host.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/var</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Variable files—files whose content is expected to continually change
during normal operation of the system—such as logs, spool files, and
temporary e-mail files. Sometimes a separate partition.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/var/lib</span></tt></dt>
<dd>State information. Persistent data modified by programs as they run,
e.g., databases, packaging system metadata, etc.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/var/lock</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Lock files. Files keeping track of resources currently in use.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/var/log</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Log files. Various logs.</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/var/spool</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Spool for tasks waiting to be processed, e.g., print queues and unread
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/var/tmp/</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Temporary files to be preserved between reboots.</dd>
<pre class="tiny literal-block">
/ /usr/ /opt
/bin bin /var/
/boot include lib
/dev lib lock
/etc/ sbin log
X11 share mail
/home src run
/lib X11R6 spool
/media local/ tmp
/mnt bin
/proc include
/root lib
/sbin sbin
/srv share
/tmp src
<div class="slide" id="post-install-graphics">
<h1>Post-Install: Graphics</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li>Binary vs. Open Source Drivers</li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">glxinfo</span> <span class="pre">|</span> <span class="pre">grep</span> <span class="pre">direct</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dmseg</span> <span class="pre">|</span> <span class="pre">tail</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Xorg.0.log</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="post-install-wireless">
<h1>Post-Install: Wireless</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ifconfig</span> <span class="pre">-a</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">iwconfig</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics">
<h1>Terminal Basics</h1>
<p class="handout">In Unix, everything, including your hardware devices, is a file.</p>
<p class="handout"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cat</span> <span class="pre">/dev/input/mice</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">hexdump</span> <span class="pre">/dev/input/mice</span></tt></p>
<p class="handout">Small, specific, programs are chained together to produce complex results.</p>
<dl class="handout docutils">
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stdin</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Standard Input</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stdout</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Standard Ouput</dd>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stderr</span></tt></dt>
<dd>Standard Error</dd>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><em>Everything</em> is a file.</li>
<li>40+ years of plain text.</li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stdin</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stdout</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stderr</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics-first-steps">
<h1>Terminal Basics: First Steps</h1>
<p class="handout"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">find</span> <span class="pre">/</span> <span class="pre">-name</span> <span class="pre">*pdf</span></tt>
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">find</span> <span class="pre">/home</span> <span class="pre">-user</span> <span class="pre">joe</span></tt>
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">find</span> <span class="pre">/var/spool</span> <span class="pre">-mtime</span> <span class="pre">+60</span></tt>
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">find</span> <span class="pre">.</span> <span class="pre">-perm</span> <span class="pre">/u+w,g+w</span></tt></p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ls</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">pwd</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mkdir</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rm</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cp</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mv</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">touch</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">find</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics-viewing-files">
<h1>Terminal Basics: Viewing Files</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">less</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">head</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">tail</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cat</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">grep</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics-file-permissions">
<h1>Terminal Basics: File Permissions</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ls</span> <span class="pre">-l</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">chmod</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">chown</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">chgrp</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">sudo</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">su</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics-text-files">
<h1>Terminal Basics: Text Files</h1>
<p class="handout"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cut</span> <span class="pre">-d&quot;:&quot;</span> <span class="pre">-f1</span> <span class="pre">/etc/passwd</span></tt>
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cut</span> <span class="pre">-d&quot;:&quot;</span> <span class="pre">-f7</span> <span class="pre">/etc/passwd</span> <span class="pre">|</span> <span class="pre">uniq</span></tt>
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">paste</span> <span class="pre">-d&quot;,</span> <span class="pre">&quot;</span> <span class="pre">fileone</span> <span class="pre">filetwo</span></tt></p>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">sort</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">uniq</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cut</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">tr</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">paste</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">fmt</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">wc</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">sed</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">awk</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics-combining-utilities">
<h1>Terminal Basics: Combining Utilities</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">|</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&lt;</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&gt;</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&gt;&gt;</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="terminal-basics-misc">
<h1>Terminal Basics: Misc</h1>
<ul class="incremental simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">basename</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dirname</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">uname</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nice</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">uptime</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">who</span></tt></li>
<div class="slide" id="servers">
<p>Running a headless workstation.</p>
<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ssh</span></tt>!</p>
<p><a class="reference external" href=""></a>
<a class="reference external" href=""></a></p>
<div class="slide" id="closing">
<!-- vim:filetype=rst foldmethod=expr foldtext=foldtext()[0\:match(foldtext(),'\:')].'\ '.getline(v\:foldstart+1) foldexpr=getline(v\:lnum)=~'^-\\+$'&&getline(v\:lnum+1)=~'^\\w\\+.*$'&&getline(v\:lnum+2)=~'^-\\+$'?'>1'\:1 -->
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.