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Garry Tan - Design for Startups

Welcome to Week Four of Y Combinator Startup School. This is gonna be a great session. We have Gary Tan who is my good friend, former partner at Y Combinator, the founder of Posterous, the founder of Initialized Capital, which is what he's doing now, and an amazing designer who's gonna talk about product design and how to make that an advantage as you're building something people want. Then following Gary we have Kat Manalac who is my current partner at YC and Craig Cannon to talk about how you can use public relations and content to acquire users to improve the prospects of your company. Before we get going, I wanna just mention a few rapid administrative matters.

欢迎来到YCombinator学校的第四周。这将是一个伟大的会议。我们有加里·谭(Gary Tan),他是我的好朋友,也是Y Combinator的前合伙人,是Posterous的创始人,也是他现在正在做的初始化资本(Initiated Capital)的创始人,他也是一位了不起的设计师,他将谈论产品设计,以及如何在你打造人们想要的东西时,让它成为一种优势。然后,我们有Kat Manalac,他是我在YCCraig Cannon目前的合作伙伴,讨论如何利用公共关系和内容,以获得用户,以改善您的公司的前景。在我们开始之前,我只想提几个快速行政问题。

If you miss an update, I know everyone's trying to get their updates in so that they can meet the graduation criteria, do not fear. For now, the easiest thing to do is to send your update in an email to startupschool@ycombinator.com.

如果你错过了一次更新,我知道每个人都在努力获取他们的更新,这样他们才能达到毕业标准,不要害怕。就目前而言,最简单的方法就是通过电子邮件将你的更新发送到startupschool@ycombinator.com

It's okay. Don't panic. Secondly, we have, as many of , just an emerge of a number of your groups. Hopefully, it goes incredibly smoothly for everyone. Certainly it won't.

没关系的。别惊慌。第二,我们和你们中的许多人一样,只是出现了一些你们的团体。希望它对每个人来说都是非常顺利的。当然不会了。

If, for example, there's a problem with your group, if there's no moderator, please let us know soon as you can again to startupschool@ycombinator.com.

例如,如果您的小组有问题,如果没有版主,请尽快通知我们,请再转到startupschool@ycombinator.com

That's the easiest way to do that.

这是最简单的方法。

If for some reason you think you're in the wrong group, it doesn't work for some reason, let us know and we'll accommodate you to the best extent that we can.

如果由于某种原因你认为你在错误的小组,它不工作的原因,让我们知道,我们将尽量容纳你,我们可以。

If you haven't launched, we recommend that you launch, if you at all can.

如果你还没有推出,我们建议你推出,如果你可以的话。

If that sounds like a broken record, it should.

如果这听起来像是破记录,那应该是。

And with that, let's get going.

就这样,我们走吧。

I am hugely pleased to introduce Garry Tan. Thank you.

我非常高兴地向大家介绍。谢谢你。

  • Thank you guys for coming all the way out and spending time with me to hear about design. Well, frankly, design can be incredibly complicated and there's a lot to it, and hopefully, an hour, possibly a little bit longer, we're gonna get through about 100 slides. So I try to cram down basically everything that I knew that founders would get wrong or run into problems with all the time. So it's not going to be super in depth. Think of this as more, these are the terms that you need to know, these are the basic concepts you need to know and personally I am actually self-taught. So the first thing that I really wanted to start off with is actually, I mean it's almost cliche to associate Steve Jobs with design, but I think that this one of the most important things.

谢谢你们大老远来,花时间和我一起听设计。坦白地说,设计可能是非常复杂的,而且它有很多,希望,一个小时,可能更长一点,我们将完成大约100张幻灯片。所以我试着把所有我知道的创始人经常出错或遇到问题的东西都塞进去。所以它不会有很深的深度。想一想,这些是你需要知道的术语,这些是你需要知道的基本概念,而就我个人而言,我实际上是自学的。所以我真正想要开始的第一件事是,把史蒂夫·乔布斯和设计联系起来几乎是陈词滥调,但我认为这是最重要的事情之一。

If you're in this room or watching on the internet, you probably already understand this. This is why you're starting a startup, it's that "Everything around you that you call life "was made up by people that were no smarter "than you and you can change it, "you can influence it and you can build "your own things that other people can use," and Steve says, "Once you learn that, "you'll never be the same again." So the thing I really wanna underscore here is: What is design? It's about making and building these things that other people can use and if you remove one word from that sentence, it actually doesn't work. So what we're gonna explore today is, well, what is design? Why does it matter? We're gonna go deep on both the concepts around product design, interaction design and visual design, but we're also gonna see, tactically, how do you actually do it yourself? Even if you have no design background whatsoever, if you're a human being, if you're smart, if you can put yourself in the shoes of other people, well, you too can do it yourself.In fact, as founders, you probably need to. Then finally we're gonna walk through, well, when should you hire and how should you do it, when should you use a consulting firm, things like that, practical matters. So I spent my 10,000 hours, actually, I was trained as an engineer. So I've never been to school for being a designer, but I taught myself. Whether it's books, learn by doing, I just always found myself, not just in my code editor, but also in Photoshop trying to dream up, trying to figure out, what should it look like? How do I want people to feel? What should I be building before I actually put it to code?So I've been a program manager.I was employee number 10 at Palantir, and then YC funded me back in 2008 with a company called Posterous, which we will actually use as an example for some of how I've thought about product in the past and how you might be able to apply that to your startup in the future.

如果你在这间屋子里或者在网上看,你可能已经明白了。这就是你开始创业的原因,就是“你身边的一切”都是由没有比你聪明的人组成的,你可以改变它,“你可以影响它,你可以建立”你自己的东西,其他人可以使用,“史蒂夫说,”一旦你学会了这一点,“你就再也不会变回原来的样子了。”所以我想强调的是:什么是设计?它是关于制造和建造其他人可以使用的东西,如果你从这个句子中删除一个单词,它实际上是不起作用的。我们今天要探索的是,设计是什么?这有什么关系?我们将深入研究产品设计、交互设计和视觉设计这两个概念,但我们也将看到,在战术上,你自己是如何做到的?即使你没有任何设计背景,如果你是一个人,如果你很聪明,如果你能为别人着想,那么你自己也能做到。事实上,作为创始人,你可能需要这样做。最后,我们将通过,嗯,你应该什么时候雇佣,你应该怎么做,什么时候你应该使用一家咨询公司,诸如此类的事情,实际的事情。所以我花了10,000小时,实际上,我是被训练成一名工程师的。所以我从来没有因为做设计师而去过学校,但我自学了。不管是书,做什么,我总是发现自己,不只是在我的代码编辑器,而且在Photoshop中,试图想象,试图弄清楚,它应该是什么样子?我想让人们有什么感觉?在实际将其编码之前,我应该构建什么?所以我一直是项目经理,我是Palantir公司的10号员工,2008年YC在一家名为Posterous的公司为我提供了资金,我们将以它为例,说明我过去对产品的看法,以及你将来如何将它应用于你的初创公司。

And finally, I spent 10 batches working with companies, initially actually just as designer-in-residence. So I sat here in this room during office hours with more than 1,000 founders, just like you, just starting out, how do I build my first homepage, what's my first-time experience, and then after that, what do I do next, how do I build a design process or product process? So what you're about to see is basically the distilling of those 10,000 hours. One of the things that I am most excited about when it comes to design is this ability to actually sort of put together the iconography of something that is very significant. So when I joined Palantir, it was just 10 people, and we got to design this logo. One of my favorite things about it is this mix of both meaning and aesthetics. So on the face of it, one of the things I really wanted to do was sort of really underscore what Palantir was about. So at one level, this word mark, but with this specific logo, is actually a palantir.It's actually an orb on a pedestal from Lord of the Rings.

最后,我花了10批时间与公司合作,最初只是作为住宅设计师。在办公时间,我和1000多位创始人坐在这里,就像你们一样,刚开始,我如何构建我的第一个主页,我的第一次体验是什么,然后,接下来我要做什么,如何建立一个设计过程或产品流程?所以你将要看到的基本上是10,000个小时的蒸馏。当涉及到设计的时候,我最兴奋的事情之一就是能够把一些非常有意义的东西拼凑在一起。所以当我加入Palantir的时候,只有10个人,我们设计了这个标志。我最喜欢的事情之一是它的含义和美学的混合。所以从表面上看,我真正想做的事情之一就是强调Palantir是关于什么的。因此,在某种程度上,这个单词标记,但这个特定的标志,实际上是一个棕榈,实际上是一个圆球在一个基座上的指环王。

It let you see into your enemies' secrets. So on a very literal level, it made sense, but a more subtle level of this that was very important to us as we were building that company was that this is also a human reading a book. So one of the major themes of Palantir broadly is that we're at this moment in society where computers are able to help us understand the world around us in a much more fundamental way, so what a computer is is basically the infinite book. So that was just one example where I've seen design actually will help put together a culture for a company, and it's fun.It's just fun to be able to translate all of these different pieces of a company and why we're here, what it's about to something that can go on a T-shirt on a hat, actually. So really, really big disclaimer: I'm an engineer by training.

它能让你洞察敌人的秘密。所以从字面上看,这是有意义的,但是在我们建立公司的过程中,对我们来说非常重要的一个更微妙的层面是,这也是人类在阅读一本书。所以,Palantir的主要主题之一是,在这个社会中,计算机能够帮助我们以更基本的方式理解我们周围的世界,所以计算机基本上就是一本无穷无尽的书。这只是我见过的一个例子,设计可以帮助公司建立一种文化,而且很有趣。能够翻译公司的所有不同部分,以及我们为什么会在这里,实际上,它会在帽子上的T恤上出现,这是很有趣的一件事。所以真的,非常大的免责声明:我是一名经过培训的工程师。

I've never went to school, never went to school formally for this stuff, totally self-taught, was a founder, so I applied this, just like you.I did it myself, and now I'm a VC basically by accident. So the things that I'm talking about today will be a hyper simplification.

我从来没有上过学,也没有为这些东西正式上学,完全自学,是个创办人,所以我就像你一样应用了这个,我自己做的,现在我基本上是个风投,基本上是偶然的。所以,我今天要说的事情将是一个过度的简化。

If we wanted to, we could turn this into easily a 10-week course just about each given section, but instead what I want this to be is a roadmap. So you might hear these terms. There will be times in your startup, like perhaps now, perhaps tomorrow that you'll wanna actually start applying these things. Google's your friend. Everything in the world that you need to know, it's out there. So the computer is truly the bicycle for the mind. So the other thing that I really wanna underscore is we talk about design as a singular thing on its own, but it truly is deeply integrated in this broader picture of how do you create great products? It's not just design on its own.It's how design actually interfaces with all the other pieces of the pie. So it takes great product management, in addition to that great design and engineering and customer support.It's all of these things, and especially at your stage, don't box yourself in. You have to know that you are the shepherd of your product and you're gonna have to do every single one of these things. So what is design? Why does it matter? In a nutshell, it really is just these two very simple things to me.

It's just creating things for users that work well, and delight them, and those are two, sometimes disparate things as we'll see. Some of the most inspiring companies to me in the world, they have design as a very core piece of what they do. So can't talk about design without talking about Steve Jobs and Apple, obviously, but the first misconception that is probably the most common misconception is that design is how it looks.

它只是为用户创造了一些有用的东西,让他们感到高兴,这是两个,有时是完全不同的东西,我们会看到的。对我来说,世界上一些最鼓舞人心的公司,他们把设计作为他们所做的事情的核心部分。很明显,如果不谈论史蒂夫·乔布斯(SteveJobs)和苹果(Apple),就不能谈论设计,但第一个误解可能是最常见的误解,那就是设计是看上去的样子。

It truly is not merely how it looks.

它真的不仅仅是看起来的样子。

It is actually also how it works, and that's why in the slides that are coming up we're gonna talk a lot about that process on: how it works, what should it do, and what are the problems? I like to think about Leica and I just got my first Leica camera and I kinda can't believe I waited this long in my life to finally get one, but one of the really interesting things about Leica as a brand, it truly is this beautiful design, this incredible brand, but then it is also functional.

事实上,这也是它的工作原理,这也是为什么在接下来的幻灯片中,我们将谈论很多关于这个过程的内容:它是如何工作的,它应该做什么,问题是什么?我喜欢想莱卡,我刚买了我的第一台莱卡相机,我真不敢相信我等了这么长时间才终于买到一台,但是作为一个品牌,莱卡真正有趣的地方之一就是这个漂亮的设计,这个不可思议的品牌,但它也很实用。

It's also about deeply the functionality: why is this thing better than all the other things that existed before it? So a review from 1929 actually just straight up told you that. A Leica at that time was basically magical.It was eight times lighter and 10 times cheaper.

它也是关于功能的:为什么这个东西比它之前存在的所有东西都要好呢?所以1929年的一篇评论实际上是直接告诉你的。当时的莱卡基本上是神奇的,轻了八倍,便宜了十倍。

It was an incredible machine for its time, and it's still a pretty amazing machine. To other physical products as well, one of the great design inspirations for me and for a lot of other people out there is actually Dieter Rams who built all of these very simple, incredibly beautiful products that were incredibly usable. One of the most important things that I think that he really showed us in his designs is that a good design is actually as little design as possible, so minimalism, and so that's a point that we'll return to several times in this presentation, but the key thing here is, how do you create things that are not burdened with non-essentials? It really is about purity, about simplicity. Just to drive it home, I mean this is a guiding sort of force and sort of everything that we see in the marketplace today. History doesn't repeat, it rhymes, and another theme that we'll get back to in this talk is actually simply the fact that there's very little totally new under the sun.

这是一个令人难以置信的机器的时代,它仍然是一个相当惊人的机器。对于其他实物产品来说,对我和很多其他人来说,最伟大的设计灵感之一就是DieterRams,他建造了所有这些非常简单,非常漂亮的产品,这些产品都是非常有用的。我认为他在设计中真正展示给我们的最重要的事情之一是,一个好的设计实际上是尽可能少的设计,所以极简主义,所以这一点我们将在这个演讲中重复几次,但这里的关键是,你如何创造那些不需要负担的东西呢?它真的是关于纯洁,简单。我的意思是,这是一种指导性的力量,也是我们今天在市场上看到的一切。历史不会重演,它会押韵,我们在这篇演讲中会讲到的另一个主题其实就是,在阳光下几乎没有什么全新的东西。

In fact, as designers, you probably shouldn't be spending too much time trying to be extremely novel because novelty is the opposite of functionality. So what do I mean by that? Earlier we talked about form versus function in the form of delight and works well. These are sort of the two yin and yang, the opposing forces when you're trying to put together a design. We obviously always want something to be beautiful, want something to make you feel good, make the user feel good, but at the same time, and delight is also a part of novelty.

