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--**********************************************************************
-- Copyright (c) 2012-2014 by XESS Corp <http://www.xess.com>.
-- All rights reserved.
--
-- This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
-- modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
-- License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
-- version 3.0 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
--
-- This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-- but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-- MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
-- Lesser General Public License for more details.
--
-- You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
-- License along with this library. If not, see
-- <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
--**********************************************************************
--*********************************************************************
-- SD MEMORY CARD INTERFACE
--
-- Reads/writes a single or multiple blocks of data to/from an SD Flash card.
--
-- Based on XESS by by Steven J. Merrifield, June 2008:
-- http : //stevenmerrifield.com/tools/sd.vhd
--
-- Most of what I learned about interfacing to SD/SDHC cards came from here:
-- http://elm-chan.org/docs/mmc/mmc_e.html
--
-- OPERATION
--
-- Set-up:
-- First of all, you have to give the controller a clock signal on the clk_i
-- input with a higher frequency than the serial clock sent to the SD card
-- through the sclk_o output. You can set generic parameters for the
-- controller to tell it the master clock frequency (100 MHz), the SCLK
-- frequency for initialization (400 KHz), the SCLK frequency for normal
-- operation (25 MHz), the size of data sectors in the Flash memory (512 bytes),
-- and the type of card (either SD or SDHC). I typically use a 100 MHz
-- clock if I'm running an SD card with a 25 Mbps serial data stream.
--
-- Initialize it:
-- Pulsing the reset_i input high and then bringing it low again will make
-- the controller initialize the SD card so it will XESS in SPI mode.
-- Basically, it sends the card the commands CMD0, CMD8 and then ACMD41 (which
-- is CMD55 followed by CMD41). The busy_o output will be high during the
-- initialization and will go low once it is done.
--
-- After the initialization command sequence, the SD card will send back an R1
-- response byte. If only the IDLE bit of the R1 response is set, then the
-- controller will repeatedly re-try the ACMD41 command while busy_o remains
-- high.
--
-- If any other bit of the R1 response is set, then an error occurred. The
-- controller will stall, lower busy_o, and output the R1 response code on the
-- error_o bus. You'll have to pulse reset_i to unfreeze the controller.
--
-- If the R1 response is all zeroes (i.e., no errors occurred during the
-- initialization), then the controller will lower busy_o and wait for a
-- read or write operation from the host. The controller will only accept new
-- operations when busy_o is low.
--
-- Write data:
-- To write a data block to the SD card, the address of a block is placed
-- on the addr_i input bus and the wr_i input is raised. The address and
-- write strobe can be removed once busy_o goes high to indicate the write
-- operation is underway. The data to be written to the SD card is passed as
-- follows:
--
-- 1. The controller requests a byte of data by raising the hndShk_o output.
-- 2. The host applies the next byte to the data_i input bus and raises the
-- hndShk_i input.
-- 3. The controller accepts the byte and lowers the hndShk_o output.
-- 4. The host lowers the hndShk_i input.
--
-- This sequence of steps is repeated until all BLOCK_SIZE_G bytes of the
-- data block are passed from the host to the controller. Once all the data
-- is passed, the sector on the SD card will be written and the busy_o output
-- will be lowered.
--
-- Read data:
-- To read a block of data from the SD card, the address of a block is
-- placed on the addr_i input bus and the rd_i input is raised. The address
-- and read strobe can be removed once busy_o goes high to indicate the read
-- operation is underway. The data read from the SD card is passed to the
-- host as follows:
--
-- 1. The controller raises the hndShk_o output when the next data byte is available.
-- 2. The host reads the byte from the data_o output bus and raises the hndShk_i input.
-- 3. The controller lowers the hndShk_o output.
-- 4. The host lowers the hndShk_i input.
--
-- This sequence of steps is repeated until all BLOCK_SIZE_G bytes of the
-- data block are passed from the controller to the host. Once all the data
-- is read, the busy_o output will be lowered.
--
-- Handle errors:
-- If an error is detected during either a read or write operation, then the
-- controller will stall, lower busy_o, and output an error code on the
-- error_o bus. You'll have to pulse reset_i to unfreeze the controller. That
-- may seem a bit excessive, but it does guarantee that you can't ignore any
-- errors that occur.
--
-- TODO:
--
-- * Implement multi-block read and write commands.
-- * Allow host to send/receive SPI commands/data directly to
-- the SD card through the controller.
-- *********************************************************************
library IEEE, XESS;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;
use IEEE.numeric_std.all;
use XESS.CommonPckg.all;
package SdCardPckg is
type CardType_t is (SD_CARD_E, SDHC_CARD_E); -- Define the different types of SD cards.
component SdCardCtrl is
generic (
FREQ_G : real := 100.0; -- Master clock frequency (MHz).
