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===========================
Ogden Area Linux User Group
===========================
Book Review: X Power Tools
--------------------------
:Presenter: Seth House
:Date: 2008-03-29
:Book: X Power Tools (O'Reilly)
:ISBN: 0-596-10195-3
.. footer:: X Power Tools (O'Reilly, 0-596-10195-3)
History
-------
.. class:: handout
Version 11 came out in 1987 under the more liberal MIT license, and a
vendor-neutral group called the X Consortium was formed to oversee
development. Vendors used X11 sample code a starting point, then tuned
specific versions for their specific needs and hardware.
In 1992 a particular implementation, X386, became popular. When it went
commercial, a free version was created called XFree86. Most X innovations
came from the XFree86 project over the next several years.
Starting around 1996, development stagnated for nearly four years due to
internal politics and rigidity in the organization.
Control of X passed from group to group. In 1999 it was passed to The Open
Group who formed X.org.
Ultimately a license dispute in 2003 caused many key developers to leave
the project and move to back to the successor to the X Consortium, forming
the X.org Foundation. Development has been fast-paced since then.
.. class:: incremental
X was born in 1984 at MIT.
* 1987 — Version 11
* 1992 — X386 became popular, gave rise to XFree86
* 1996 — `zzz`
* 1999 — X.org formed
* 2003 — Mass exodus to X.org
Old X vs. New X
---------------
Old X (1984-1996)
-----------------
* Core protocol development
* Essential extensions
* Xt-based toolkits
New X (2000-present)
--------------------
.. class:: handout
You may have noticed X.org packages in your distro recently got small and
numerous. This modularizing of X is a good thing that allows you to
selectivly upgrade or change parts of X without having to recompile the
whole thing (which is not for the feint of heart).
* RENDER extension (2000)
* Xft
* OpenGL
* COMPOSE
* non-Xt toolkits (GTK and qt)
The Name (Check the manpage!)
-----------------------------
.. sidebar:: nübs
“X Windows” is generally considered used only by beginners, and is frowned
on due to possible confusion with Microsoft Windows.
.. class:: incremental
* X
* X11
* X Window System
* X Version 11
* X Window System, Version 11
Nowadays “Xorg” or “X dot org” is also acceptable.
Terminology
-----------
.. sidebar:: Note
The terminology gets tricky if a user has multiple video cards or monitors
using Xinerama
Display
Generally, the user interface for one person. Keyboard, pointer, video
card, and monitor.
Device
Video card
Screen
Video card and monitor
Display Specification
---------------------
.. raw:: html
<code>host:display[.screen]</code>
Set the ``$DISPLAY`` environment variable or pass ``-display`` to a client.
Display Specification
---------------------
.. raw:: html
<code><strong>host</strong>:display[.screen]</code>
Host
* A DNS hostname or IP address
* Blank, or the word ``unix``
* (Rarely) DecNET or IPX/SPX designation
* Open source operating systems use Unix domain sockets for local
connections
Display Specification
---------------------
.. raw:: html
<code>host:<strong>display</strong>[.screen]</code>
Display
* The display number, starting at 0
Display Specification
---------------------
.. raw:: html
<code>host:display[.<strong>screen</strong>]</code>
Screen
* Optional screen number within the display, starting at 0
Server Extensions
-----------------
.. class:: handout
Composite
Off-screen rendering of windows are combined (composited) into the
final screen image by hardware under control of a compositing manager.
During compositing, images can be distorted, blended, and resized which
makes it easy to add drop shadows, transparency, icons, and thumbnails.
RENDER
Composite images such as Adobe's Flash player or anti-aliased fonts.
DPMS
Displays Power Management Signalling.
GLX
OpenGL extension for X11.
MIT-SCREEN-SAVER
Informs screen savers when to start and stop.
RANDR
Rotate and resize. Notifies clients when the display is changed, and
allows hot-plugging of monitors.
SHAPE
Enables nonrectangular windows (``xeyes``).
XKEYBOARD
Enables complex keyboard mapping. The most poorly documented X
extension.
XINERAMA
Single-screen multimonitor support.