事实上,作为设计师,你可能不应该花费太多的时间试图变得非常新颖,因为新奇是功能的对立面。我这么说是什么意思?早些时候,我们讨论了形式与功能的形式喜悦,并运作良好。这些都是阴阳两种不同的力量,当你试图组合一个设计的时候,这是对立的力量。很明显,我们总是想要一些美丽的东西,想要一些东西让你感觉很好,让用户感觉很好,但同时,快乐也是新奇的一部分。

It's the, "Hey, this is new. "I've never seen this before. "This is interesting." We wanna see more of this, like, "Let me turn the page. "Let me click next," but at the same time, function is the thing that, that's the steak.

这是,“嘿,这是新的。”我从没见过这个。“这很有趣。” 我们想看到更多的东西,比如,“让我翻开新的一页”,“让我点击下一步”,但同时,功能就是牛排。

If delight is the sizzle, then works well as the steak.

如果快乐是甜的,那就和牛排一样好用。

That's why we're here. We're trying to get something done. So part of the problem with form over function, and this actually happens even in the best products.

所以我们才来这儿。我们是想做点什么。所以这是形式上的函数问题的一部分,即使在最好的产品中也是如此。

I mean I'd like to call out Apple for its notch.

我的意思是,我想把苹果公司的地位说出来。

I mean that is the definition of form over function.

我的意思是,这就是形式大于功能的定义。

I mean this is a photo from their marketing website and certainly it's incredibly novel, certainly it serves the purpose of a marketer to be able to have this very novel different thing and to differentiate it from all of these other smart phones out there. But in terms of function, when I'm watching a video, this is categorically worse.

我的意思是,这是他们的营销网站上的一张照片,当然,它非常新颖,这当然是一个营销人员的目的,能够拥有这个非常新颖的不同的东西,并将它与所有其他智能手机区分开来。但就功能而言,当我看视频的时候,这绝对是更糟糕的。

I'm not here for the notch.

我不是来找麻烦的。

I'm here for the content, and this happens all over the place. You might go to a restaurant later tonight and it's a beautiful restaurant, incredibly well decorated, very very thoughtful, incredible food, but you'll walk in and you'll sit down at this seat, and "Gosh, it's so romantic, "but I really can't read my menu. "I can't even order." This is again an example of form, this idea of, "Well, we wanna make people feel like this "is a romantic, premium, incredible experience, "but then if I can't even read the menu, why am I here?" This happens all the time.

我来这里是为了内容,这件事到处都是。今晚些时候,你可能会去一家餐馆,这是一家漂亮的餐厅,装饰得非常好,非常周到,美味的食物,但你会走进来,坐在这个座位上,“天啊,太浪漫了”,但我真的看不懂我的菜单。“我甚至不能点菜。”这又是一个形式的例子,这个想法,“嗯,我们想让人们有这样的感觉”是一个浪漫的,高级的,难以置信的体验,但是如果我连菜单都看不懂,我为什么会在这里?“这种事时时刻刻都会发生。

I mean one of my favorite books that I highly recommend that you read is Don Norman's Design of Everyday Things and he basically has a whole chapter about this on doors that are incredibly beautiful, but you have no idea how to use them. So this is one of the more absurdsituations of like someone actually had to write pull on this thing because too many people could not figure out how to use a door. A door is one of the simplest things that you could possibly try to use. But when you put form over function, if you put the wrong door or it's too elegant, it's not clear how you use it, well, that's missing the point. So if you take a moment and try to think through, like why is it that we see form over function so much in the things we use, the products we use, just walking around in our daily lives? Why does this happen? Clearly, this should not happen.

我的意思是,我最喜欢的书之一,我强烈推荐你读的是唐·诺曼的“日常用品设计”,他基本上有整整一章是关于门的,非常漂亮,但你不知道如何使用它们。所以这是一种更荒谬的情况,就像有人不得不写拉这个东西,因为有太多的人想不出怎么用门。门是你可以尝试使用的最简单的东西之一。但是当你把形式放在功能之上时,如果你放错了门,或者它太优雅了,你就不清楚你是如何使用它的,嗯,这是没有重点的。所以,如果你花点时间想一想,比如,为什么我们在日常生活中看到形式在我们使用的东西,我们使用的产品,只是在我们的日常生活中走来走去的功能如此之多?这一切为什么要发生?显然,这是不应该发生的。

It's that form should follow function and deep down I really wanna emphasize the one thing that frankly as founders I think you need to spend a lot of time on, and that's empathy. This is the thing that I admire. One of the things that I admire the most about my time both working at YC, but also as a founder going through Y Combinator back in 2008, it was the sitting down with Paul Graham. He would give us such incredible advice about specifically, what are your users thinking? What are they feeling? Why are they here? Really being able to peel away the layers of like, I know we're sitting in a room looking at this particular UI but put yourself in the shoes of someone who has never seen this before, and this is something we'll come back to again and again. One of the things that I put actually in my recommendations for design resources, and on its face it's kind of absurd, this is a Depression era book written by Dale Carnegie, a self-help book, but I actually think that it should basically be required reading for founders, it's that one must actually become genuinely interested in other people. You actually have to see their point of view. You wanna be able to be sympathetic, like understand: What are their ideas? What do they understand?What do they actually want? This goes back to YC itself. The first day you get into YC, you get a T-shirt that says, "Make something people want." I don't know if they still do this. Do you still get a T-shirt if you get an exit that says, "I made something people want?" Yes, I need to get mine, by the way Oh shoot, okay. Maybe that's why I haven't gotten mine yet, okay. So one of the things that's really interesting about building highly technological products is that we often think about them as incredibly complicated machinery, but the most useful mental model for me in what I've been doing is actually to not think of it as building a car or even building a website or writing software or anything like that.

这种形式应该遵循功能,在内心深处,我真的想强调的是,坦率地说,作为创始人,我认为你需要花很多时间在这上面,那就是移情。这是我钦佩的东西。我最佩服的事情之一是我在YC工作的时候,也是作为一位创始人,在2008年经历了Y Combinator,那就是和保罗·格雷厄姆坐在一起。他会给我们这样令人难以置信的建议,特别是,你的用户在想什么?他们有什么感觉?他们为什么在这里?我知道我们坐在一个房间里看着这个特别的UI,但是把你自己放在一个从来没有见过这个界面的人的鞋子里,这是我们会一次又一次回到过去的事情。我在设计资源的建议中提到了一件事,从表面上看,这有点荒谬,这是戴尔卡内基写的一本萧条时代的书,一本自助书,但我实际上认为它应该是创始人必须要读的书,那就是一个人必须真正地对其他人感兴趣。你得看看他们的观点。你想要有同情心,比如理解:他们的想法是什么?他们明白些什么?他们到底想要什么?这要追溯到YC本身。当你进入YC的第一天,你就会得到一件T恤,上面写着“做一些人们想要的东西。”我不知道他们是否还会这么做。如果你有一个出口,上面写着“我做了人们想要的东西”,你还能买到T恤吗?是的,我得去拿我的,顺便说一句,哦,天哪,好吧。也许这就是为什么我还没拿到我的,好吗。所以制造高科技产品最有趣的事情之一就是我们经常认为它们是非常复杂的机器但对我来说最有用的心理模型实际上是不把它想成是造一辆车甚至是建一个网站或者写软件之类的。

It's actually about throwing the best possible party you possibly can. So if you think about great parties you've been to, there's no line, you're ushered right in, a human being, ideally someone you know, someone who's very friendly comes to you and says, "Hey, welcome. "I'm so glad you're here. "Here are your friends. "Oh, let me take your coat. "Beers are over here," and so that sort of politeness, that inviting welcome nature, that thoughtfulness, that's something that you really have to keep in mind as you do your work as not just as a designer, but as a founder. The key piece here is actually knowing what problem you're actually solving, just being very crystal clear and this is sort of, if I'm starting to sound like a sort of, if I'm repeating myself, I mean that in a nutshell is I think what you're going to get over and over again at Startup School is that really how do we be as crisp as possible about here's the problem that we need to solve. This is sort of the core tenet of design thinking as well. So part of the problem with not knowing what your problem is and going back to lack of empathy and going back to basically form over function is that if you don't know who that user is, what their problem is, then you are in danger of creating something like this. Basically each of these do sort of talk about a particular pr-od, they refer to a particular problem that someone might have, but if you buy any of these products and you have that problem you're trying to solve, now you have two problems.

这实际上是药尽你所能举办最好的派对。所以,如果你想到你去过的伟大的派对,没有排队,你被引入了,一个人,理想的一个你认识的人,一个非常友好的人来到你身边,说:“嘿,欢迎你。”我很高兴你在这里。“这是你的朋友。”哦,让我帮你拿外套。“啤酒就在这里,”所以那种礼貌,那种受欢迎的自然,那种体贴,这是你在做你的工作时必须记住的事情,不仅仅是作为一个设计师,而是作为一个创建者。这里的关键是知道你实际上在解决什么问题,非常清楚,如果我开始听起来像某种,如果我在重复,我的意思是,简单地说,我认为你在创业学校要一遍又一遍地说,我们应该如何尽可能清晰地解决这一问题,这是我们需要解决的问题。这也是设计思想的核心原则之一。所以,当你不知道你的问题是什么,回到缺乏移情状态,回到基本的超越功能的状态时,问题的一部分是,如果你不知道用户是谁,他们的问题是什么,那么你就有可能创建这样的东西。基本上,这些产品中的每一个都会谈到某个特定的产品,它们指的是某个人可能会遇到的特定问题,但如果你购买了这些产品中的任何一个,而你又遇到了你想要解决的问题,那么现在你就有了两个问题。

If anything, each one of these inventions were created mainly to serve the central problem of the inventor, of the inventor wanting something tosolve. So this is the opposite. Again, just to give more examples, this is the opposite of empathy. This is you putting novelty, putting one's own interest ahead of your users, of society, of the people around you. So at the end of the day, if there's no problem, then there's no solution.

如果说有什么的话,那么这些发明中的每一项都主要是为了解决发明者的中心问题,即发明者想要解决的问题。这正好相反。再一次,为了给出更多的例子,这是移情的反面。这就是你把新奇,把自己的利益放在你的用户,社会,和你周围的人的利益之上。最后,如果没有问题,那就没有解决办法。

It ends up being design for its own sake, and design for its own sake isn't design.It's art. There's nothing wrong with art, I love art, but that's not what we're here for actually.It's founders creating things that people don't actually need, or engineers do this too. We make stuff that we think we need and then actually it's not better, it's not novel, it's not something that other people actually want, and that's a problem. So there are so many types of design.

它最终是为了自己而设计的,而为自己而设计的不是设计,而是艺术。艺术没有什么问题,我喜欢艺术,但这并不是我们来这里的真正目的,而是创始人创造了人们实际上不需要的东西,或者工程师也这样做。我们制造我们认为我们需要的东西,但实际上它不是更好,不是新奇,不是别人真正想要的东西,这是一个问题。所以有很多种设计。

It's no mistake that some of the most obvious examples of companies are design-driven. They're actually hardware companies. There are as many kinds of design as types of things that humans need.

毫无疑问,一些最明显的公司例子是设计驱动的。他们实际上是硬件公司。设计的种类和人类所需要的东西的种类一样多。

It's no mistake by that. Architecture is absolutely a form of design. Branding and identity, communication design, being able to communicate something using data and iconography, or maps, or charts. Furniture design, a piece of furniture easily has all the same mechanisms as anything else that a human being might use. Landscape design. How does someone go into a place? How do they use it? Where do they know where to go? Packaging. So how does this make me feel when this arrives at my doorstep, if this is a gift? Why is there a gift box, anyway? What is the form and function of each piece of this physical object, or transportation design. A car is one of the most evocative things.

这是毫无疑问的。建筑绝对是一种设计形式。品牌和身份,沟通设计,能够用数据和图像,地图或图表来交流一些东西。家具设计,一件家具很容易拥有与人类可能使用的任何其他东西相同的机制。景观设计。一个人怎么进入一个地方?他们是怎么用的?他们知道去哪里?包装。那么,如果这是一份礼物,那么当这件礼物来到我的门前时,我会有什么感觉呢?为什么会有礼盒呢?这个实物的每一件东西,或者运输设计的形式和功能是什么?汽车是最令人印象深刻的东西之一。

It's almost entirely pure emotion, but for the people in this room, I think that these are probably the ones that are most relevant to you and we're gonna spend a bunch of time talking about that. So this is again an extreme oversimplification, but the way I would break it down in terms of design for startups really is, product design, so what's the problem and who's it for, interaction design, so how do we actually do that, how do I actually create wireframes, create the flows, create the sort of intermediate step between that and the pixel-perfect ready-to-go ready-to-implement thing, and the visual design actually really is about that last mile. Part of the reason why we divide this up this way, to be frank, the ideal is that you have a co-founder on your team who's able to do all of these, and then if they can code, that's amazing.

这几乎完全是纯粹的情感,但对于在座的人来说,我认为这些可能是与你们最相关的,我们将花大量的时间来讨论这个问题。这也是一种极端的过度简化,但我把它分解为初创企业的设计的方式实际上是,产品设计,那么问题是什么,是谁的问题,交互设计,那么我们如何真正做到这一点,我如何实际创建假肢,创建流程,在这个和像素之间创建一个中间步骤-完美的准备-准备好-去实现东西,而视觉设计实际上就是最后的一英里了。坦率地说,我们之所以把这一切分开的部分原因是,你的团队中有一个联合创始人,他能够做到所有这些,如果他们能编码,那就太棒了。

If they can do business too, that'sincredible, but that's obviously a unicorn. Unicorns are incredibly rare, they do exist, though, and I'm sure there are a few unicorns in this room as a matter of fact and certainly quite a few are watching online. So shout out to the unicorns in the room. So part of it is you will find very specific people who have experience and who are extremely good usually at one of these things.