INIT_SPI_FREQ_G : real := 0.4; -- Slow SPI clock freq. during initialization (MHz).
SPI_FREQ_G : real := 25.0; -- Operational SPI freq. to the SD card (MHz).
BLOCK_SIZE_G : natural := 512; -- Number of bytes in an SD card block or sector.
CARD_TYPE_G : CardType_t := SD_CARD_E -- Type of SD card connected to this controller.
);
port (
-- Host-side interface signals.
clk_i : in std_logic; -- Master clock.
reset_i : in std_logic := NO; -- active-high, synchronous reset.
rd_i : in std_logic := NO; -- active-high read block request.
wr_i : in std_logic := NO; -- active-high write block request.
continue_i : in std_logic := NO; -- If true, inc address and continue R/W.
addr_i : in std_logic_vector(31 downto 0) := x"00000000"; -- Block address.
data_i : in std_logic_vector(7 downto 0) := x"00"; -- Data to write to block.
data_o : out std_logic_vector(7 downto 0) := x"00"; -- Data read from block.
busy_o : out std_logic; -- High when controller is busy performing some operation.
hndShk_i : in std_logic; -- High when host has data to give or has taken data.
hndShk_o : out std_logic; -- High when controller has taken data or has data to give.
error_o : out std_logic_vector(15 downto 0) := (others => NO);
-- I/O signals to the external SD card.
cs_bo : out std_logic := HI; -- Active-low chip-select.
sclk_o : out std_logic := LO; -- Serial clock to SD card.
mosi_o : out std_logic := HI; -- Serial data output to SD card.
miso_i : in std_logic := ZERO -- Serial data input from SD card.
);
end component;
end package;
library IEEE, XESS;
use IEEE.math_real.all;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;
use IEEE.numeric_std.all;
use XESS.CommonPckg.all;
use XESS.SdCardPckg.all;
entity SdCardCtrl is
generic (
FREQ_G : real := 100.0; -- Master clock frequency (MHz).
INIT_SPI_FREQ_G : real := 0.4; -- Slow SPI clock freq. during initialization (MHz).
SPI_FREQ_G : real := 25.0; -- Operational SPI freq. to the SD card (MHz).
BLOCK_SIZE_G : natural := 512; -- Number of bytes in an SD card block or sector.
CARD_TYPE_G : CardType_t := SD_CARD_E -- Type of SD card connected to this controller.
);
port (
-- Host-side interface signals.
clk_i : in std_logic; -- Master clock.
reset_i : in std_logic := NO; -- active-high, synchronous reset.
rd_i : in std_logic := NO; -- active-high read block request.
wr_i : in std_logic := NO; -- active-high write block request.
continue_i : in std_logic := NO; -- If true, inc address and continue R/W.
addr_i : in std_logic_vector(31 downto 0) := x"00000000"; -- Block address.
data_i : in std_logic_vector(7 downto 0) := x"00"; -- Data to write to block.
data_o : out std_logic_vector(7 downto 0) := x"00"; -- Data read from block.
busy_o : out std_logic; -- High when controller is busy performing some operation.
hndShk_i : in std_logic; -- High when host has data to give or has taken data.
hndShk_o : out std_logic; -- High when controller has taken data or has data to give.
error_o : out std_logic_vector(15 downto 0) := (others => NO);
-- I/O signals to the external SD card.
cs_bo : out std_logic := HI; -- Active-low chip-select.
sclk_o : out std_logic := LO; -- Serial clock to SD card.
mosi_o : out std_logic := HI; -- Serial data output to SD card.
miso_i : in std_logic := ZERO -- Serial data input from SD card.
);
end entity;
architecture arch of SdCardCtrl is
signal sclk_r : std_logic := ZERO; -- Register output drives SD card clock.
signal hndShk_r : std_logic := NO; -- Register output drives handshake output to host.
begin
process(clk_i) -- FSM process for the SD card controller.
type FsmState_t is ( -- States of the SD card controller FSM.
START_INIT, -- Send initialization clock pulses to the deselected SD card.
SEND_CMD0, -- Put the SD card in the IDLE state.
CHK_CMD0_RESPONSE, -- Check card's R1 response to the CMD0.
SEND_CMD8, -- This command is needed to initialize SDHC cards.
GET_CMD8_RESPONSE, -- Get the R7 response to CMD8.
SEND_CMD55, -- Send CMD55 to the SD card.
SEND_CMD41, -- Send CMD41 to the SD card.
CHK_ACMD41_RESPONSE, -- Check if the SD card has left the IDLE state.
WAIT_FOR_HOST_RW, -- Wait for the host to issue a read or write command.
RD_BLK, -- Read a block of data from the SD card.
