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No. Well, at least, you publish artifacts ; and artifacts may be other file types than jar files. For examples, most of open-source projects publish sources and javadoc to maven. It's packaged as jar, but does not contains any .class files.
I'm not sure the way you want to do it, but when I have to publish various things to maven, I use build-helper:attach-artifact to attach additional artifacts to publish.
If you look at maven artifact definition you see standard groupId, artifactId, version, scope to define the use, and more important, type and classifier.
You may add as many artifact as you want, and (artifacts, pom, checksum) is the component.
You may also have a look at deploy:deploy-file who allows you to deploy one or many files to a remote repository, outside of a maven project. Better, it's able to generate the pom.xml file if you do not provide one. It may be useful in this case.