如果他们也能做生意,那太不可思议了,但那显然是独角兽。独角兽是非常罕见的,虽然它们确实存在,但我相信这个房间里确实有一些独角兽,事实上,也有相当多的独角兽在网上观看。所以对房间里的独角兽大喊大叫。因此,其中的一部分是,你会发现非常具体的人谁有经验,谁是非常好,通常在这些事情之一。

If you can find someone who's good at a few of them, you're really, really blessed. Man, if you can find someone who can do all of those things, immediately make them a co-founder, but only if you've known them for a while. So going back to the overall product process, I mean there is sort of a sequential aspect to it. Truly, you start with product design. Each of these, it really is a little bit of a water flow sometimes. You really can't start interaction design without actually capturing requirements, and then finally, of course, engineering.

如果你能找到一个擅长其中几个的人,你真的,真的很幸运。伙计,如果你能找到一个能做所有这些事情的人,立刻让他们成为联合创始人,但前提是你已经认识他们一段时间了。所以回到整个产品过程,我的意思是它有一个连续的方面。真的,你从产品设计开始。每一个,它真的是一个小水流有时。如果没有实际捕获需求,当然,最终也不能开始交互设计。

Ideally you're kind of in conversation all the way through, but engineering and actually implementation, often that is something that happens afterwards. So let's dig in a little bit to product design. So what's funny is I'm cheating a little bit here.

理想情况下,你一直在交谈,但是工程和实际的实现,通常是事后发生的事情。让我们深入研究一下产品设计。有趣的是我在这里作弊了。

I am actually mashing product management into this, but to me, I actually just can't do, I can't do the design process without doing this part. So it really is thinking about the business case: What's the problem? Who has the problem? What are all the possible ways to solve the problem and what's the actual priority for each of those parts? So indulge me.

我实际上是在把产品管理混在一起,但对我来说,我真的做不到,我不能不做这个部分来完成设计过程。所以它真的在思考商业案例:问题出在哪里?谁有问题?解决问题的所有可能方法是什么,这些部分的实际优先级是什么?所以请原谅我。

I know this isn't exactly formally a part of design.

我知道这不是正式设计的一部分。

I just don't know how you could possibly do design without doing this part too, and every single one of these things has a fairly specific deliverable. So in this case, the deliverable here is a PRD, a product requirement, document or you can also call it a spec. So the interesting thing is, there's not really one way to do product design just as, you can call this product management. Microsoft calls it program management, and then some organizations sort of de-emphasize some of this stuff and they just call it project management, but the project manager still actually has to think throughall of these things. So the labels matter less. The fact that you do them matters a lot more. So this is actually the actual content of my YC application from basically January of 2008 or I think it was February. You really do sort of have to start with a problem statement.

我只是不知道你怎么可能做设计而不做这个部分,而每一个这些事情都有一个相当具体的交付。所以在这种情况下,这里的交付品是一个PRD,一个产品需求,文档或者你也可以称之为规范。所以有趣的是,没有真正的一种方法来做产品设计,就像,你可以把这个叫做产品管理。微软称它为程序管理,然后一些组织不强调这些东西,他们只称它为项目管理,但是项目经理仍然需要考虑所有这些事情。所以标签就不那么重要了。你这么做更重要。这实际上是我的YC应用程序的实际内容,从2008年1月开始,或者我认为是2月份。你真的需要从问题陈述开始。

What we were trying to solve is this ability to post online. We looked at online services at the time. Blog platforms have been out for a while, but they're pretty stale, actually, and the iPhone was brand-new, and then we looked at email as sort of this universal way to get content online. We thought this is a novel, different way to actually do it. So one of the most valuable things that you can do once you have that problem statement is actually to think through: Who are these very very specific people who have this problem? So I'm gonna use Posterous as an example to walk you through personas. So personas are just one tool for designers or product people to think through who are these very very specific people, and it's just a tool. There's not really one way to do this either, but this is what we did. We thought about our users really as three different types: David, the dad, is sort of one of them. We kind of wanna identify them as specific human beings. This is a very abridged version that you might do. Sometimes you fill them in on back story, like what school did they go to or what kinda family did they grow up in or very specific things like what type of phone do they use or what type of computer do they use? Back then it was, did they use Internet Explorer or did they use Chrome? Did they use, I'm not sure if Safari was even out yet.

我们想要解决的是这种在线发布的能力。当时我们查看了在线服务。博客平台已经发布了一段时间,但实际上它们已经很陈旧了,iphone是全新的,然后我们把电子邮件作为一种普遍的在线获取内容的方式。我们认为这是一部小说,实际上是另一种方式。因此,一旦你有了问题陈述,你能做的最有价值的事情之一就是思考清楚:这些有这个问题的非常具体的人是谁?所以我要以波斯特为例,向你介绍人物角色。因此,人物角色只是一个工具,供设计师或产品人员考虑这些非常具体的人,这只是一个工具。也没有一种方法可以做到这一点,但这就是我们所做的。我们认为我们的用户实际上是三种不同的类型:David,爸爸,就是其中之一。我们想确认他们是特定的人类。这是一个非常简略的版本,您可以这样做。有时你给他们讲故事,比如他们上什么学校,他们成长在什么样的家庭,或者非常具体的事情,比如他们用的是什么类型的电话,或者他们用的是哪种类型的电脑?那时候,他们是用IE还是用Chrome?他们用了吗,我不确定Safari是不是还没出来。

What do they use for email? What type of technology? What level of comfort with technology do they have? So that will actually help you a lot when you're making decisions about, well what are you trying to do and what are the features that really matter? Another persona we had was actually David's family. So we captured this in the form of Grace, the Grandma. Some of this is actually intention as well. She's a little bit less, she uses an Asus Netbook. She uses Hotmail. She doesn't really understand exactly how to use it. Part of the reason why this is incredibly important is thinking through both modality and level of comfort with technology is often some of the most important things.

他们用来发电子邮件的是什么?什么样的技术?他们对科技有多大的舒适感?所以当你做决定的时候,这会对你有很大的帮助,你想做什么,什么是真正重要的特性?我们的另一个角色就是大卫的家人。所以我们以格蕾丝奶奶的形式抓住了这个。其中一些实际上也是意图。她稍微少了一点,她用的是华硕的上网本。她用Hotmail。她不太懂怎么用它。这一点非常重要的部分原因是,通过技术来思考方式和舒适程度往往是最重要的事情之一。

You guys, some of you in this room are actively thinking about building things for totally late-adopter industries. Some of the best YC companies in the past five years have been, they're being deployed to construction, to global freight. So if you walk into any office in the world, you're gonna find some tech savvy people, but not a lot. So even for enterprise companies or B2B companies in the room, these personas, it's still a very valuable exercise because it makes it very clear. You might have your decision maker, you might have your executive, and then you might have your line-level worker and their capabilities with, their motivations, why they're here, they might be very different. Finally, we also had, this is the dawning of social media, sort of the Cambrian era of social networks and so it wasn't clear that Twitter was going to win yet. There were sort of a dozen different social networks that were happening, and so this was another persona. She had very specific needs, and so we're trying to build something for her as well. So one of the things you really do have to do as you think through a sprint, whether it's the next two weeks or the next month, the shorter the better, frankly. A PRD document basically will detail, "Here are the actual features "of what we're trying to build," and so there's not really one way to do it. You just try to bucket them into coherent features that make sense. So in our case, one way to do it for us would be post by email with plaintext.

你们这些家伙,在座的一些人正在积极地考虑为那些完全是后来者的行业建设一些东西。在过去的五年里,一些最好的YC公司已经被部署到建筑业和全球货运部门。所以如果你走进世界上的任何一间办公室,你会发现一些精通技术的人,但不是很多。因此,即使对于企业公司或B2B公司来说,这些人物角色,仍然是一个非常有价值的练习,因为它非常清楚。你可能有你的决策者,你可能有你的主管,然后你可能有你的一线员工和他们的能力,他们的动机,为什么他们在这里,他们可能是非常不同的。最后,我们还有,这是社交媒体的曙光,有点像社会网络的寒武纪时代,所以还不清楚Twitter会不会赢。有十几个不同的社交网络正在发生,所以这是另一个角色。她有非常特殊的需求,所以我们也想为她做点什么。所以你真正需要做的事情之一,就像你在短跑中想的一样,不管是接下来的两周还是下个月,坦率地说,时间越短越好。一份PRD文件基本上会详细说明,“这是我们想要构建的东西的实际特性”,所以没有真正的一种方法。你只要试着把它们分解成有意义的连贯特性就行了。所以,在我们的例子中,一种方法就是通过电子邮件和明文发送。

You might have your decision maker, you might have your executive, and then you might have your line-level worker and their capabilities with, their motivations, why they're here, they might be very different. Finally, we also had, this is the dawning of social media, sort of the Cambrian era of social networks and so it wasn't clear that Twitter was going to win yet. There were sort of a dozen different social networks that were happening, and so this was another persona. She had very specific needs, and so we're trying to build something for her as well. So one of the things you really do have to do as you think through a sprint, whether it's the next two weeks or the next month, the shorter the better, frankly. A PRD document basically will detail, "Here are the actual features "of what we're trying to build," and so there's not really one way to do it. You just try to bucket them into coherent features that make sense. So in our case, one way to do it for us would be post by email with plaintext.

你可能有你的决策者,你可能有你的主管,然后你可能有你的一线员工和他们的能力,他们的动机,为什么他们在这里,他们可能是非常不同的。最后,我们还有,这是社交媒体的曙光,有点像社会网络的寒武纪时代,所以还不清楚Twitter会不会赢。有十几个不同的社交网络正在发生,所以这是另一个角色。她有非常特殊的需求,所以我们也想为她做点什么。所以你真正需要做的事情之一,就像你在短跑中想的一样,不管是接下来的两周还是下个月,坦率地说,时间越短越好。一份珠三角文件基本上会详细说明,“这是我们想要构建的东西的实际特性”,所以没有真正的一种方法。你只要试着把它们分解成有意义的连贯特性就行了。所以,在我们的例子中,一种方法就是通过电子邮件和明文发送。

That's just one coherent thing that's a capability. You can hand this to an engineer and they would understand what exactly that was.

这只是一个连贯的东西,这是一种能力。你可以把这个交给工程师,他们就会明白这到底是什么。

And then post by email without an account. So one of the things that we did for Posterous that was very novel was that we didn't have a sign-up flow on our homepage. All you had to do was send an email from whatever email client you actually already had and you could attach anything to it and we would just reply with your new URL.

然后在没有帐号的情况下发送邮件。因此,我们为Posterous所做的一件非常新颖的事情是,我们的主页上没有注册流。你所要做的就是从你实际拥有的任何邮件客户端发送一封邮件,你可以附加任何东西,我们会用你的新网址回复。

It was very intentional in that we wanted to cement a totally new novel behavior that nobody had ever done. So you could just email post@posterous.com and we take care of the rest. The interesting thing was the capability itself was not novel. There were other people who were doing it, but it wasn't a central part of the flow. So once you're able to do the basics of it, there other things that you wanna be able to do: photo attachments, being able to take multiple attachments and turn it into a web gallery, being able to support videos, and then finally a security aspect that was very important for us early on was that we launched at TechCrunch. Michael Arrington himself actually reviewed us and he new that if he started using it, everyone else in the Valley at the time definitely had his email address. So he almost immediately tried to get his technical friends to try and hack 'em and luckily we had already figured that one out. So it wasn't possible for someone to actually spoof his Posterous email address, and that was novel and actually important for us.

这是非常有意的,因为我们想要巩固一个全新的行为,从来没有人做过。所以你只需发post@posterous.com,剩下的就交给我们了。有趣的是,这种能力本身并不新鲜。还有其他人在做这件事,但这并不是流程的中心部分。所以一旦你能做好基本的事情,还有其他你想要做的事情:照片附件,能够将多个附件转换成一个网页库,能够支持视频,最后一个安全方面,对我们早期非常重要的是,我们在TechCrunch推出了。迈克尔-阿灵顿本人实际上对我们进行了评论,他新发现,如果他开始使用它,当时硅谷的其他人肯定都有他的电子邮件地址。因此,他几乎立即试图让他的技术朋友们尝试破解他们,幸运的是,我们已经想出了这个办法。因此,对于一个人来说,不可能真的盗取他的电子邮件地址,这是很新奇的,而且对我们来说也是很重要的。

So I wanna pause there and actually say, earlier when I said it was these steps, I actually lied. There's actually an additional step in here. This whole exercise, when you're talking about users, this is actually called user research. So if you see that term out there, if you end up trying to hire people for that role, this is sort of where it fits. Frankly, if you're working on your startup, you should be just doing this as a matter of course. You should not be outsourcing this. This is a basic piece of customer development: understanding your users, spending time with them, being able to write down specific personas for, these are the types of users we want to use our product and to be as basically crisp as possible around what their needs are. We call that user research. This actually does, done right, it does actually happen before you even start thinking about what problemsto solve at some level. So if some of you out there are trying to figure out what problem to solve, sometimes you could just go and talk to people who you wanna build software for and that has worked for people.

所以我想停下来,说,早些时候,当我说是这些步骤的时候,我实际上撒了谎。实际上这里还有一个额外的步骤。这整个练习,当你谈论用户的时候,这实际上被称为用户研究。所以,如果你看到了这个词,如果你最终试图雇佣一些人来担任这个角色,这就是它适合的地方。坦白地说,如果你在创业,你应该理所当然地去做这件事。你不应该把这个外包出去。这是客户开发的一个基本部分:了解用户,花时间与他们相处,能够写下特定的角色,这些是我们希望使用我们的产品的用户类型,并尽可能明确地了解他们的需求。我们称之为用户研究。实际上,这是正确的,在你开始思考在某种程度上要解决的问题之前,它确实发生了。所以,如果你们中的一些人试图找出要解决的问题,有时你可以直接去和那些你想为他们构建软件的人交谈,这对人们是有帮助的。

So if you see that term out there, if you end up trying to hire people for that role, this is sort of where it fits. Frankly, if you're working on your startup, you should be just doing this as a matter of course. You should not be outsourcing this. This is a basic piece of customer development: understanding your users, spending time with them, being able to write down specific personas for, these are the types of users we want to use our product and to be as basically crisp as possible around what their needs are. We call that user research. This actually does, done right, it does actually happen before you even start thinking about what problemsto solve at some level. So if some of you out there are trying to figure out what problem to solve, sometimes you could just go and talk to people who you wanna build software for and that has worked for people.