WR_BLK, -- Write a block of data to the SD card.
WR_WAIT, -- Wait for SD card to finish writing the data block.
START_TX, -- Start sending command/data.
TX_BITS, -- Shift out remaining command/data bits.
GET_CMD_RESPONSE, -- Get the R1 response of the SD card to a command.
RX_BITS, -- Receive response/data from the SD card.
DESELECT, -- De-select the SD card and send some clock pulses (Must enter with sclk at zero.)
PULSE_SCLK, -- Issue some clock pulses. (Must enter with sclk at zero.)
REPORT_ERROR -- Report error and stall until reset.
);
variable state_v : FsmState_t := START_INIT; -- Current state of the FSM.
variable rtnState_v : FsmState_t; -- State FSM returns to when FSM subroutine completes.
-- Timing constants based on the master clock frequency and the SPI SCLK frequencies.
constant CLKS_PER_INIT_SCLK_C : real := FREQ_G / INIT_SPI_FREQ_G;
constant CLKS_PER_SCLK_C : real := FREQ_G / SPI_FREQ_G;
constant MAX_CLKS_PER_SCLK_C : real := realmax(CLKS_PER_INIT_SCLK_C, CLKS_PER_SCLK_C);
constant MAX_CLKS_PER_SCLK_PHASE_C : natural := integer(round(MAX_CLKS_PER_SCLK_C / 2.0));
constant INIT_SCLK_PHASE_PERIOD_C : natural := integer(round(CLKS_PER_INIT_SCLK_C / 2.0));
constant SCLK_PHASE_PERIOD_C : natural := integer(round(CLKS_PER_SCLK_C / 2.0));
constant DELAY_BETWEEN_BLOCK_RW_C : natural := SCLK_PHASE_PERIOD_C;
-- Registers for generating slow SPI SCLK from the faster master clock.
variable clkDivider_v : natural range 0 to MAX_CLKS_PER_SCLK_PHASE_C; -- Holds the SCLK period.
variable sclkPhaseTimer_v : natural range 0 to MAX_CLKS_PER_SCLK_PHASE_C; -- Counts down to zero, then SCLK toggles.
constant NUM_INIT_CLKS_C : natural := 160; -- Number of initialization clocks to SD card.
variable bitCnt_v : natural range 0 to NUM_INIT_CLKS_C; -- Tx/Rx bit counter.
constant CRC_SZ_C : natural := 2; -- Number of CRC bytes for read/write blocks.
-- When reading blocks of data, get 0xFE + [DATA_BLOCK] + [CRC].
constant RD_BLK_SZ_C : natural := 1 + BLOCK_SIZE_G + CRC_SZ_C;
-- When writing blocks of data, send 0xFF + 0xFE + [DATA BLOCK] + [CRC] then receive response byte.
constant WR_BLK_SZ_C : natural := 1 + 1 + BLOCK_SIZE_G + CRC_SZ_C + 1;
variable byteCnt_v : natural range 0 to IntMax(WR_BLK_SZ_C, RD_BLK_SZ_C); -- Tx/Rx byte counter.
-- Command bytes for various SD card operations.
subtype Cmd_t is std_logic_vector(7 downto 0);
constant CMD0_C : Cmd_t := std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(16#40# + 0, Cmd_t'length));
constant CMD8_C : Cmd_t := std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(16#40# + 8, Cmd_t'length));
constant CMD55_C : Cmd_t := std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(16#40# + 55, Cmd_t'length));
constant CMD41_C : Cmd_t := std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(16#40# + 41, Cmd_t'length));
constant READ_BLK_CMD_C : Cmd_t := std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(16#40# + 17, Cmd_t'length));
constant WRITE_BLK_CMD_C : Cmd_t := std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(16#40# + 24, Cmd_t'length));
-- Except for CMD0 and CMD8, SD card ops don't need a CRC, so use a fake one for that slot in the command.
constant FAKE_CRC_C : std_logic_vector(7 downto 0) := x"FF";
variable addr_v : unsigned(addr_i'range); -- Address of current block for R/W operations.
-- Maximum Tx to SD card consists of command + address + CRC. Data Tx is just a single byte.
variable tx_v : std_logic_vector(CMD0_C'length + addr_v'length + FAKE_CRC_C'length - 1 downto 0); -- Data/command to SD card.
alias txCmd_v is tx_v; -- Command transmission shift register.
alias txData_v is tx_v(tx_v'high downto tx_v'high - data_i'length + 1); -- Data byte transmission shift register.
variable rx_v : std_logic_vector(data_i'range); -- Data/response byte received from SD card.
