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uparse - a shift-reduce parser for discontinuous structures

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uparse is a shift-reduce parser for discontinuous structures. It has been developed at the project Grammar Formalisms beyond Context-Free Grammars and their use for Machine Learning Tasks at the Department for Computational Linguistics at the Institute for Language and Information at the University of Düsseldorf, Germany (see The project is sponsored by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The parser code was written by Wolfgang Maier; additional contributions by Daniel Hershcovich (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

If you have questions or comments, please contact Wolfgang Maier (

Quick Start

To build the parser, you need at least Java 8 and Maven 3.3.9 or higher. To build the parser, use mvn clean install, which builds a jar target/uparse.jar in the project root. To run the parser, first generate a parameter file using java -jar uparse.jar -generate. The generated file parameters contains all available options, set to their default values. Each option is documented. The parser is run by passing it the path to the parameter file, i.e., using java -jar uparse.jar parameters.


The parser is described in the following two papers.

Wolfgang Maier (2015): Discontinuous incremental shift-reduce parsing. In: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers), pp. 1202-1212. Beijing, China.

Wolfgang Maier and Timm Lichte (2016): Discontinuous parsing with continuous trees. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Discontinuous Structures in Natural Language Processing, pp. 47--57. San Diego, California.


The parser code is released under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) 3.0 or higher. The parser uses the library fastutil ( ) (Apache License 2.0) and contains code from rparse ( (GPL 2). For the full licenses see , , and


A shift-reduce parser for discontinuous structures







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