所以,如果你看到了这个词,如果你最终试图雇佣一些人来担任这个角色,这就是它适合的地方。坦白地说,如果你在创业,你应该理所当然地去做这件事。你不应该把这个外包出去。这是客户开发的一个基本部分:了解用户,花时间与他们相处,能够写下特定的角色,这些是我们希望使用我们的产品的用户类型,并尽可能明确地了解他们的需求。我们称之为用户研究。实际上,这是正确的,在你开始思考在某种程度上要解决的问题之前,它确实发生了。所以,如果你们中的一些人试图找出要解决的问题,有时你可以直接去和那些你想为他们构建软件的人交谈,这对人们是有帮助的。

That will shake out their problems. So once you actually know what these requirements are, the next step really is prioritization. So this is just a guideline. This has just worked for me in the past. There's not one way to do it but this is more so basic Project Management 101, but being able to assign these priorities to the specific features is actually a very very useful and important exercise. P0 is pretty self-explanatory. This is just the core thing.

这会解决他们的问题。因此,一旦您真正知道这些需求是什么,下一步就是确定优先级。所以这只是一个指南。这在过去对我起了作用。没有一种方法可以做到这一点,但这是一个非常基本的项目管理101,但是能够将这些优先级分配给特定的特性实际上是一个非常有用和重要的练习。P0是相当不言自明的。这只是核心问题。

If we don't do this, then what are we here for? So P1 is what you would consider the next obvious step. You just wouldn't ship without it, but maybe it's not quite as core.

如果我们不这么做,那我们来这干什么? 所以P1就是你要考虑的下一个明显的步骤。如果没有它,你是不会下船的,但也许它不是你的核心。

And then you if you think about this in the terms of say a two-week or three-week sprint, you try and get all the P0 bugs, the P1 bugs. Actually, sorry, I skipped ahead a little bit in that if you haven't started using a bug database in your software development, you absolutely should.

然后,如果你用两个星期或者三个星期的sprint来考虑这个问题,你会尝试得到所有的p0错误,p1错误。实际上,抱歉,我略过一点,如果您还没有开始在软件开发中使用bug数据库,那么您绝对应该这样做。

In fact, that's one of the key ways that you, as a small team, you might not need it. But as you grow your team, it can be one of the most fundamental ways that you can make sure that you're doing the right things as a product, especially as your team grows. Having a bug database and assigning these priorities, and it doesn't have to be this. You as a team, you could figure out what these priorities mean for you, but being able to sort of manage a given sprint just at the beginning by putting these bugs in. Linking to a PRD document or all of the wireframes or the individual comps that an engineer needs, that can be one way coherently you can run your whole product and engineering organization. So as we go down, one of the things that has always worked for me is actually, a lot of the devil in the details is actually in priority two and three because things will always go wrong, almost guaranteed.

事实上,这是一个关键的方式,作为一个小团队,你可能不需要它。但是,随着团队的成长,这可能是最基本的方法之一,你可以确保作为一种产品,尤其是随着团队的成长,你正在做正确的事情。拥有一个bug数据库并分配这些优先级,而不一定是这样。作为一个团队,你可以弄清楚这些优先级对你来说意味着什么,但是能够在一开始就通过放置这些错误来管理一个给定的sprint。链接到一个PRD文档或所有线框图或工程师需要的单个Comps,这可以是一种连贯的方法,您可以运行您的整个产品和工程组织。所以当我们往下走的时候,一件对我一直有效的事情实际上,很多细节上的魔鬼实际上是在第二和第三优先,因为事情总是会出错,几乎可以保证。

I mean I just have never been through any sprint or any release thatthere's things that are totally unforeseen that break things. So part of the reason why this prioritization is very important is that it makes sure that you try to set up realistic goals. One of the most dangerous things in product development period is that if you don't have these priorities, you don't know what to cut and so that two-week sprint might become three weeks, four weeks, six weeks, two months, three months and then you never ship. So we'll talk about that in a little bit, but this is really why priority matters. So in this case, it's pretty straightforward. Post by email with plaintext, hey, that's a must-have. We're just gonna start that first. Then one of things that, you don't always write this in the spec, but it's something that's just very useful as you think through this stage of your product development process.

我的意思是,我从来没有经历过任何冲刺或任何释放,有一些事情是完全不可预见的,打破了东西。因此,确定优先级非常重要的部分原因是,它确保您尝试设置切合实际的目标。在产品开发阶段,最危险的事情之一是,如果你没有这些优先级,你不知道该削减什么,这样两周的冲刺可能会变成三周,四周,六周,两个月,三个月,然后你再也不会出货。所以我们稍后再讨论这个问题,但这才是优先级问题的真正原因。所以在这种情况下,很简单。用明文发邮件,嘿,那是必须的。我们先开始吧。然后,其中一件事,你并不总是写在规范中,但它是一个非常有用的东西,因为你认为通过这个阶段的产品开发过程。

It's really helpful to think through: who of my personas, who of my users need or want this, and is that important? What's the interaction between them? Post by email without an account. Well some of our less technical users are actually very scared by signing up for new products. So being up to do this without an account really opens up our user base to the whole set of people who are not very technically savvy, and then photo attachment support, David and Irene as power users.

考虑一下真的很有帮助:我的人物角色,我的用户需要什么或者想要什么,这很重要吗? 他们之间的互动是什么? 通过电子邮件发送,没有帐户。事实上,我们的一些技术较低的用户对新产品的注册感到非常害怕。因此,在没有账户的情况下,我们的用户群向所有技术上不太精通的人开放了,然后是照片附件支持,大卫和艾琳作为超级用户。

It's 2008. They have the the newest most beautiful iPhone and so it's immediately the thing that they really really wanted to do. P2, as you go down, you can kind of break it down, what is important and what is less important? So to be frank, this has never happened before in my life, but if you're very very lucky and your product development goes awesome in that particular sprint, that's often one thing that you can just start, it's valuable to have P2 and P3 things as a part of a given sprint simply because sometimes you'll just have extra time and someone will be able to get farther along than you hoped. The reason why it's useful is that then you can think about your product across different sprints, so you might be doing a release this month and then P3 video file support.

现在是2008年。他们有最新的,最漂亮的iPhone,所以这是他们真正真正想做的事情。p2,当你往下走的时候,你可以分解它,什么是重要的,什么是不重要的? 坦率地说,这在我的一生中从未发生过,但是如果你非常幸运,而且你的产品开发在特定的sprint中非常出色,这通常是一件你可以开始的事情,那么将p2和p3作为一个特定sprint的一部分是很有价值的,因为有时你会有额外的时间,别人会比你希望的更好相处。它之所以有用,是因为你可以跨不同的sprint来考虑你的产品,所以你可能会在这个月发布一个版本,然后支持p3视频文件。

If your software engineer knows that that's something that they wanna do, well when they're factoring, when they're actually writing those classes or writing the library or architecture of that code, they'll know that they can't make it just for photos. They'll also be able to support other types of media and that can actually save everyone on the team a lot more rework. So one of the key difficulties of product is always trying to figure out: what are we doing now and what are we doing later? So priority and being able to be very crisp about these requirements, that's one of the most fundamental ways that you can make sure, like release-to-release, you know that the product's going in the right direction. So that's really, really Product Management 101, but if you do this, you will be far ahead of pretty much a lot of your peers. A lot of people don't even do this very basic step of: writing down what these features are, who are they for, what are the problems we're trying to solve, and then what are the respective priorities? One of the classic reasons why, we kind of talked about this already, but if you do the prioritization upfront, then PM-ing a given product gets very easy because you can just cut off the bottom. Everyone sort of knows, "Well we're gonna start with P0s first, then P1s, and then, "oh if we're ahead, like let's do the P2s and the P3s. "But if we're late," well the key thing that everyone and all of you will run into this, you really have three things in front of you: scope, quality and time. So how much you do, that's part of the prioritization. Quality. The reality of it is this is not encompassed by your PRD.

如果你的软件工程师知道这是他们想要做的事情,那么当他们在分解时,当他们实际上是在编写那些类,或者编写代码的库或体系结构时,他们就会知道他们不能只为照片而做。他们还可以支持其他类型的媒体,这实际上可以为团队中的每个人节省更多的返工。因此,产品的关键难题之一总是试图弄清楚:我们现在做什么,以后又在做什么?因此,优先级和能够非常清晰地满足这些需求,这是最基本的方法之一,您可以确保,比如发布到发布,您知道产品正在朝着正确的方向发展。这就是产品管理101,但是如果你这么做的话,你会远远领先于你的很多同行。很多人甚至没有做这个非常基本的步骤:写下这些特性是什么,它们是为谁做的,我们想要解决的问题是什么,然后各自的优先事项是什么?其中一个经典的原因是,我们已经讨论过这个问题了,但是如果你先做优先排序,那么对一个给定的产品进行项目管理就会变得非常容易,因为你可以直接切断底部。每个人都知道,“我们先从P0S开始,然后是P1s,然后是,”哦,如果我们领先了,让我们做P2s和P3s。“但是如果我们迟到了,”每个人和你们所有人都会遇到的关键问题是,你面前有三件事:范围、质量和时间。所以你做了多少,这是优先排序的一部分。质量。事实是,这并不包括在你们的PRD。

It's just purely in how people use your products. How many bugs are there? Are there things in there that just don't work? That's sort of always an issue, and finally, time. You can always do all the features you want with the highest possible quality, but you might have to slip your date by two weeks, three weeks, four weeks.

这纯粹是人们如何使用你的产品。有多少虫子?里面有什么东西不起作用吗?这一直是个问题,最后,时间。你总是可以用尽可能高的质量完成所有你想做的功能,但是你可能得提前两周、三周、四周才能完成约会。

If you don't cut scope, likewise, well, you might be able to hit your time, but users are gonna run into a thousand bugs in production and you're not gonna like that. So if we work backwards from that, then this is precisely the process you use to sort of fight that. So the other thing that is very common, the other reason why prioritization is incredibly important is that without this, well you basically can head off a lot of really strange product decisions at the pass. So if you ever get incredibly frustrated with, you're deep in some settings panel in your iPhone or any sorta product and you're like, "Why is it broken like that?" Well it's probably because someone failed to do this properly and so they just said, "You know what, "F it, we'll just ship it." So it's a real danger. Product quality and products really really fail simply because prioritization, these basic requirements are not really figured out. So finally and the classic thing that personas really help you with is sort of this classic trade-off of you're gonna have users who are incredibly savvy and some people who are incredibly un-savvy and how do you actually deal with that? How do you think through not just what you're going to do, but also how do you represent it on the screen? So all of these things are incredibly important for this very first part, which is just pure product design. So interaction design. So you know who the user is, you know what the problem is, how do we actually translate that into something that you can actually start working on? So the questions you ask: How will they actually do it, what are their goals and how do they achieve it? So at end of the day what you're trying to get to is either a prototype or a wireframe. So what these things are are basically, you even might use a tool like OmniGraffle or there quite a few prototyping wireframing tools that are out there.

如果你不缩小范围,同样的,你也许可以达到你的时间,但是用户会在生产中遇到上千个错误,你不会喜欢的。因此,如果我们从这方面倒过来,那么这正是你用来与之作斗争的过程。所以另一件非常常见的事情,另一个为什么优先级是非常重要的原因是,如果没有这个,你基本上可以避免很多非常奇怪的产品决策。因此,如果你对此感到非常沮丧,你会在iPhone或其他产品中的设置面板中深入人心,你会说:“为什么会这样坏呢?”这可能是因为有人没能做好这件事,所以他们就说,“你知道吗,”如果是这样,我们就把它运出去。“所以这是个真正的危险。产品质量和产品确实失败仅仅是因为优先级,这些基本需求并没有得到真正的解决。最后,人物角色真正帮助你的经典事物是,这是一种经典的权衡-你将拥有非常精明的用户和一些非常不懂的人-你是如何处理这些问题的呢?你如何思考,不仅你要做什么,而且你如何在屏幕上表现它?所以所有这些对于第一部分来说都是非常重要的,那就是纯粹的产品设计。所以交互设计。所以你知道用户是谁,你知道问题是什么,我们如何把它转化为你可以开始工作的东西?所以你要问的问题是:他们会怎么做,他们的目标是什么,他们是如何实现的?所以在一天结束的时候,你想要得到的要么是一个原型,要么是一个线框。因此,基本上,你甚至可以使用诸如OmniGraffle这样的工具,或者有相当多的原型化的线框工具。

What you wanna do is figure out just the text, just the call to actions, just the flow, screen-to-screen. You don't wanna care about color. You don't wanna care about really how it looks, what font you use. You don't even really have to worry about layout too much, though I would start thinking about layout as a part of this process. So the most interesting important aspect of interaction design is actually that people treat, and this is kind of a very shocking thing to me.

你想要做的只是找出文本,只是行动的调用,流程,屏幕对屏幕。你不想关心颜色。你不想真正关心它的外观,你用什么字体。您甚至不需要过多地担心布局,尽管我会开始将布局作为这个过程的一部分来考虑。所以交互设计最有趣的方面实际上是人们对待的,这对我来说是一件非常令人震惊的事情。

I did a research at Stanford for the late Professor Cliff Nass and he built an entire career at Stanford based on this notion that people treat computers like people and it turns out that if a computer is polite to you, a person will be likewise polite back or being negative will sort of elicit the same response. Almost every psychological principle that psychologists have proven, Cliff Nass and Byron Reeves and BJ Fogg at Stanford were able to show that people mirror with computers, even without any sort of anthropomorphism, without clip-py, without an avatar, without anything like that. Truly, every interaction you have with computers, they're actually a conversation.

我在斯坦福为已故的Cliff Nass教授做了一项研究,他在斯坦福大学建立了整个职业生涯的基础上,人们把电脑当作人对待,结果发现如果一台电脑对你有礼貌,一个人会同样礼貌地对你,或者消极的态度会引起同样的反应。心理学家已经证实的几乎所有心理学原理,斯坦福大学的Cliff Nass、Byron Reeves和BJ Fogg都能证明人们用电脑照镜子,即使没有任何形式的拟人化,没有剪辑,没有化身,没有类似的东西。真的,你和电脑的每一次互动,实际上都是一场对话。

It's a conversation that happens over and over and over again because it's written in pixels, it's written in design, it's written in code. So what is this about? At the end of day, interaction design is actually about commands.