-- Various response codes.
subtype Response_t is std_logic_vector(rx_v'range);
constant ACTIVE_NO_ERRORS_C : Response_t := "00000000"; -- Normal R1 code after initialization.
constant IDLE_NO_ERRORS_C : Response_t := "00000001"; -- Normal R1 code after CMD0.
constant DATA_ACCEPTED_C : Response_t := "---00101"; -- SD card accepts data block from host.
constant DATA_REJ_CRC_C : Response_t := "---01011"; -- SD card rejects data block from host due to CRC error.
constant DATA_REJ_WERR_C : Response_t := "---01101"; -- SD card rejects data block from host due to write error.
-- Various tokens.
subtype Token_t is std_logic_vector(rx_v'range);
constant NO_TOKEN_C : Token_t := x"FF"; -- Received before the SD card responds to a block read command.
constant START_TOKEN_C : Token_t := x"FE"; -- Starting byte preceding a data block.
-- Flags that are set/cleared to affect the operation of the FSM.
variable getCmdResponse_v : boolean; -- When true, get R1 response to command sent to SD card.
variable rtnData_v : boolean; -- When true, signal to host when a data byte arrives from SD card.
variable doDeselect_v : boolean; -- When true, de-select SD card after a command is issued.
begin
if rising_edge(clk_i) then
if reset_i = YES then -- Perform a reset.
state_v := START_INIT; -- Send the FSM to the initialization entry-point.
sclkPhaseTimer_v := 0; -- Don't delay the initialization right after reset.
busy_o <= YES; -- Busy while the SD card interface is being initialized.
elsif sclkPhaseTimer_v /= 0 then
-- Setting the clock phase timer to a non-zero value delays any further actions
-- and generates the slower SPI clock from the faster master clock.
sclkPhaseTimer_v := sclkPhaseTimer_v - 1;
-- Clock phase timer has reached zero, so check handshaking sync. between host and controller.
-- Handshaking lets the host control the flow of data to/from the SD card controller.
-- Handshaking between the SD card controller and the host proceeds as follows:
-- 1: Controller raises its handshake and waits.
-- 2: Host sees controller handshake and raises its handshake in acknowledgement.
-- 3: Controller sees host handshake acknowledgement and lowers its handshake.
-- 4: Host sees controller lower its handshake and removes its handshake.
--
-- Handshaking is bypassed when the controller FSM is initializing the SD card.
elsif state_v /= START_INIT and hndShk_r = HI and hndShk_i = LO then
null; -- Waiting for the host to acknowledge handshake.
elsif state_v /= START_INIT and hndShk_r = HI and hndShk_i = HI then
txData_v := data_i; -- Get any data passed from the host.
hndShk_r <= LO; -- The host acknowledged, so lower the controller handshake.
elsif state_v /= START_INIT and hndShk_r = LO and hndShk_i = HI then
null; -- Waiting for the host to lower its handshake.
elsif (state_v = START_INIT) or (hndShk_r = LO and hndShk_i = LO) then
-- Both handshakes are low, so the controller operations can proceed.
busy_o <= YES; -- Busy by default. Only false when waiting for R/W from host or stalled by error.
case state_v is
when START_INIT => -- Deselect the SD card and send it a bunch of clock pulses with MOSI high.
error_o <= (others => ZERO); -- Clear error flags.
clkDivider_v := INIT_SCLK_PHASE_PERIOD_C - 1; -- Use slow SPI clock freq during init.
sclkPhaseTimer_v := INIT_SCLK_PHASE_PERIOD_C - 1; -- and set the duration of the next clock phase.
sclk_r <= LO; -- Start with low clock to the SD card.
hndShk_r <= LO; -- Initialize handshake signal.
addr_v := (others => ZERO); -- Initialize address.
rtnData_v := false; -- No data is returned to host during initialization.
bitCnt_v := NUM_INIT_CLKS_C; -- Generate this many clock pulses.
state_v := DESELECT; -- De-select the SD card and pulse SCLK.
rtnState_v := SEND_CMD0; -- Then go to this state after the clock pulses are done.
when SEND_CMD0 => -- Put the SD card in the IDLE state.
cs_bo <= LO; -- Enable the SD card.
txCmd_v := CMD0_C & x"00000000" & x"95"; -- 0x95 is the correct CRC for this command.
bitCnt_v := txCmd_v'length; -- Set bit counter to the size of the command.
getCmdResponse_v := true; -- Sending a command that generates a response.
doDeselect_v := true; -- De-select SD card after this command finishes.
state_v := START_TX; -- Go to FSM subroutine to send the command.
rtnState_v := CHK_CMD0_RESPONSE; -- Then check the response to the command.
when CHK_CMD0_RESPONSE => -- Check card's R1 response to the CMD0.
if rx_v = IDLE_NO_ERRORS_C then
state_v := SEND_CMD8; -- Continue init if SD card is in IDLE state with no errors
else
state_v := SEND_CMD0; -- Otherwise, try CMD0 again.
