transcode and cache short video clips & thumbnails from long-form video for cheap on GCP Functions
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README.md

serverless video trimmer & thumbnailer

Trim or transcode video clips from long files on serverless platforms (Lambda and GCF). Used in a video pipeline to generate custom user-specified clips server-side. Especially quick for long files as trimming/transcoding is done with byte-range requests. Repeated requests are served from a storage-backed bucket on S3 or GCS.

Usage

The general format of the URL is https://FUNCTION_URL/{operation}/{parameters}/{source_filename}.

The operation is either a video trim or a thumbnail.

Allowed parameters are fast, width, height, start and end:

  • fast (optional) does a straight codec copy (-c copy in ffmpeg), avoiding a slow transcoding step
  • width and height (optional) specifies output width and height in pixels. For thumbnails, a percentage can be specified.
  • start and end (optional) are the start and finish timestamps in seconds.

Example live URLs

Return a thumbnail 200px wide at 50 seconds: https://asia-northeast1-personal-projects-225512.cloudfunctions.net/video-segmentation/thumbnail/start:50,width:200/5_minute_timer.mp4

Return a thumbnail at 50% duration (original video size): https://asia-northeast1-personal-projects-225512.cloudfunctions.net/video-segmentation/thumbnail/start:50%/5_minute_timer.mp4

Return a video clip from 10.5 seconds to 20.5 seconds, compressed to 240p: https://asia-northeast1-personal-projects-225512.cloudfunctions.net/video-segmentation/trim/start:10.5,end:20.5,height:240/5_minute_timer.mp4

Return a video clip from 10.5 seconds to 20.5 seconds (original video size): https://asia-northeast1-personal-projects-225512.cloudfunctions.net/video-segmentation/trim/start:10.5,end:20.5,fast/5_minute_timer.mp4

Advantages & disadvantages

The pseudo-streaming/byte-range approach to the input file has several key advantages:

  • Not limited by Lambda / GCF limitations on storage capacity, which for longer videos can be easy to hit
  • Trimming LONG videos (>5GB) is much faster, as the entire original file does not need to be downloaded first, only the relevant section
  • The video is being transcoded as it is being downloaded

Of course, serverless also comes with its own advantages:

  • Massive scalability & concurrency
  • No need to provision servers
  • Reduced costs, because functions run only when requested

This approach also comes with disadvantages (some pretty big):

  • The first uncached request will take some time before a response is generated
  • Not all video formats support pseudo/progressive streaming
  • Requires generation of signed URLs as it relies on HTTP byte range requests
  • Transcoding can be slow, as even the largest GCF configurations are very weak for video processing (max 2 vCPU)
  • GCF as of this time does not support caching with a CDN layer in front natively, so a regional GCS bucket is used instead as a asset store
  • 301/302/307 replies for existing assets is another set of handshakes for the client, slightly increasing load times

Possible improvements

  • Switch from HTTP triggers to a pub/sub model
  • Put behind Firebase Hosting and use it as a CDN
  • Improve cold start times
  • Improve ffmpeg start up times with a barebones static build

Technologies used

  • python 3.7
  • Google Cloud Datastore
  • Google Cloud Storage
  • Google Cloud Functions
  • ffmpeg
  • ffprobe
  • Flask
  • terraform

Deployment

  • From gcloud command line: gcloud functions deploy serverless-ffmpeg-segmentation --runtime python37 --region=asia-northeast1 --trigger-http --entry-point=trim --memory=2048MB
  • Using terraform: run terraform init then terraform apply from the terraform folder. Will set up artifact bucket and automatically zip and create a function video-segmentation.

Notes

I ran into issues with the static build of ffmpeg in that it errors with a segfault if doing a overlay filter with a seeked HTTP streaming input. I believe it is related to the timestamp being negative after seeking on a pseudo-streaming input, but more testing is needed. No issues with the build installed through apt.