这是一次又一次的对话,因为它是用像素写的,用设计写的,用代码写的。那这是怎么回事?最后,交互设计实际上是关于命令的。

It's actually about telling people what to do and you actually doing it. People are incredibly suggestible actually. One of the most interesting psychological phenomenon that I can think of, it may be explains Trump and a lot of other things, is that actually when you absorb media, whether it's reading or any type of media, period, you actually read that stuff in your own voice and so that actually becomes deeper and kind of a part of you. So as an interaction designer, an interaction designer is not merely the person who figures out where the buttons go or what the layout might be or what the flow is. They're also the writers. They actually are trying to influence people directly by using direct command language, and so this is actually one of the most common mistakes that founders make. They write like this. Well, so, just to put a point on this, really command language is about, people will do whatever you tell them to do. You just really do have to tell them. So this is a super common thing.

它实际上是告诉人们该做什么,而你却在做。事实上,人们是非常容易被暗示的。我能想到的最有趣的心理现象之一,也许可以解释特朗普和其他很多事情,实际上,当你吸收媒体时,不管是阅读还是任何媒体,句号,你实际上是用你自己的声音读到了这些东西,所以它实际上变得更深,更像是你的一部分。因此,作为交互设计人员,交互设计人员不仅仅是知道按钮的位置、布局可能是什么或者流程是什么的人。他们也是作家。实际上,他们试图用直接的命令语言直接影响人们,所以这实际上是创始人最常见的错误之一。他们这样写。好吧,所以,为了说明这一点,真正的命令语言是关于,人们会做你让他们做的事。你真的得告诉他们。所以这是一件非常普通的事情。

In fact I'm pretty sure a lot of you are making this mistake in your home page copy in your design in your first-time experience.It's passive voice. You're not showing, you're telling, and you're just describing something about what you're doing in sort of this sort of third-party disembodied voice.

事实上,我很肯定你们中的很多人在首页上犯了这个错误,在你的第一次体验中,在你的设计中,这是被动的声音。你不是在展示,你是在告诉你,你只是在描述你在做些什么-在某种程度上,你是在用这种第三方的、无实体的声音来描述你在做什么。

I thought a lot about why this is. I actually think big companies actually can get away with this.If you go to most big-company websites, they are actually written in a very passive voice.

我想了很多这是为什么。事实上,我认为大公司实际上可以解决这个问题,如果你去大多数大公司的网站,它们实际上是用非常被动的声音写的。

If you go to Microsoft's homepage and start clicking through products, the product names are like blah-blah-blah server edition, admin 2009, whateverit is.

如果你去微软的主页,并开始点击产品,产品名称类似于blah-blah-blah服务器版,admin2009,无论它是什么。

It's like this insane word salad and if you read it, you have no idea what that product is and who's it for, but Microsoft can do that because it's incredibly big and it has a scale that's unimaginable and it has a sales force that will go out and sell their product and they have incredible amounts of capital. But you as a startup cannot afford that, and so everything that you write needs to be direct.It has to be a direct personal voice and you need the call to action be incredibly obvious. Why is this so small? This happens all the time actually. People never are opinionated about what you want the next user to do, and so this is an extreme example, obviously, but what you want is: contrast, you wanna be incredibly direct, you want to use command language and you want the call to action be someone goes to that webpage and they just know, they go to that mobile app and they just know what they need to do. The other part of interaction design that is actually also very important is trying to figure out, aside from direct command language, how do you get people to actually do things? So obviously this is an oversimplification, but I generally think about this in two ways. One is, how do you remove actions? One of the things that Paul Graham really directly called out to me on our sign up page back in 2008 was, "Why the hell do you have a confirm password? "Well, I mean, you have their email address. "If it's broken, just ask them to click, forgot password. "It's fine. "It's really not that bad to just have them "type a wrong password and have them recover it, "and most people won't type the wrong password, so is fine. "Why would you optimize for this strange "case that doesn't happen that often?" and it's actually really interesting.

就像这个疯狂的单词沙拉,如果你读了它,你就不知道它是什么,它是用来做什么的,但是微软能够做到这一点,因为它非常大,它有一个难以想象的规模,它有一支销售队伍去销售他们的产品,他们拥有难以置信的资本。但作为一家初创公司,你负担不起,所以你写的一切都必须是直接的,它必须是一个直接的个人声音,你需要行动的召唤是非常明显的。为什么这么小?事实上,这种情况时有发生。人们从来不会固执己见,所以这是一个极端的例子,很明显,但你想要的是:对比,你想要变得非常直接,你想要使用命令语言,你想要行动的号召是某人去那个网页,他们只是知道,他们去移动应用程序,他们只是知道他们需要做什么。交互设计的另一部分实际上也很重要,那就是除了直接命令语言之外,你还想弄清楚如何让人们真正地去做事情?很明显,这是过于简单化了,但我通常从两方面来考虑这个问题。一是,如何删除操作?2008年保罗·格雷厄姆在我们的注册页面上直接对我说的一件事是:“你为什么有一个确认密码?”嗯,我是说,你有他们的电子邮件地址。“如果它坏了,就让他们点击,忘记密码。”没关系。“让他们”输入错误密码并让他们恢复密码“其实并没有那么糟糕,而且大多数人都不会输入错误的密码,所以很好。”你为什么要为这种奇怪的“不经常发生的情况”进行优化呢?这真的很有趣。

If you remove that confirm password, it actually will increase conversion on a sign-up flow by as much as 50% on average. So it's significant. Cognitive load is an incredibly real issue. The other strategy that you can really use is, how do you chop up an action if it's incredibly complicated? How do you break it up into steps? So I like to use this example 'cause Windows '95 is this absurd, I mean one of the first wizards really to come out, but I think that there is a timeless aspect to it. The other thing that I often think about because some of you in this room will be doing fairly B2B, enterprise, just like complicated configuration steps, kinda like doing your taxes actually. You don't have to do the taxes that often, but when you do, it can get really complicated. You might have branching flow. You might have a lot that you have to take care of and so the other thing that you can do is actually chop up those actions more intelligently with the wizard. So these are a couple patterns that you can use and then I wanna kinda stop there and sort of really point out another super-big misconception in beginning designers or people doing it yourself have, they sort of run into all the time. They're always trying to do something incredibly novel. At the interaction design stage, I don't recommend that.

如果您删除该确认密码,它实际上将增加对注册流的转换,平均高达50%。所以意义重大。认知负荷是一个难以置信的真实问题。另一个你能真正使用的策略是,如果一个动作非常复杂,你如何分割它?你怎么把它分成几步?所以我喜欢用这个例子,因为Windows‘95太荒谬了,我是说最早出现的巫师之一,但是我认为它有一个永恒的方面。我经常想到的另一件事,因为在座的一些人会做一些B2B,企业,就像复杂的配置步骤,有点像做你的税收实际上。你不必经常交税,但当你这么做的时候,它会变得非常复杂。你可能有分支流。你可能有很多事情要处理,所以你可以做的另一件事就是用向导更聪明地分割那些动作。所以这些是你可以使用的几种模式,然后我想在这里停下来,指出另一个非常大的误解,那就是最初的设计师或自己设计的人,他们总是会遇到这样的错误。他们总是试图做一些令人难以置信的新奇的事情。在交互设计阶段,我不建议这样做。

I actually really recommend that you just steal what works. So don't reinvent the wheel.It's very important for you to be aware of what are the conventions and things that people already use, and so these are very basic ones. For instance, pull to refresh is something that works incredibly well. A lot of apps do it, but it's become a convention because it's easy and natural to use. It's satisfying.It's great to use.Swipe left to right, this was from Mailbox app, which sold to Dropbox.

我真的建议你偷点有用的东西。所以不要重新发明轮子,对你来说非常重要的是要知道人们已经使用的习惯和东西,所以这些都是非常基本的。例如,拉pull to refresh是一件非常好的事情。很多应用程序都会这样做,但它已经成为一种惯例,因为它很容易使用,而且很自然。使用起来很好,从左到右,这是邮箱的应用程序,卖给Dropbox。

There's a reason why, Mailbox was incredibly innovative, but the reality was like, you guys generally don't need to, and you can get really really far with just design patterns. So this does take a little bit of time, and frankly, anyone who uses computers for any amount of time, you can just click through all of these things and just the synapses of recognition will just kind of come to you. You'll just realize, oh my god. There's actually so much that you have already seen that you can just steal wholesale, and that's actually what is desirable for you for most of your designs. You don't want to be novel.

有一个原因,邮箱是难以置信的创新,但现实是,你们通常不需要这样做,你可以走得很远,只是设计模式。所以这确实需要一点时间,坦白地说,任何使用电脑的人,你只要点击所有这些东西,识别的突触就会出现在你面前。你就会意识到,天啊。事实上,有这么多,你已经看到,你可以只是偷批发,而这实际上是你想要的大多数你的设计。你不想成为一个新奇的人。

You wanna be something that gets people to the right place as quickly as possible. So there just so many of these that I can't possibly cover them.That would be its own 10-week course so I highly recommend, go to that website and check it out. So one of the really interesting things I do wanna call out and is sort of a danger zone for using design patterns, one of the more common ones that I've seen is actually using the wrong kind of pagination. One of the things that can be very frustrating to users, I've seen people design for the web and they actually use these little dots to represent where you are in sort of a swiping navigation, but you're on the web and you're using a touchpad, and that makes no sense at all and in fact it's really really bad. So you have to be incredible careful with mixing modalities. Even each one of these design patterns as you implement them, you should sort of think through, like, well why am I here, what is the user trying to do, and does this make sense for my modality? Here's probably the most tactical part of the whole talk, but we're gonna start off with a little bit of theory. Visual design really is about, again, these things really do blend together, it's the interaction design and visual design, they're super linked and it really is how you tell a user what is important at the visual level.

你想尽快把人们带到正确的地方。所以有太多的这些,我不可能涵盖,这将是它自己的10周的课程,所以我强烈建议,去那个网站看看。所以我想说的其中一件非常有趣的事情是使用设计模式的危险区域,我所见过的最常见的一件事就是使用错误的分页方式。有一件事让用户非常沮丧,我看到人们为网络设计,他们实际上用这些小点来表示你在浏览的位置,但是你在网络上,你使用的是触摸屏,这完全没有意义,事实上,这是非常糟糕的。所以你必须非常小心混合模式。即使在你实现这些设计模式的时候,你也应该考虑一下,比如,为什么我在这里,用户想做什么,这对我的模式有意义吗?这可能是整个演讲中最具战术性的部分,但我们将从一些理论开始。视觉设计真的是关于,再一次,这些东西真的融合在一起,这是交互设计和视觉设计,它们是超级链接的,这就是你如何告诉用户在视觉层面上什么是重要的。

What emotions do we wanna evoke? How do we want them to feel? The output of this is either pixel-level compositions, usually Photoshop, or sometimes the actual HTML CSS. So the really interesting thing here is that, to go back to function over form, when you're forced to be simple, you actually have to solve the real problem.

我们想唤起什么样的情感?我们想让他们有什么感觉?它的输出要么是像素级的组合,通常是Photoshop,有时是实际的HTMLCSS。所以这里真正有趣的事情是,要想回到形式之上,当你被迫变得简单的时候,你实际上必须解决真正的问题。

I wanna start off by just saying, like, let's just avoid as much ornament as possible. Ultimately we're here to build something that solves people's problems and it's about that substance. One of my favorite design thinkers is actually Edward Tufte. He has a great book called The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. So one of the key concepts that he talks about is chart junk. So he just can't stand chart junk, and these are just examples of it. Here's a chart, but there's no y-axis, and we don't know what the x-axis meanseither and why is that a green background? For this map, why there are these strange gradients and what do they mean? And then, again, one of the major misconceptions that people starting out have around visual design is visual design is not actually about necessarily expressing yourself per se. The key thing is, what information are you're trying to get across? So one of the key principles that you can actually apply is just look at any design that you're doing and just try to figure out if it can be removed without taking away any meaning, so that includes text, that includes lines, borderers, really anything.

我想先说,让我们尽量避免装饰品。最终,我们在这里建立一个解决人们问题的东西,它是关于物质的。我最喜欢的设计思想家之一是爱德华·图夫特。他有一本很棒的书,叫做“定量信息的视觉展示”。所以他谈到的关键概念之一是图表垃圾。所以他无法忍受图表垃圾,这些只是例子。这是一张图表,但没有y轴,我们不知道x轴是什么意思,为什么是绿色背景?对于这张地图,为什么会有这些奇怪的渐变,它们意味着什么?再一次,人们对于视觉设计的主要误解之一其实并不是要表达你自己。关键是,你想传达什么信息?所以你可以实际应用的关键原则之一就是看看你正在做的任何设计,试着找出它是否可以被移除,而不删除任何意义,包括文字,包括线条,边框,真的任何东西。

I mean, even colons. A pet peeve of mine is like seeing colons all over a form on the web or in a mobile app.

我是说,即使是冒号。我的一个心烦意乱就像在网络或移动应用程序上看到表格上到处都是冒号一样。

If you removed it, would you even notice it? In fact, it looks cleaner. So this is a stupid example, but an incredibly basic one that you can apply over and over again throughout anything that you do. Ornaments at the end of the day are not signal. Really like, and this is a very opinionated version of design, of course, but it's just worked for me, it's that we wanna eliminate this type of ornament because we wanna focus on that which is useful. So how do we actually do that? So I have actually just three very simple principles that you can use in visual design. The first and most important is actually contrast, and so I'll just walk you through a very simple example. The most basic type of contrast you can give is bold versus not bold, more important less important, incredibly simple. Bold is not the only way you can actually denote what is important versus not. You can use color, and so that's an incredibly valuable tool. You can also use size. So immediately you can kind of see, as a visual designer, I am being opinionated about what you should pay attention to, when, and what is important and what is less important. So what's funny is if we unwind those things, all of these suddenly become basically the same level. If everything is bold, nothing is bold, and so that's something that you should definitely remember as you go about your business and try to design anything. All of your choices around color, around weight, it really is a question of contrast and so it goes both to the less important, but also the more important.