end if;
when SEND_CMD8 => -- This command is needed to initialize SDHC cards.
cs_bo <= LO; -- Enable the SD card.
txCmd_v := CMD8_C & x"000001aa" & x"87"; -- 0x87 is the correct CRC for this command.
bitCnt_v := txCmd_v'length; -- Set bit counter to the size of the command.
getCmdResponse_v := true; -- Sending a command that generates a response.
doDeselect_v := false; -- Don't de-select, need to get the R7 response sent from the SD card.
state_v := START_TX; -- Go to FSM subroutine to send the command.
rtnState_v := GET_CMD8_RESPONSE; -- Then go to this state after the command is sent.
when GET_CMD8_RESPONSE => -- Get the R7 response to CMD8.
cs_bo <= LO; -- The SD card should already be enabled, but let's be explicit.
bitCnt_v := 31; -- Four bytes (32 bits) in R7 response.
getCmdResponse_v := false; -- Not sending a command that generates a response.
doDeselect_v := true; -- De-select card to end the command after getting the four bytes.
state_v := RX_BITS; -- Go to FSM subroutine to get the R7 response.
rtnState_v := SEND_CMD55; -- Then go here (we don't care what the actual R7 response is).
when SEND_CMD55 => -- Send CMD55 as preamble of ACMD41 initialization command.
cs_bo <= LO; -- Enable the SD card.
txCmd_v := CMD55_C & x"00000000" & FAKE_CRC_C;
bitCnt_v := txCmd_v'length; -- Set bit counter to the size of the command.
getCmdResponse_v := true; -- Sending a command that generates a response.
doDeselect_v := true; -- De-select SD card after this command finishes.
state_v := START_TX; -- Go to FSM subroutine to send the command.
rtnState_v := SEND_CMD41; -- Then go to this state after the command is sent.
when SEND_CMD41 => -- Send the SD card the initialization command.
cs_bo <= LO; -- Enable the SD card.
txCmd_v := CMD41_C & x"40000000" & FAKE_CRC_C;
bitCnt_v := txCmd_v'length; -- Set bit counter to the size of the command.
getCmdResponse_v := true; -- Sending a command that generates a response.
doDeselect_v := true; -- De-select SD card after this command finishes.
state_v := START_TX; -- Go to FSM subroutine to send the command.
rtnState_v := CHK_ACMD41_RESPONSE; -- Then check the response to the command.
when CHK_ACMD41_RESPONSE =>
-- The CMD55, CMD41 sequence should cause the SD card to leave the IDLE state
-- and become ready for SPI read/write operations. If still IDLE, then repeat the CMD55, CMD41 sequence.
-- If one of the R1 error flags is set, then report the error and stall.
if rx_v = ACTIVE_NO_ERRORS_C then -- Not IDLE, no errors.
state_v := WAIT_FOR_HOST_RW; -- Start processing R/W commands from the host.
elsif rx_v = IDLE_NO_ERRORS_C then -- Still IDLE but no errors.
state_v := SEND_CMD55; -- Repeat the CMD55, CMD41 sequence.
else -- Some error occurred.
state_v := REPORT_ERROR; -- Report the error and stall.
end if;
when WAIT_FOR_HOST_RW => -- Wait for the host to read or write a block of data from the SD card.
clkDivider_v := SCLK_PHASE_PERIOD_C - 1; -- Set SPI clock frequency for normal operation.
getCmdResponse_v := true; -- Get R1 response to any commands issued to the SD card.
if rd_i = YES then -- send READ command and address to the SD card.
cs_bo <= LO; -- Enable the SD card.
if continue_i = YES then -- Multi-block read. Use stored address.
if CARD_TYPE_G = SD_CARD_E then -- SD cards use byte-addressing,
addr_v := addr_v + BLOCK_SIZE_G; -- so add block-size to get next block address.
else -- SDHC cards use block-addressing,
addr_v := addr_v + 1; -- so just increment current block address.
end if;
txCmd_v := READ_BLK_CMD_C & std_logic_vector(addr_v) & FAKE_CRC_C;
else -- Single-block read.
txCmd_v := READ_BLK_CMD_C & addr_i & FAKE_CRC_C; -- Use address supplied by host.
addr_v := unsigned(addr_i); -- Store address for multi-block operations.
end if;
bitCnt_v := txCmd_v'length; -- Set bit counter to the size of the command.
byteCnt_v := RD_BLK_SZ_C;
state_v := START_TX; -- Go to FSM subroutine to send the command.
rtnState_v := RD_BLK; -- Then go to this state to read the data block.
elsif wr_i = YES then -- send WRITE command and address to the SD card.
cs_bo <= LO; -- Enable the SD card.