XVideo
Allows video streams to be converted, transformed, and then overlaid on
the X display. Done with hardware support and can dramatically improve
video performance.
XVideo-MotionComposition
Utilized hardware support for video decompression—useful for MPEG video
playback.
.. class:: small
.. class:: borderless
========================= ==========================
* Composite * RENDER
* DAMAGE * SECURITY
* DPMS * SHAPE
* GLX * SYNC
* LBX * XINERAMA
* MIT-BIG-REQUESTS * XInputExtension
* MIT-SCREEN-SAVER * XKEYBOARD
* MIT-SHM * XTEST
* RANDR * XVideo
* RECORD * XVideo-MotionComposition
========================= ==========================
Starting a Server Manually
--------------------------
.. class:: incremental
``X :1 vt10 -config CONFIG -layout LAYOUT``
* ``:1``
* ``vt10``
* ``-config CONFIG``
* ``-layout LAYOUT``
``X :1 -terminate & sleep 2; DISPLAY=:1 xterm``
Using a Display Manager
-----------------------
``gdm``, ``kdm``, or ``xdm``
.. class:: incremental
* Usually runlevel 5
* Starts a local server
* Authenticates
* Starts session manager, window manager, and desktop environment
* Either started by ``init`` or an init script.
* Can start multiple servers (automatically or on-demand)
Config Files
------------
.. class:: handout
``X -configure`` writes to ``xorg.conf.new``.
The ``xorg.conf-4`` file is a holdover from the XFree86 3.x to 4.x
transition.
The files ``/usr/X11R6/etc/X11/xorg.conf-HOSTNAME`` are assumed to be on a
network share, thus the file name is postfixed with a hostname.
Not needed for general configurations. ``X -configure``
.. class:: incremental
1. File specified on the command line (must exist in the directories below)
2. Environment variable ``$XORGCONFIG``
3. ``/etc/X11/xorg.conf-4`` then ``/etc/X11/xorg.conf`` then
``/etc/xorg.conf``
4. ``/usr/X11R6/etc/X11/xorg.conf-HOSTNAME`` then
``/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xorg.conf-HOSTNAME``
xorg.conf Sections
------------------
.. class:: handout
ServerLayout
Defines how screens and input devices are combined to form a display
configuration.
Technically, this section is optional for simple configurations.
Screen
Combines one video card and one monitor to form a screen. Defines color
depth and resolutions.
Monitor
Characteristics of the monitor (DPMS, power saving timing, scan-rates).
Device
Video card. Driver-specific settings, check your driver’s manpage.
InputDevice
One section per mouse, keyboard, etc.
.. class:: incremental
* ServerLayout
* Screen
* Monitor
* Device
* ``X :4 -scanpci``
* InputDevice
Virtual Screen Size (Zooming)
-----------------------------
.. class:: handout
Screen
When changing resolution, only the displayed resolution changes, not
the size of the screen image, forming a kind of virtual desktop. This
is called Zooming. The virtual screen size does not need to start with
the largest resolution.
``Option "DontZoom"`` will disable Ctrl-alt + / -
By default the virtual screen size is the largest entry in the
``Modes`` entry. You can explicitly define the virtual scren size.
::
SubSection "Display"
Modes "800x600" "1280x1024" "1024x768"
Virtual 1280 1024
Viewport 0 0
EndSubSection
xorg.conf Optional Sections
---------------------------
* Extensions (e.g. ``Option "Composite" "On"``)
* Files (e.g. ``FontPath``)
* ServerFlags (e.g. zap, zoom, VT switching)
* Module (typically optional extensions)
* Mode or ModeLine (scan rates and signal options)
* DRI (3d-acceleration)
* Group (which group the device belongs to)
* Mode (specifies file permissions for the device)
Useful Keyboard Shortcuts
-------------------------
* Zap — Ctrl-alt Backspace
* Zooming — Ctrl-alt + / -
* Mouse keys — Shift-numlock
* ``5`` or ``/`` — Left click
* ``*`` — Middle click
* ``-`` — Right click
* ``+`` — Double click
* ``0`` — Hold button
* ``.`` — Release button
Changing Resolution
-------------------
.. class:: handout
It’s often more useful to change both the screen resolution and the virtual
screen size to eliminate scrolling. The Rotate and Resize (RANDR) extension
enables this. You can also easily rotate the display with this tool.