如果你移除它,你会注意到它吗?事实上,它看上去更干净。这是一个愚蠢的例子,但却是一个非常基本的例子,你可以一遍又一遍地应用到你所做的任何事情上。一天结束时的装饰品不是信号。非常喜欢,这是一个非常固执己见的设计版本,当然,但它只是对我有用,它是我们想要消除这种类型的装饰,因为我们想要集中在什么是有用的。那么,我们如何才能真正做到这一点呢?所以我实际上只有三个非常简单的原则,你可以在视觉设计中使用。第一个也是最重要的是对比,所以我会带你看一个非常简单的例子。你能给出的最基本的对比类型是粗体与非粗体,更重要的是不重要的,难以置信的简单。粗体并不是你真正能表示什么重要和什么不重要的唯一方式。你可以使用颜色,这是一个非常有价值的工具。您也可以使用大小。所以你可以马上看到,作为一个视觉设计师,我认为你应该注意什么,什么时候,什么是重要的,什么是不那么重要的。所以有趣的是,如果我们解开这些东西,所有这些突然变得基本相同的水平。如果每件事都是粗的,那么没有什么是粗的,所以当你开始你的业务并试图设计任何东西时,你一定要记住这一点。你所有的选择都围绕着Color,围绕着重量,这真的是一个对比的问题,所以它既去到次要的地方,也去到更重要的地方。

If you want, you can use color and weight and size to also make something even more important. The final really cool trick that I like to use is, you can kind of, we call it the squint test. So if you look at any webpage, any effective mobile app, immediately, if you just squint your eyes a bit, if you can't make out the details of what's on that page, but you can just make out the basic shapes of, without having the ability to read any of this, you kind of know, "Oh, there's something," your eye's immediately drawn to the thing that is the highest contrast, the highest weight on the page. This is a very basic, basically your hammer for visual design is contrast. Related to that is closeness. So you as the designer can take related flows, related ideas and put them together to make them actually related and that serves your purpose as a designer. So I can't tell you how often, this is just a personal pet peeve of mine, and you have this login page, and then what is going on there? Why is the login page like, it's very confusing 'cause the user will come here and say, "Why is the login there? "Is it like a part of creating an account? "It doesn't look like it's a part of that other thing." That to me feels so much better. So it's a very simple principle, but one to be very very mindful of. But if you put just those two very simple concepts together, you get visual hierarchy, and this is where a grid really comes into play. This is why Bootstrap from Twitter was this incredible tool that just suddenly put in the hands of everyone here the basic building blocks of being able to create great visual design, do-it-yourself style.

如果你想,你可以使用颜色和字重和大小去让一些东西变得更重要。我喜欢使用的最后一个很酷的技巧是,你可以把它叫做斜视测试。所以,如果你看任何一个网页,任何一个有效的移动应用程序,立即,如果你只是眯着眼睛看一会,如果你看不出页面上的细节,但是你却能分辨出页面的基本形状,而不具备阅读这些东西的能力,你就会知道,“哦,有一些东西”,你的眼睛马上就会被这个东西吸引到最大的对比,页面上最重的东西上。这是一个非常基本的,基本上你的锤为视觉设计的对比。与此相关的是亲密。因此,作为设计师,你可以获取相关的流程,相关的想法,并将它们组合在一起,使它们真正相关,这符合你作为设计师的目的。所以我不能告诉你多少次,这只是我的一个个人宠物,你有这个登录页面,然后发生了什么? 为什么登录页面就像,它是非常令人困惑的,因为用户会来这里说,“为什么登录在那里?”它是创建一个帐户的一部分吗? “这看起来不像是另一件事的一部分。” 对我来说感觉好多了。所以这是一个非常简单的原则,但是要非常注意。但是,如果将这两个非常简单的概念放在一起,就会得到可视化的层次结构,这就是网格真正发挥作用的地方。这就是为什么推特的引导程序是一个令人难以置信的工具,它突然把这里的每个人的基本构建块,能够创造伟大的视觉设计,做自己的风格。

In a nutshell, sort of not to break it down to the CSS level, but you could literally just create dibs that were of any size that would automatically flow into a flexible grid, and that's incredibly valuable. So this is just literally the boilerplate stuff off of the old version of Bootstrap, but it's a good example of using a grid. So why this is important? Well we can overlay this grid and we can actually see that we're immediately, and so you can see how the headings actually just line up to particular sections of this visual design.

简单地说,就是不把它分解到CSS级别,但是你可以直接创建任意大小的dibs,它会自动地流到一个灵活的网格中,这是非常有价值的。所以,这只是旧版本bootstrap的样板,但它是使用网格的一个很好的例子。为什么这很重要? 我们可以覆盖这个网格,实际上我们可以立即看到,所以你可以看到标题实际上是如何与视觉设计的特定部分保持一致的。

It's important because users when they're using your site, they're coming to your site and trying to figure out: why am I here, what am I trying to do, and they will immediately be drawn to the highest contrast things. Remember the squint test? You'll immediately go to head, like headings exist exactly for this reason. A user will go to a webpage or an app and they will actually just scan the page and they'll look for the highest contrast things and try to figure out, is this what I want? Is this what I'm looking for? I have a goal.

这很重要,因为用户在使用您的网站时,他们会来到您的网站,并试图弄清楚:为什么我在这里,我试图做什么,他们将立即被吸引到最大的对比事物。还记得斜视试验吗? 你会立即去头部,就像标题存在正是因为这个原因。一个用户会去一个网页或一个应用程序,他们实际上只是扫描网页,他们会寻找最大的对比的东西,并试图弄清楚,这是我想要的吗? 这就是我要找的吗? 我有个目标。

Is this going to get me what I want? And then if so, then they'll actually direct their, if I do care about that part, then immediately I'm going to dive deeper into exactly that part, and so visual hierarchy is your best tool for giving your users basically the guidepost, like this is the way to go. Now we got visual hierarchy, but what do I do with all of these lines and why are there so many, how do I use color? It can be very confusing, and this is a common mistake for people who do DIYs. They just put boxes all over everything or they use lines and things like that. Here's my super extreme oversimplification on how to doyour own layout. Basically, figure out what you need to put on the page, and then, first, try to use padding and margin to the extent that you can. You can use a grid. You can put related things close to each other.

这能得到我想要的东西吗? 如果是这样的话,那么他们实际上会指导他们的,如果我真的关心那个部分,那么我马上就会深入研究那个部分,所以视觉层次结构是给用户提供路标的最好工具,就像这样。现在我们有了视觉层次结构,但是我如何处理所有这些行,为什么有这么多,我如何使用Color? 这可能是非常令人困惑的,这是一个常见的错误的人谁做DIY。他们只是把盒子放在所有的东西上,或者用线之类的东西。这里是我的超级极端过度简化如何做自己的布局。基本上,找出你需要在页面上写些什么,然后,首先,尽量使用填充和边距。你可以使用网格。你可以把相关的东西放在一起。

And then, next, use a line if you have to. So 90% of the time, you can probably get away with just using a proper grid with enough spacing, putting related things together with good headings, thinking through the contrast, but, finally, a box is actually a very important thing.

然后,下一步,如果有必要的话,用一条线。所以在90%的情况下,只要使用一个适当的网格,有足够的间距,把相关的东西和好的标题放在一起,仔细考虑对比,你就可以逃脱,但是,最后,一个方框实际上是一件非常重要的事情。

It draws a lot of attention so that's why you'll see it so commonly on websites around a call to action.

它吸引了很多人的注意力,所以这就是为什么你会在网站上经常看到它的原因。

It really is a high-contrast thing, but be very very careful when you use it because otherwise you kind of end up with this sauce of a ton of boxes and I have no idea what's important and what I should be doing. Whereas if you use a grid, if you use this sort of visual hierarchy, it is very straightforward. The other thing that's very valuable is you don't have to fill every single design margin-to-margin. White space can be incredibly useful, sometimes even helping direct a user, helping to explain what's going on. Having space on the side just gives you a place to put that or to just focus the user's attention. So those are incredibly basic, but a lot of these minimal techniques are really from the folks who created Helvetica from Swiss Design in the mid 20th century and so these are incredibly simple things, but the use of contrast, the use of a grid, and the use of color can actually do a lot. So I said that we're almost done with the tactical part, but I lied becausethere is actually a part that I did not cover yet. Most people think about design as the creation part, but it's definitely not the only part, and here's the reason why.

这真的是一个高对比度的东西,但是当你使用它时要非常小心,否则你就会有一大堆盒子的酱汁,我不知道什么是重要的,我应该做什么。但是,如果使用网格,如果使用这种可视化层次结构,则非常简单。另一件非常有价值的事情是,你不必填写每一个设计边际到边际。空白空间可以非常有用,有时甚至可以帮助引导用户,帮助解释发生了什么。有空间在一边只是给你一个地方放,或只是集中用户的注意力。所以这些都是难以置信的基本技术,但是这些最小技术中的很多都是从20世纪中叶从瑞士设计中创建Helvetica的人那里获得的,所以这些都是难以置信的简单的事情,但是使用对比,使用网格,以及使用Color实际上可以做很多事情。所以我说,我们几乎完成了战术部分,但我撒谎,因为实际上有一个部分我还没有涉及。大多数人认为设计是创造的一部分,但这绝对不是唯一的一部分,这就是为什么。

If you've ever put yourself, some of you took an airplane and walked through SFO airport and maybe that was the first time you've ever been. Every airport, itself is designed and one of the issues with a badly designed airport or a badly designed user experience is that we don't know where to go, we don't know where we are, and the signs are placed in the wrong place and actually it's actually incredibly hard.

如果你曾经尝试过,你们中的一些人坐飞机穿过SFO机场,也许这是你第一次去。每个机场,都是自己设计的,而设计差的机场或设计不良的用户体验的问题之一是,我们不知道该去哪里,我们不知道我们在哪里,而标牌放在错误的地方,实际上这是难以置信的困难。

If you put yourself in the shoes of the airport designer or the architect who created this airport, and more specifically the person who designed where the signs go, you have the design, you know where everything is, you're sitting there in your design tool and you know where everything, like it's all loaded in your head, but how are you going to know, for someone who's never been in that airport, what am I looking at at every given point in that airport? What am I trying to do? What are my goals? Lack of proper signage is one of the, I get loss in airports all the time.

如果你站在机场设计师或建造这个机场的建筑师的立场上,更确切地说,是那个设计了路标的人,你有了设计,你知道一切都在哪里,你坐在你的设计工具里,你知道所有的东西都装在你的脑袋里,但是你怎么知道,对于一个从来没进去过的人那个机场,我在看那个机场的每一个点是什么?我想做什么?我的目标是什么?缺乏适当的标志是其中之一,我一直在机场遭受损失。

I got lost in Paris accidentally, like this weekendactually. So this is actually what feedback is designed to solve and so there's actually two types that both designers and founders should be really really aware of. One is usability testing. So actually that moment between the wireframe, and you can kind of even do this in parallel. Once you have the wireframe, you can actually start doing usability testing with the wireframe. You can print it out and actually sit down with people who've never seen it before and just sort of walk them through it or, even better, say, just ask open-ended questions: what are we looking at? You can prompt them a little bit with like, "Oh well, you're here to do," blah-blah-blah, and it's like, "What are you reading? "What are you gonna click next? "Why am I here?" Before you even write a line of code, you can do a lot to test out whether or not this thing is going to work and it's way cheaper to do that than actually have to fix it in a bug and code later. Then the other part that is way way underappreciated but is extremely important for great product is actually customer support. Most people treat their support line as basically like kind of a shredder. They just don't even look at it. They don't reply do it, but the reality of product is that most, and this is an extremely extremely common problem for people building things for other people, is that we always assume that the product that we're creating, well, it's just the visible part.

我不小心在巴黎迷路了,就像这个周末。这实际上是设计用来解决反馈问题的两种类型,设计师和创始人都应该真正意识到这一点。一个是可用性测试。实际上,在线框之间的那一刻,你甚至可以并行地做这件事。一旦你有了线框,你就可以开始用线框进行可用性测试了。你可以把它打印出来,然后和从未见过它的人坐下来,让他们看看,或者,更好的是,问一些开放式的问题:我们在看什么?你可以用这样的方式提示他们,“哦,好吧,你是来做的”之类的,就像,“你在读什么?”你接下来要点击什么?“我为什么在这里?”在你写一行代码之前,你可以做很多事情来测试这个东西是否能工作,这样做比在错误和代码中修复它要便宜得多。另外一个被低估了,但对于伟大的产品来说非常重要的部分实际上是客户支持。大多数人认为他们的支持线基本上是一种碎纸机。他们只是不看而已。他们不回答,但产品的现实是,这是一个非常常见的问题,对于人们为他人建造东西,我们总是假设我们正在创造的产品,嗯,它只是可见的部分。

It's the 80% case.

这是80%的案子。

It's the ideal case in your wireframe, in the requirement document, but the best requirement documents, the best wireframes, the best designs, the best ship thing actually solved all of these other use cases that a PM might sit there and say, "Oh, well, once in a blue moon, this happens," but there actually 10,000 things like that that once in a blue moon happen and if you add them all up, well, you have a broken product. So that's one of the most fundamental reasons why we're so dissatisfied with the products that we use day-to-day.

在你的线框中,在需求文档中,这是最理想的情况,但是最好的需求文档,最好的线框,最好的设计,最好的船的东西实际上解决了所有其他的用例,一个首相可能坐在那里说,“哦,好吧,一旦发生了这件事,“但实际上有10,000件这样的事情发生在一个蓝色的月亮上,如果你把它们加起来,那么,你就会有一个坏的产品。”这就是为什么我们对日常使用的产品如此不满的最根本原因之一。

It's that some PM or some designer looked at that and said, "Oh, when is that ever going to happen?" So the devil truly is in these long tail bugs. As a founder, the best part is, I mean these big companies, they don't think about this at all. They literally make it impossible for designers and engineers and the product team to actually have anything to do with customer support. They just think of their users as cattle. So the greatest advantage that you have in this room is that you're a human being, you built it yourself, and when someone comes to you and says, "Oh my God, I'm stuck here. "What happened?" you don't have to just throw that email in the garbage. You can say, "Oh my god, that's a bug. "Oh, I'm gonna fix it," and then once you do that, you have an evangelist for life because we live in a world with products that are incredibly impersonal. We're alone in this incredible place that like we are so frustrated when our products don't work and nobody listens. So if you're the creator of that product and you listen, well you only need a couple hundred people like that and you're well on your way to something that could be incredibly powerful. To steal a quote from Paul boo-khahy, "Don't try and go and make something "that a thousand people kind of like. "You really need to go and create something "that a hundred people absolutely love," and customer support is the way you can do that, and the designer, the person who actually puts together the wireframes, who thinks through the user, they're the best on the whole team to actually think through that so they're awesome at advocating for the user. This process is incredibly complicated, but I just want you to make sure that you know these are the parts of how I think about a great product.