if continue_i = YES then -- Multi-block write. Use stored address.
if CARD_TYPE_G = SD_CARD_E then -- SD cards use byte-addressing,
addr_v := addr_v + BLOCK_SIZE_G; -- so add block-size to get next block address.
else -- SDHC cards use block-addressing,
addr_v := addr_v + 1; -- so just increment current block address.
end if;
txCmd_v := WRITE_BLK_CMD_C & std_logic_vector(addr_v) & FAKE_CRC_C;
else -- Single-block write.
txCmd_v := WRITE_BLK_CMD_C & addr_i & FAKE_CRC_C; -- Use address supplied by host.
addr_v := unsigned(addr_i); -- Store address for multi-block operations.
end if;
bitCnt_v := txCmd_v'length; -- Set bit counter to the size of the command.
byteCnt_v := WR_BLK_SZ_C; -- Set number of bytes to write.
state_v := START_TX; -- Go to this FSM subroutine to send the command ...
rtnState_v := WR_BLK; -- then go to this state to write the data block.
else -- Do nothing and wait for command from host.
cs_bo <= HI; -- Deselect the SD card.
busy_o <= NO; -- SD card interface is waiting for R/W from host, so it's not busy.
state_v := WAIT_FOR_HOST_RW; -- Keep waiting for command from host.
end if;
when RD_BLK => -- Read a block of data from the SD card.
-- Some default values for these...
rtnData_v := false; -- Data is only returned to host in one place.
bitCnt_v := rx_v'length - 1; -- Receiving byte-sized data.
state_v := RX_BITS; -- Call the bit receiver routine.
rtnState_v := RD_BLK; -- Return here when done receiving a byte.
if byteCnt_v = RD_BLK_SZ_C then -- Initial read to prime the pump.
byteCnt_v := byteCnt_v - 1;
elsif byteCnt_v = RD_BLK_SZ_C -1 then -- Then look for the data block start token.
if rx_v = NO_TOKEN_C then -- Receiving 0xFF means the card hasn't responded yet. Keep trying.
null;
elsif rx_v = START_TOKEN_C then
rtnData_v := true; -- Found the start token, so now start returning data byes to the host.
byteCnt_v := byteCnt_v - 1;
else -- Getting anything else means something strange has happened.
state_v := REPORT_ERROR;
end if;
elsif byteCnt_v >= 3 then -- Now bytes of data from the SD card are received.
rtnData_v := true; -- Return this data to the host.
byteCnt_v := byteCnt_v - 1;
elsif byteCnt_v = 2 then -- Receive the 1st CRC byte at the end of the data block.
byteCnt_v := byteCnt_v - 1;
elsif byteCnt_v = 1 then -- Receive the 2nd
byteCnt_v := byteCnt_v - 1;
else -- Reading is done, so deselect the SD card.
sclk_r <= LO;
bitCnt_v := 2;
state_v := DESELECT;
rtnState_v := WAIT_FOR_HOST_RW;
end if;
when WR_BLK => -- Write a block of data to the SD card.
-- Some default values for these...
getCmdResponse_v := false; -- Sending data bytes so there's no command response from SD card.
bitCnt_v := txData_v'length; -- Transmitting byte-sized data.
state_v := START_TX; -- Call the bit transmitter routine.
rtnState_v := WR_BLK; -- Return here when done transmitting a byte.
if byteCnt_v = WR_BLK_SZ_C then
txData_v := NO_TOKEN_C; -- Hold MOSI high for one byte before data block goes out.
elsif byteCnt_v = WR_BLK_SZ_C - 1 then -- Send start token.
txData_v := START_TOKEN_C; -- Starting token for data block.
elsif byteCnt_v >= 4 then -- Now send bytes in the data block.
hndShk_r <= HI; -- Signal host to provide data.
-- The transmit shift register is loaded with data from host in the handshaking section above.
elsif byteCnt_v = 3 or byteCnt_v = 2 then -- Send two phony CRC bytes at end of packet.
txData_v := FAKE_CRC_C;
elsif byteCnt_v = 1 then
bitCnt_v := rx_v'length - 1;
state_v := RX_BITS; -- Get response of SD card to the write operation.
rtnState_v := WR_WAIT;
else -- Check received response byte.
if std_match(rx_v, DATA_ACCEPTED_C) then -- Data block was accepted.
state_v := WR_WAIT; -- Wait for the SD card to finish writing the data into Flash.
else -- Data block was rejected.
error_o(15 downto 8) <= rx_v;
state_v := REPORT_ERROR; -- Report the error.
end if;
end if;
byteCnt_v := byteCnt_v - 1;
when WR_WAIT => -- Wait for SD card to finish writing the data block.
