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// Copyright (c) 2011 The LevelDB Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file. See the AUTHORS file for names of contributors.
// AtomicPointer provides storage for a lock-free pointer.
// Platform-dependent implementation of AtomicPointer:
// - If the platform provides a cheap barrier, we use it with raw pointers
// - If cstdatomic is present (on newer versions of gcc, it is), we use
// a cstdatomic-based AtomicPointer. However we prefer the memory
// barrier based version, because at least on a gcc 4.4 32-bit build
// on linux, we have encountered a buggy <cstdatomic>
// implementation. Also, some <cstdatomic> implementations are much
// slower than a memory-barrier based implementation (~16ns for
// <cstdatomic> based acquire-load vs. ~1ns for a barrier based
// acquire-load).
// This code is based on atomicops-internals-* in Google's perftools:
// http://code.google.com/p/google-perftools/source/browse/#svn%2Ftrunk%2Fsrc%2Fbase
#ifndef PORT_ATOMIC_POINTER_H_
#define PORT_ATOMIC_POINTER_H_
#include <stdint.h>
#ifdef LEVELDB_CSTDATOMIC_PRESENT
#include <cstdatomic>
#endif
#ifdef OS_WIN
#include <windows.h>
#endif
#ifdef OS_MACOSX
#include <libkern/OSAtomic.h>
#endif
#if defined(_M_X64) || defined(__x86_64__)
#define ARCH_CPU_X86_FAMILY 1
#elif defined(_M_IX86) || defined(__i386__) || defined(__i386)
#define ARCH_CPU_X86_FAMILY 1
#elif defined(__ARMEL__)
#define ARCH_CPU_ARM_FAMILY 1
#endif
namespace leveldb {
namespace port {
// Define MemoryBarrier() if available
// Windows on x86
#if defined(OS_WIN) && defined(COMPILER_MSVC) && defined(ARCH_CPU_X86_FAMILY)
// windows.h already provides a MemoryBarrier(void) macro
// http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms684208(v=vs.85).aspx
#define LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER
// Gcc on x86
#elif defined(ARCH_CPU_X86_FAMILY) && defined(__GNUC__)
inline void MemoryBarrier() {
// See http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc/2003-04/msg01180.html for a discussion on
// this idiom. Also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_ordering.
__asm__ __volatile__("" : : : "memory");
}
#define LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER
// Sun Studio
#elif defined(ARCH_CPU_X86_FAMILY) && defined(__SUNPRO_CC)
inline void MemoryBarrier() {
// See http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc/2003-04/msg01180.html for a discussion on
// this idiom. Also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_ordering.
asm volatile("" : : : "memory");
}
#define LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER
// Mac OS
#elif defined(OS_MACOSX)
inline void MemoryBarrier() {
OSMemoryBarrier();
}
#define LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER
// ARM Linux
#elif defined(ARCH_CPU_ARM_FAMILY) && defined(__linux__)
typedef void (*LinuxKernelMemoryBarrierFunc)(void);
// The Linux ARM kernel provides a highly optimized device-specific memory
// barrier function at a fixed memory address that is mapped in every
// user-level process.
//
// This beats using CPU-specific instructions which are, on single-core
// devices, un-necessary and very costly (e.g. ARMv7-A "dmb" takes more
// than 180ns on a Cortex-A8 like the one on a Nexus One). Benchmarking
// shows that the extra function call cost is completely negligible on
// multi-core devices.
//
inline void MemoryBarrier() {
(*(LinuxKernelMemoryBarrierFunc)0xffff0fa0)();
}
#define LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER
#endif
// AtomicPointer built using platform-specific MemoryBarrier()
#if defined(LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER)
class AtomicPointer {
private:
void* rep_;
public:
AtomicPointer() { }
explicit AtomicPointer(void* p) : rep_(p) {}
inline void* NoBarrier_Load() const { return rep_; }
inline void NoBarrier_Store(void* v) { rep_ = v; }
inline void* Acquire_Load() const {
void* result = rep_;
MemoryBarrier();
return result;
}
inline void Release_Store(void* v) {
MemoryBarrier();
rep_ = v;
}
};
// AtomicPointer based on <cstdatomic>
#elif defined(LEVELDB_CSTDATOMIC_PRESENT)
class AtomicPointer {
private:
std::atomic<void*> rep_;
public:
AtomicPointer() { }
explicit AtomicPointer(void* v) : rep_(v) { }
inline void* Acquire_Load() const {
return rep_.load(std::memory_order_acquire);
}
inline void Release_Store(void* v) {
rep_.store(v, std::memory_order_release);
}
inline void* NoBarrier_Load() const {
return rep_.load(std::memory_order_relaxed);
}
inline void NoBarrier_Store(void* v) {
rep_.store(v, std::memory_order_relaxed);
}
};
// We have neither MemoryBarrier(), nor <cstdatomic>
#else
#error Please implement AtomicPointer for this platform.
#endif
#undef LEVELDB_HAVE_MEMORY_BARRIER
#undef ARCH_CPU_X86_FAMILY
#undef ARCH_CPU_ARM_FAMILY
} // namespace port
} // namespace leveldb
#endif // PORT_ATOMIC_POINTER_H_
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