某位首相或某位设计师看了看,说:“哦,那是什么时候发生的?”所以魔鬼真的存在于这些长尾虫中。作为一个创始人,最重要的是,我是说这些大公司,他们根本不考虑这个问题。它们实际上使设计师、工程师和产品团队不可能真正与客户支持有任何关系。他们只是认为他们的使用者是牛。所以你在这个房间里最大的优势是你是一个人,你自己造的,当有人来找你说,“天哪,我被困在这里了。”发生了什么事?你不需要把那封邮件扔进垃圾里。你可以说,“哦,天哪,那是个虫子。”“哦,我要修好它,”然后一旦你这样做了,你就有了一个传道人的生活,因为我们生活在一个产品极其无人情味的世界里。在这个令人难以置信的地方,我们是孤军奋战的,当我们的产品不起作用,没有人听的时候,我们感到非常沮丧。所以,如果你是那个产品的创建者,你听着,那么你只需要几百个这样的人,你就可以很好地去做一些非常强大的事情。从保罗·布哈希那里偷来一句话,“别试着去做点什么”,这是一千人喜欢的。“你真的需要去创造一些”100人绝对喜欢的东西“,客户支持就是你做到这一点的方法,而设计师,真正将线框组合在一起的人,通过用户来思考,他们是整个团队中最优秀的,能够真正思考这一点,所以他们在为用户进行宣传方面很棒。这个过程非常复杂,但我只想让你知道这是我对一个伟大产品的看法的一部分。

It's not just user research.

这不仅仅是用户调查。

It's all of these things, one after the other, and usability testing and customer support are the key pieces of this and so you're never done with just one sprint. You're basically in a perpetual cycle of doing this over and over again and you really do need to, you don't need people doing every single piece of this, but you do need to spend a little bit of time thinking about each piece of this.

这是所有这些事情,一个接一个,可用性测试和客户支持是这其中的关键部分,所以你永远不会只完成一个冲刺。你基本上处于一次又一次的循环中,你确实需要这样做,你不需要人们去做这件事的每一件事,但是你确实需要花一点时间去思考这件事的每一件事。

Garry Tan: Now's the super practical section of how to find and choose designers. We can get through this really quickly. I'm happy to answer questions afterwards about it. But the basic question we always get asked is: Well, when and how? The reality of it is, there's so many ways to answer this. But this is just super boilerplate advice. It's that pre-seed, seed, and probably pre A, you still need a co-founder probably to do it.

陈嘉礼:现在是超级实用的部分,如何找到和选择设计师。我们很快就能渡过难关。事后我很乐意回答你的问题。但我们总是被问到的基本问题是:嗯,什么时候,怎么做?事实是,有很多方法可以回答这个问题。但这只是超级样板的建议。这是种子前,可能是A前,你仍然需要一个联合创始人,很可能是这样做。

And then you could probably get by with a little bit of consulting. By series A, you should probably, unless you truly have nothing that has a user facing element, which is rare. I mean, even developer APIs today, I would argue that you need a developer API designer who sort of runs through this whole process, but just for a developer experience.

然后你就可以通过一点咨询来度过难关了。按照系列A,除非您确实没有面向用户的元素,否则您很可能会这样做,这是很少见的。我的意思是,即使是今天的开发者API,我也认为你需要一个贯穿整个过程的开发者API设计人员,但是仅仅是为了开发人员的经验。

That's incredibly valuable.

太有价值了。

That's make or break for even highly technical products.

即使是技术含量很高的产品,这也是成败的关键。

That's when you should really start thinking about your first hire.

那时你应该真正开始考虑你的第一份工作。

And then by series B, what you really should think about is: How do you hire a team? A lot of people reach series B, and they're actually still at the first hire stage.

然后到了B轮公司,你真正应该考虑的是:你如何雇佣一个团队? 很多人进入了B轮公司,实际上他们还处于第一个招聘阶段。

And the difficult part is if you actually have 10, 15 engineers and you're trying to hire that first designer, and you don't have ... You're not going to hire a team, that's actually a little bit of a nightmare for a designer to work at, which makes sense actually, to be the only person on the whole team in charge of design, and you versus 20 engineers is a very scary thing for a designer. This might be a little outdated, but this is sort of what I've always used in the past. They're just websites online to sort of find designers. Dribbles is incredible portfolio. You can get a lot of LinkedIn. Look for companies in your space that have done design very, very well.

最困难的是,如果你真的有10,15名工程师,你想雇用第一位设计师,而你却没有.你不会雇佣一个团队,这对一个设计师来说是个噩梦,事实上,成为整个设计团队中唯一一个负责设计的人是很有意义的,对一个设计师来说,你和20个工程师是一件非常可怕的事情。这可能有点过时,但这是我过去一直使用的。他们只是网上寻找设计师的网站。运球是令人难以置信的投资组合。你可以得到很多LinkedIn。在你的空间里寻找那些做得非常好的公司。

And you can just very point blank start reaching out to them. Behance, Crop, all of these are websites that you should just go check out. AIGA even has a little database of member designers on there. When I'm thinking about hiring people directly for a full-time role or even for contract, there are a bunch of schools that have worked well for me, CMU, HCI, NYU, MIT, [inaudible] , Parsons, Stanford. This is really not a comprehensive list.

你可以直接接触他们。所有这些都是你应该去看看的网站。AIGA甚至有一个成员设计师的小数据库。当我考虑为全职工作甚至合同直接雇佣员工的时候,有很多学校对我、CMU、HCI、纽约大学、麻省理工学院、[无形]、帕森斯、斯坦福大学都很有帮助。这实在不是一个全面的清单。

And frankly, there are so many incredibly good designers who have never been to a design school. In terms of finding consultants, there's really two paths here. One is to go ahead and find an individual, so it turns out that there are a lot of people who you can kind of use this as a way to recruit them. Some of the best folks, they actually really like to work on a lot of different projects all of the time. There's actually a very large pool of individuals who are basically individual consultants.And they're hard to get, and you might have to email a lot of them. But you can reach out. You can hire them as consultants. If there's a really good fit, that could be a way to get to know them to come on board. A really cool trick that I've heard for people who just need low cost logo design, visual design, there's actually an incredible number of people out there in the world who are not first world designers.

坦率地说,有那么多优秀的设计师从来没有上过设计学校。在寻找顾问方面,这里确实有两条路。一个是去找个人,结果发现有很多人你可以用这个来招募他们。一些最好的人,他们真的很喜欢在很多不同的项目上一直工作。实际上,有一大群人基本上是个体顾问,他们很难得到,你可能要给他们发很多电子邮件。但你可以伸出手。你可以雇他们做顾问。如果真的很合适的话,那可能是一种了解他们的方法。对于那些只需要低成本的标志设计,视觉设计的人来说,这是一个非常酷的技巧,事实上,世界上有很多人不是第一世界的设计师。

And they're totally available on 99 Designs, Fiverr. There are probably a bunch of other places like that. The trick that I've heard that you could use is you can actually take your job, put it on one of these job boards, and then don't just do it for one. Don't just hire one job. You could hire 20 jobs. And then look at the output of those 20 different people.And then personally befriend the person who does some of the best work.

它们在99个设计中完全可用,Fiverr。可能还有很多类似的地方。我听说你可以用的诀窍是,你可以接受你的工作,把它放在其中一个求职板上,然后不要只为一个。不要只雇一份工作。你可以雇20份工作。然后看看这20个不同的人的产出,然后亲自和那些做得最好的人交朋友。

And you'll find people all around the world, Philippines, Thailand, Eastern Europe, everywhere really, Africa, Asia, Europe, even the United States, people who are incredibly talented, who actually ... They're just starting out in their careers, or they don't know how to actually get great jobs.

你会发现世界各地的人,菲律宾,泰国,东欧,到处-真的,非洲,亚洲,欧洲,甚至美国,这些人非常有才华,实际上.。他们才刚刚开始他们的职业生涯,或者他们不知道怎样才能真正找到好工作。

And you can be that way to they learn about startups. Design firms, there are just so many. The difficulty with design firms is you kind of have to find one that is willing to work with startups.

你可以通过这种方式让他们了解创业公司。设计公司实在是太多了。设计公司的困难在于,你必须找到一家愿意与初创公司合作的公司。

And many of them, the bread and butter for the best design firms truly is working with Fortune 500 companies for outrageous sums of money, so it can be very difficult to find ones that will work with startups. Viget Labs is the one out of DC that I used the most. But there are giant directories.

他们中的许多人,最优秀的设计公司的生存之道,就是与财富500强公司合作,获得惊人的资金,因此很难找到能与初创公司合作的公司。Viget实验室是我使用最多的DC实验室之一。但是有巨大的目录。

And frankly, referrals are sort of your best bet.

坦率地说,推荐是你最好的选择。

And then I want to call out a company that just graduated from YC a few weeks ago called Plato Design. Their URL is useplato.com. You should definitely reach out to them. I think that they do a very, very amazing job. How do you actually attract a designer to work at a startup? The ideal at series A, or even where you're at right now, is if you are truly a consumer focused company, you kind of need a co-founder on there who can actually run this for you. But later on, especially, if you're a three or four person team, you can usually find one ideally unicorn to come join and give them a much more senior role.

然后我想宣布一家几周前刚刚从YC毕业的公司,叫做柏拉图设计公司。他们的网址是useplato.com。你绝对应该联系他们。我认为他们做了非常了不起的工作。你怎样才能真正吸引一位设计师在创业公司工作呢?A系列的理想之处是,如果你真的是一家以消费者为中心的公司,你就需要一位能真正为你运营这一业务的联合创始人。但后来,特别是如果你是一个三人或四人的团队,你通常可以找到一个理想的独角兽加入,并给予他们一个更高级的角色。

That'll be fairly important at series A. But once you do have a larger team of five to 10 engineers, it gets really scary for a designer who's used to working with teams, working for design firm, or working at Facebook or one of the large tech companies. They're used to sitting with other people who spend all of their time thinking about all of the things that we were just talking about with wire frames and users and personas.

这在A系列中是相当重要的,但是一旦你有了一个由5到10名工程师组成的更大的团队,对于一个习惯于与团队合作、为设计公司工作、或者在Facebook或某家大型科技公司工作的设计师来说,这会变得非常可怕。他们习惯于和其他人坐在一起,他们把所有的时间都花在思考我们刚才和线框、用户和人物角色讨论的所有事情上。

And so it can be incredibly scary for those designers to come and work for you much later stage if you don't plan to hire a team that is diversified. It just gives them a really good day to day.

因此,如果你不打算聘请一个多元化的团队,那么那些设计师会在很晚的时候来为你工作,这可能会令人难以置信的可怕。这只是给他们一个非常好的一天。

And then at the end of the day, being able to be very crisp about what those roles are, that's the other part of hiring a team that's incredibly important. It's going to be very, very hard to find a unicorn. But often, you can break it down by the exact things that I mentioned, like they're incredibly good PMs, who have great resumes, who have great backgrounds.

然后在一天结束时,能够非常清楚地知道这些角色是什么,这是雇用一个极其重要的团队的另一部分。很难找到独角兽。但是通常,你可以根据我提到的事情来细分,就像他们是非常好的PMS,他们有很好的简历,他们有很好的背景。

That's one coherent role. Interaction designers, sometimes they can't make things that are pretty, but they are incredibly empathetic. They're able to think through. They're great writers. They're incredible communicators.

这是一个连贯的角色。交互设计师,有时他们不能做漂亮的东西,但他们令人难以置信的感情用事。他们能想清楚。他们是伟大的作家。他们是令人难以置信的传播者。

And that's what you would look for in that role.

这就是你想要的角色。

And finally, visual design.

最后,视觉设计。

That's probably the part that often stands on its own. It doesn't have to.

这可能是经常独立存在的部分。没必要。

And so it's just a different skillset. And then really quickly, it's actually very effective for startups who want to hire design teams to actually write about it. Content marketing works extremely well. Social media works incredibly well. If you're all engineers, but you're already thinking about this and talking through a lot of the terms that I was talking about, well, that's a culture fit for designers because that's basically what they want. They want executives or workplaces, or founders who understand and speak their language.

所以这只是一种不同的技巧。然后真的很快,它实际上是非常有效的初创公司谁想雇用设计团队,以实际写它。内容营销效果非常好。社交媒体的效果非常好。如果你们都是工程师,但你们已经在考虑这个问题,并且讨论了我所说的许多术语,嗯,这是一种适合设计师的文化,因为这是他们想要的。他们希望高管或工作场所,或创业者能懂并会说自己的语言。

And so that's why I encourage you guys to be very open with do it yourself, to understand these things because even if you don't do it, down the road you're actually far better at evaluating, managing, and working closely with people who do and who are very good at it. How do you actually interview these designers? Well, this is typically what I recommend. Do a quick phone screen. At the end of the day, no matter how beautiful a portfolio is, it's just so hard to work with people who have sort of their own vision that cannot communicate.

所以这就是为什么我鼓励你们要非常开放地自己去做,去理解这些事情,因为即使你们不去做,实际上你们在评估,管理和与那些做得很好的人密切合作方面比你们做的要好得多,因为即使你们不去做,你们在这方面也比那些做得很好的人要好得多。你到底是怎么采访这些设计师的? 嗯,这是我推荐的典型做法。做一个快速的电话屏幕。最终,不管一个投资组合有多漂亮,与那些有自己的愿景却无法沟通的人合作是如此的困难。

And so the phone screen is really all about great communication skills. I think that's incredibly essential.

因此,手机屏幕真的是所有伟大的沟通技巧。我认为这是非常必要的。

And then when they actually come and meet you and the team, actually have them walk through the hard decisions, the trade offs. We spent a lot of time about product design. You want to see exactly that kind of thought about personas, about prioritization. What are the difficult trade offs? Because there always are in every type of product you could design.

然后当他们真的来见你和团队时,让他们来完成艰难的抉择,权衡取舍。我们花了很多时间在产品设计上。你想看到那种关于人物角色的思考,关于优先级的思考。什么是困难的权衡? 因为你能设计的每一种产品都有。

And finally, I recommend whichever founder has been doing the design or the product, you've already been solving problems that you might have. The key thing there is, if you've already spent your 100 to 1000 hours thinking about a given problem, it's the best for you to actually spend time walking through a candidate over and over again just to make sure that you think through these things the same way that they do. You can read this later, but it's pretty straightforward. Think about design. You don't want people who are complainers.