-- The SD card will pull MISO low while it is busy, and raise it when it is done.
sclk_r <= not sclk_r; -- Toggle the SPI clock...
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- and set the duration of the next clock phase.
if sclk_r = HI and miso_i = HI then -- Data block has been written, so deselect the SD card.
bitCnt_v := 2;
state_v := DESELECT;
rtnState_v := WAIT_FOR_HOST_RW;
end if;
when START_TX =>
-- Start sending command/data by lowering SCLK and outputing MSB of command/data
-- so it has plenty of setup before the rising edge of SCLK.
sclk_r <= LO; -- Lower the SCLK (although it should already be low).
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- Set the duration of the low SCLK.
mosi_o <= tx_v(tx_v'high); -- Output MSB of command/data.
tx_v := tx_v(tx_v'high-1 downto 0) & ONE; -- Shift command/data register by one bit.
bitCnt_v := bitCnt_v - 1; -- The first bit has been sent, so decrement bit counter.
state_v := TX_BITS; -- Go here to shift out the rest of the command/data bits.
when TX_BITS => -- Shift out remaining command/data bits and (possibly) get response from SD card.
sclk_r <= not sclk_r; -- Toggle the SPI clock...
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- and set the duration of the next clock phase.
if sclk_r = HI then
-- SCLK is going to be flipped from high to low, so output the next command/data bit
-- so it can setup while SCLK is low.
if bitCnt_v /= 0 then -- Keep sending bits until the bit counter hits zero.
mosi_o <= tx_v(tx_v'high);
tx_v := tx_v(tx_v'high-1 downto 0) & ONE;
bitCnt_v := bitCnt_v - 1;
else
if getCmdResponse_v then
state_v := GET_CMD_RESPONSE; -- Get a response to the command from the SD card.
bitCnt_v := Response_t'length - 1; -- Length of the expected response.
else
state_v := rtnState_v; -- Return to calling state (no need to get a response).
sclkPhaseTimer_v := 0; -- Clear timer so next SPI op can begin ASAP with SCLK low.
end if;
end if;
end if;
when GET_CMD_RESPONSE => -- Get the response of the SD card to a command.
if sclk_r = HI and miso_i = LO then -- MISO will be held high by SD card until 1st bit of R1 response, which is 0.
-- Shift in the MSB bit of the response.
rx_v := rx_v(rx_v'high-1 downto 0) & miso_i;
bitCnt_v := bitCnt_v - 1;
state_v := RX_BITS; -- Now receive the reset of the response.
end if;
sclk_r <= not sclk_r; -- Toggle the SPI clock...
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- and set the duration of the next clock phase.
when RX_BITS => -- Receive bits from the SD card.
if sclk_r = HI then -- Bits enter after the rising edge of SCLK.
rx_v := rx_v(rx_v'high-1 downto 0) & miso_i;
if bitCnt_v /= 0 then -- More bits left to receive.
bitCnt_v := bitCnt_v - 1;
else -- Last bit has been received.
if rtnData_v then -- Send the received data to the host.
data_o <= rx_v; -- Output received data to the host.
hndShk_r <= HI; -- Signal to the host that the data is ready.
end if;
if doDeselect_v then
bitCnt_v := 1;
state_v := DESELECT; -- De-select SD card before returning.
else
state_v := rtnState_v; -- Otherwise, return to calling state without de-selecting.
end if;
end if;
end if;
sclk_r <= not sclk_r; -- Toggle the SPI clock...
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- and set the duration of the next clock phase.
when DESELECT => -- De-select the SD card and send some clock pulses (Must enter with sclk at zero.)
doDeselect_v := false; -- Once the de-select is done, clear the flag that caused it.
cs_bo <= HI; -- De-select the SD card.
mosi_o <= HI; -- Keep the data input of the SD card pulled high.
state_v := PULSE_SCLK; -- Pulse the clock so the SD card will see the de-select.
sclk_r <= LO; -- Clock is set low so the next rising edge will see the new CS and MOSI
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- Set the duration of the next clock phase.
when PULSE_SCLK => -- Issue some clock pulses. (Must enter with sclk at zero.)
if sclk_r = HI then
if bitCnt_v /= 0 then
bitCnt_v := bitCnt_v - 1;
else -- Return to the calling routine when the pulse counter reaches zero.
state_v := rtnState_v;
end if;
end if;
sclk_r <= not sclk_r; -- Toggle the SPI clock...
sclkPhaseTimer_v := clkDivider_v; -- and set the duration of the next clock phase.
when REPORT_ERROR => -- Report the error code and stall here until a reset occurs.
error_o(rx_v'range) <= rx_v; -- Output the SD card response as the error code.
busy_o <= NO; -- Not busy.
when others =>
state_v := START_INIT;
end case;
end if;
end if;
end process;
sclk_o <= sclk_r; -- Output the generated SPI clock for the SD card.
hndShk_o <= hndShk_r; -- Output the generated handshake to the host.
end architecture;
--**********************************************************************
-- This module connects the SD card controller interface to a HostIoToDut
-- interface so the controller can be tested from a PC over a USB link.