Gnome and KDE both come with applets to access this functionality.
``xrandr -q``::
Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 1440 x 900, maximum 1440 x 1024
default connected 1440x900+0+0 0mm x 0mm
1440x900 60.0*
1280x1024 75.0 70.0 60.0
1280x960 60.0
Changing X Settings on the Fly with ``xset``
--------------------------------------------
.. class:: handout
``xset q``
Displays mostly settings that can be altered while the server is
running such as screen saver and power management timing, keyboard
repeat rates (even for individual keys), mouse acceleration, the system
bell, and keyboard LED lights (recent versions of X.org do not permit
control of numlock and capslock LEDs).
.. class:: incremental
* ``xset q``
* ``xset +dpms``
* ``xset -r``
* ``xset m``
* ``xset b`` `volume pitch duration`
* ``xset led 3``
* ``Options "Xleds" "1 2 3"``
Useful Tools
------------
.. class:: handout
``Xorg.0.log``
Useful tools for diagnosing X start with the basic ``Xorg.0.log`` file
(and sometimes ``dmesg``). The X log file is self-documenting and easy
to read.
``xpyinfo``
To verify that your ``xorg.conf`` file is being processed correctly,
consult the output from ``xpyinfo``.
``gtf``
Creates ModeLines.
``xmag``
Useful for web developers because you can click on any pixel to get the
color in 64-bit hexadecimal. (To convert to 24-bit hex just remove the
first two digits from each group of four.)
.. class:: incremental
* ``Xorg.0.log`` (and ``dmesg``)
* ``xpyinfo``
* ``xrandr -q``
* ``Xnest``
* ``startx /usr/bin/startkde -- /usr/bin/Xnest :1``
* ``gtf``
* ``xmag``
* (3e3e, 4444, a9a9) = #3e44a9
The Clipboard
-------------
.. class:: handout
Because X is network-based the program placing data on the clipboard and
the program receiving the data from the clipboard may not be on the same
computer. Pasting speed is limited by network performance. Clients
advertise clipboard data to other clients through the server. Data that is
placed on the clipboard but never pasted is not transfered over the
network. For example, Firefox may advertise that clipboard data is
available in both `text/plain` and `text/html` formats. This is why
clipboard data becomes unavailable once you’ve closed a client program.
* Clients advertise clipboard data to other clients
* Multiple formats are advertised if available
* Pasting speed is limited by network performance
Fonts
-----
.. class:: handout
A big difference between Old X and New X is the way fonts are handled. The
old font system is often called Core Fonts because fonts were handled in
the X core protocols—that is, they were managed by the server, new fonts
are handled by the client.
.. class:: incremental
* Core Fonts vs. RENDER, Xft, and Fontconfig
* Install fonts to ``~/.fonts`` or ``/usr/share/fonts`` and run fc-cache.
* Configure font rendering with ``/etc/fonts/local.conf``.
Remote Access
-------------
.. class:: handout
X has been a “portable, network-transparent window system” from day-one,
but unless you have a specific need, just use ssh tunneling. ssh provides
an enhanced version of it’s regular tunneling ability specifically for X
traffic. You can set up password-less ssh using public keys and ssh-agent.
An (very) improperly configured X setup can allow users to view your screen
over the network.
``X -nolisten tcp`` is a PITA.
Just use X Tunneling with SSH
`````````````````````````````
``ssh -X -C user@host xeyes``
Conclusion
----------
.. class:: small
The Good
* X Power Tools is a great resource for starting to really grasp X.
The Bad
* The fonts chapter was far too Gnome and KDE focused.
* The Session managers, desktop environments, and window managers was very
light and didn’t even begin to touch the variety that exists. I still
don’t know the difference between a desktop environment and a window
manager.
Other notes
* There’s a section at the end with tips on configuring X for use as a
kiosk system.
.. vim:filetype=rst
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