最后,我建议不管是哪个创始人在做设计或者产品,你已经在解决你可能遇到的问题了。关键是,如果你已经花了100到1000个小时思考某个问题,你最好还是花时间一遍又一遍地浏览候选人,以确保你用和他们一样的方式思考这些事情。你可以稍后再读,但它非常简单。想想设计。你不想让那些抱怨的人。

That actually is pretty common. You want someone who's empathetic and listens to your needs. It's usually bad for someone to talk about themselves a lot.

这其实很常见。你想要一个体贴入微,倾听你需求的人。对一个人来说,经常谈论自己是不好的。

And so going back to the empathy point, that's incredibly important. The funniest thing that I like to use is when I ask them a design question, if they just go to the white board and just start drawing, they fail because, wait. Why didn't you ask about the users? Who's it for? What's the problem? And so these are just guidelines. There are so many ways to interview. If you don't have a really good design leader on your team, I highly recommend that you go to a friend or someone who you do respect, who can do this stuff, to just be sort of a final check before you do hire someone. These are a bunch of books that I sort of refer to throughout the talk. This is just a starting point. This is far from comprehensive. But if you bought every single one of these books and read it front to back, you would be a pretty good designer maybe. Here are a bunch of links that you should probably read afterwards too. Taste for Makers is one of these PG essays that I think not a lot of people talk about. But it's incredibly timeless, so I highly recommend that.

所以回到移情点,这是非常重要的。我最喜欢用的是当我问他们一个设计问题时,如果他们只是去白板和刚开始画,他们失败了,因为,等待。你为什么不问问用户呢? 这是给谁的? 有什么问题? 所以这些只是指导方针。面试的方法太多了。如果你的团队中没有一个真正优秀的设计领导者,我强烈建议你去找一个你尊敬的朋友,或者一个可以做这些事情的人,在你雇用别人之前做一个最后的检查。这些是我在整个谈话中提到的一大堆书。这只是一个起点。这一点并不全面。但是,如果你买了这些书中的每一本,并把它前后读一读,你可能会是一个相当好的设计师。这里有一堆链接,你可能也应该在以后阅读。“对制造者的品味”是这些PG文章中的一篇,我认为不是很多人都在谈论的。但这是难以置信的永恒,所以我强烈建议。

And then these are links that are very specific about: How do you write a PRD? What's your first wire frame? And then these other websites, we just really, really like because there's so much there. This field is incredibly deep. Thank you so much for spending and making it all the way to the end of this talk. It's an hour and a half, 90 minutes. We made it through a 104 slides, so thank you for sitting with me. I will leave you with just one final thought.

然后这些链接是非常具体的:你如何写一个珠三角? 你的第一个线框是什么? 然后这些其他的网站,我们只是真的,真的喜欢,因为那里有太多了。这个领域的深度令人难以置信。非常感谢您的花费,并使之成为本次演讲的最后一个环节。一个半小时,90分钟。我们通过了104个幻灯片,所以谢谢你和我坐在一起。我只留给你最后一个想法。

And it's truly that what we're talking about with the startup, design is only one leg of this three legged stool.

这是真正的,我们所说的启动,设计只是一条腿的三条凳子。

And your startup success truly lies at the intersection of all of these things. Thank you so much. Thank you for spending time with me. I know that was a lot.

而你的创业成功真正取决于所有这些东西的交叉点。太谢谢你了。谢谢你花时间陪我。我知道那太多了。

Speaker 2: How important is it for early stage companies to incorporate an about us or our story section of the early concept points?

演讲者2:对于早期阶段的公司来说,加入一个关于我们或我们早期概念点的故事部分有多重要?

Garry Tan: The question is: How important is an about us page? This isn't necessarily a design thing. I actually really think it's important. Going back to our moment where we were talking about how alone we are in this sort of product barren, product landscape. You just feel so alone.

问题是:“关于我们的一页”有多重要? 这不一定是设计的问题。我真的认为这很重要。回到我们的那一刻,我们在谈论我们是多么的孤独,在这种产品贫瘠,产品景观。你只是觉得很孤单。

And the about us page is the one place where you as founders can tell your story. Everyone is spending so much time trying to be incredibly ... They're trying to imitate Microsoft. They're trying to be Google. Right? You should embrace how powerful it is that you're trying to do this thing.

而“关于我们”是一个地方,你作为创始人可以告诉你的故事。每个人都花了那么多时间想要变得难以置信。。。他们想要模仿微软。他们想成为谷歌。对吧? 你应该明白你想要做这件事是多么的强大。

And being a real human being, answering emails, and putting your name on the website. I mean, I would argue that's why, one of the big reasons why Coin Base was so successful. Brian Armstrong very early on, he was probably the only person in the whole bitcoin world who was willing to put their name, address, I mean just basic things to make it an incredibly real thing. I think about us is very important for your relationship with your customers.

做一个真正的人,回复邮件,把你的名字写在网站上。我的意思是,我认为这就是为什么,硬币基地如此成功的一个重要原因。BrianArmstrong在很早的时候,他可能是整个比特币世界中唯一一个愿意把自己的名字,地址写出来的人,我的意思只是一些基本的东西,使之成为一个难以置信的真实的东西。我认为我们对你和客户的关系非常重要。

And that's not a design thing. Yes.

这不是设计的问题。是啊。

Speaker 3: Two. Later on in the talk you were talking about understanding your users.

发言者3:2。稍后在讨论中,您将讨论如何理解您的用户。

And early you mentioned transport, global transport, which had I think advertised transport decades before the [inaudible] .

早些时候,你提到了运输,全球运输,我认为这是在[听不见的]之前的几十年所宣传的运输。

And engine efficiency is 50%, while your car was only at 30%. How do you ask questions that really let you accurately see your user? A lot of times you might be doing a user interview, and you feel like they're not really giving you the whole story.

引擎效率是50%,而你的车只有30%。你如何问问题,真正让你准确地看到你的用户? 很多时候,你可能在做一个用户访谈,你觉得他们并没有真正给你整个故事。

Garry Tan: Yeah. I guess the question is: How do you properly ask questions to sort of get the story of your user? You know, the hard part here is there's not really one way to do it. I think it really does come back to being a good interviewer and thinking through. Asking open ended questions is actually a really good way to do it. It's just, tell me about your day.

是的。我想问题是:你如何恰当地问问题来获取你的用户的故事呢? 你知道吗,最困难的是没有一种方法可以做到。我认为这真的是回到了一个好的面试官和思考。问开放式的问题实际上是一个很好的方法。只是,跟我说说你的日子。

And you can even seize on emotion because the best problems to solve are actually incredibly emotional ones. It's like, I get frustrated when, blah. Or I get mad when, blah. Those are a lot of very, very strong ... Going back to, I think Jeff might've taught me this, actually, just purely that you really want to look for things that are hair on fire problems, things that actually get people upset. Emotion can be an incredibly powerful and good thing, so open ended questions and look for emotion. Yes.

你甚至可以抓住情绪,因为要解决的最好的问题实际上是令人难以置信的情绪问题。就像,当我沮丧的时候,废话。否则我会生气的,废话。这些都是非常非常强大的。。。回到,我想杰夫可能已经教会了我这个,实际上,纯粹是你真的想要寻找一些东西,是头发着火的问题,真正让人不高兴的事情。情感可以是一个令人难以置信的强大和美好的东西,所以开放的问题和寻找情感。是啊。

Speaker 4: Hi. My name is Lawrence from Intersect. You talked a bit about prototyping.

演讲者4:嗨。我叫来自互联系统的劳伦斯。你说了一些关于原型的事。

And maybe bonus question, if you know the problem, or have the problem and solution [inaudible] . And you have to get an [inaudible] . How would you go about finding a solution?

也许还有额外的问题,如果你知道问题,或者有问题和解决办法[听不见]。你必须得到一个[听不见的]。你将如何去寻找解决方案?

Garry Tan: Yeah. First question is about prototyping.

是的。第一个问题是原型。

Speaker 4: If you had something important about that, [inaudible] .

演讲者4:如果你对此有什么重要的想法,[听不见]。

Garry Tan: I have a confession to make. I have not done a lot of prototyping simply because I'm always in such a rush to get the code done that the second I know what I want to build, I just build it.

我有件事要坦白。我没有做太多的原型化,只是因为我总是急于完成代码,一旦我知道我想要构建什么,我就构建它。

And then I ship it, and then I'll just do it live.

然后我把它装上船,然后我就可以活着做了。

And so I haven't personally gotten a lot of use out of prototyping. But I know that it's an incredibly valuable tool. And that's just a weird one for me because I'm just always ... I would rather just ship the thing and have it be out there.

所以我个人并没有从原型中得到很多有用的东西。但我知道这是一个非常有价值的工具。这对我来说只是一个奇怪的问题,因为我总是。。。我宁愿把它送出去。

And then sorry, the second question.

抱歉,第二个问题。

Speaker 4: Get to know the problem of the user. You haven't found a solution to get an accurate reading.

演讲者4:了解用户的问题。你还没有找到准确阅读的方法。

Garry Tan: Yeah.

是的。

Speaker 4: How would you go about it?

演讲者4:你会怎么做?

Garry Tan: The question is: If you know a problem, but you haven't found the solution. The hard part there is it's not totally clear to me that design can solve it. What you described maybe is either a business problem or a technology problem. It sometimes is a design problem if there's ... I don't know. The hard part is these things are so squishy. Right? If it's a business problem, then you don't have distribution. People don't know they have the problem. You can't get in front of them. Or if it's a technology problem, then yeah. How do we actually build the thing? And if we're not capable of doing it, then design can't solve it. Right?

问题是:如果你知道一个问题,但你还没有找到解决办法。最困难的是,我不完全清楚设计是否能解决这个问题。您所描述的可能是一个业务问题,也可能是一个技术问题。如果有。。。我不知道这是个设计问题。最困难的是这些东西太软了。对吧? 如果这是一个商业问题,那么你没有分销权。人们不知道他们有这个问题。你不能站在他们面前。或者是技术问题,那么是的。我们实际上是如何建造这东西的? 如果我们不能做到这一点,那么设计就不能解决它。对吧?

Speaker 4: [inaudible] solve that problem.

演讲者4:[听不见]解决这个问题。

Garry Tan: Yes. How about you just keep building things until you get it right. Do what Jeff said. Over here. Yes, please.

是的。不如你继续做下去,直到你做对为止。照杰夫说的做。在这里。好的,谢谢。

Speaker 5: Yeah. You talked about Coin Base. Were you thinking of keeping that distance between you and your users or you and the [inaudible] appropriate. [inaudible]

是的。你说的是硬币基础。你是想保持你和你的用户之间的距离,还是你和(听不见的)适当的。[听不见]

Garry Tan: The question is: Are there places where you should maintain your distance? I can't think of any at the moment. There probably are. There was a really big advantage for them to be out in the open. I could imagine being, if it's A, incredibly competitive.

谭嘉里:问题是,你有没有地方应该保持你的距离? 我现在什么也想不出来。可能有。他们在公开场合有很大的优势。我可以想像,如果这是一个,难以置信的竞争。

And if you want to be secretive, there are cases where you don't want to be that open.

如果你想要保密,有些情况下你不想那么公开。

And that does happen, especially for something that's easily copied or something that is incredibly enterprise focused, so it's not important for a lot of people to know about it. Those are the main scenarios where I think secrecy turns out to be very important. But most people tend to err on the side of more secrecy than less. The standard YC-ism around this that I very much believe is whenever you're creating something new, you're not competing against all of the other people out there. You're only competing against obscurity. You're competing against the back button. To the extend that, that's true, being as open as possible, getting as many people to know about you as possible, and being a human being and having that interplay, that's really good.

这确实发生了,特别是对于一些容易被复制的东西,或者是一些令人难以置信的专注于企业的东西,所以对很多人来说了解它并不重要。这是我认为保密变得非常重要的主要情况。但大多数人倾向于在保密方面犯错,而不是少。我非常相信,围绕这一点的标准YC主义是,每当你创造新的东西时,你并不是在与其他所有人竞争。你只是在和默默无闻的人竞争。你在和后面的按钮竞争。从长远来看,这是真的,尽可能的开放,尽可能的让更多的人了解你,做一个有这种互动的人,这真的很好。

Speaker 5: You don't think controversy ... If you think controversy's a reason to do that.

演讲者5:你不认为争议。。。如果你认为争议是这样做的一个理由。

Garry Tan: Question is controversy. It depends on the type of controversy. One of the funniest examples of me giving very bad advice and me being very relieved that the founder did not take that advice, was a company called Soylent, so they came in through YC. They were working on something totally different in networking equipment.

陈格里:问题是有争议的。这取决于争议的类型。其中一个最有趣的例子就是我给了一个非常糟糕的建议,而我对创始人没有接受这个建议感到非常欣慰,那就是一个叫Soylent的公司,所以他们是通过YC来的。他们正在研究一种完全不同的网络设备。

And I sat down with them in this room for office hours.

我和他们在这房间里坐了几个小时。

And they said, "Great news. We have this incredible ... We have all of these orders. People love this thing. Oh, by the way, we're going to stick with the name Soylent." And I said, "Please, please, don't call it that. Do you know what that means? Haven't you seen the movie?" And it turns out that the entire reason why they were able to get probably $1 billion worth of earned free advertising, the reason why they have an incredibly powerful business today is purely because they found exactly the right kind of controversy. 90% of people who love food hear about it and say, "This is terrible. I hate it." In fact, they hate it so much that they're at dinner and they're telling everyone they know about it.

他们说:“好消息。我们有一个不可思议的.。我们接到了所有这些命令。大家都喜欢这玩意。哦,顺便说一下,我们将继续使用Soylent这个名字。“。我说,“拜托,别这么叫它。你知道那是什么意思吗?你没看过那部电影吗?“。事实证明,他们之所以能够获得价值约10亿美元的免费广告,他们今天拥有难以置信的强大业务的原因,纯粹是因为他们发现了正确的争议。90%热爱食物的人听到后会说:“这太糟糕了。我讨厌它。“。事实上,他们非常讨厌它,以至于他们在晚餐时,他们告诉他们知道的每一个人。

And then 10% of people hear about it and they're like, "Oh my God. I need that now." There are cases where controversy can be incredibly powerful.

然后10%的人听说了这件事,他们会说,“哦,我的天哪。我现在就需要这个。“。在有些情况下,争议是非常强大的。

Speaker 6: Let's stop it there. I'm sorry.

演讲人6:我们就停在那儿吧。我很抱歉。

Garry Tan: Thank you, guys.

谢谢你们,伙计们。