--**********************************************************************
library IEEE, XESS;
use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;
use IEEE.numeric_std.all;
use IEEE.math_real.all;
use XESS.CommonPckg.all;
use XESS.ClkGenPckg.all;
use XESS.HostIoPckg.all;
use XESS.SdCardPckg.all;
use XESS.SyncToClockPckg.all;
use work.XessBoardPckg.all;
entity SdCardCtrlTest is
generic (
BASE_FREQ_G : real := 12.0;
CLK_MUL_G : natural := 25;
CLK_DIV_G : natural := 3
);
port (
fpgaClk_i : in std_logic;
flashCs_bo : out std_logic;
usdflashCs_bo : out std_logic;
sclk_o : out std_logic;
miso_i : in std_logic;
mosi_o : out std_logic
);
end entity;
architecture arch of SdCardCtrlTest is
signal clk_s : std_logic;
signal rd_is : std_logic;
signal wr_is : std_logic;
signal rdFromPc_s : std_logic;
signal wrFromPc_s : std_logic;
signal continue_is : std_logic;
signal addr_is : std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
signal data_is : std_logic_vector(7 downto 0);
signal hndShkFromPc_s : std_logic;
signal hndShk_is : std_logic;
signal reset_is : std_logic;
signal vectorToDut_s : std_logic_vector(44 downto 0);
signal data_os : std_logic_vector(7 downto 0);
signal busy_os : std_logic;
signal hndShk_os : std_logic;
signal error_os : std_logic_vector(15 downto 0);
signal vectorFromDut_s : std_logic_vector(25 downto 0);
begin
--**********************************************************************
--**********************************************************************
-- Keep the serial configuration flash turned off on the XuLA2.
-- There is no serial configuration flash-enable on the XuLA, so set
-- this output at high impedance to keep it from affecting anything.
flashCs_bo <= HI when XESS_BOARD_C = XuLA2_E else
HIZ when XESS_BOARD_C = XuLA_E else
HIZ;
--**********************************************************************
-- Generate a higher frequency clock.
--**********************************************************************
u0 : ClkGen
generic map (BASE_FREQ_G => BASE_FREQ_G, CLK_MUL_G => CLK_MUL_G, CLK_DIV_G => CLK_DIV_G)
port map(I => fpgaClk_i, O => clk_s);
--**********************************************************************
-- Interface a PC to the DUT which is the SD card controller.
--**********************************************************************
u1 : HostIoToDut
generic map(
FPGA_DEVICE_G => FPGA_FAMILY_C,
SIMPLE_G => true
)
port map(
vectorToDut_o => vectorToDut_s,
vectorFromDut_i => vectorFromDut_s
);
rdFromPc_s <= vectorToDut_s(0);
wrFromPc_s <= vectorToDut_s(1);
continue_is <= vectorToDut_s(2);
addr_is <= vectorToDut_s(34 downto 3);
data_is <= vectorToDut_s(42 downto 35);
hndShkFromPc_s <= vectorToDut_s(43);
reset_is <= vectorToDut_s(44);
vectorFromDut_s <= error_os & hndShk_os & busy_os & data_os;
--**********************************************************************
-- Synchronize some control signals from the HostIoToDut to the SD card controller.
--**********************************************************************
u2a : SyncToClock
port map(
clk_i => clk_s,
unsynced_i => hndShkFromPc_s,
synced_o => hndShk_is
);
u2b : SyncToClock
port map(
clk_i => clk_s,
unsynced_i => rdFromPc_s,
synced_o => rd_is
);
u2c : SyncToClock
port map(
clk_i => clk_s,
unsynced_i => wrFromPc_s,
synced_o => wr_is
);
--**********************************************************************
-- SD card controller module.
--**********************************************************************
u3 : SdCardCtrl
generic map (
FREQ_G => BASE_FREQ_G * real(CLK_MUL_G) / real(CLK_DIV_G)
)
port map (
clk_i => clk_s,
-- Host interface.
reset_i => reset_is,
rd_i => rd_is,
wr_i => wr_is,
continue_i => continue_is,
addr_i => addr_is,
data_i => data_is,
data_o => data_os,
busy_o => busy_os,
hndShk_i => hndShk_is,
hndShk_o => hndShk_os,
error_o => error_os,
-- I/O signals to the external SD card.
cs_bo => usdflashCs_bo,
sclk_o => sclk_o,
mosi_o => mosi_o,
miso_i => miso_i
);
end architecture;