🔧 Middleware for keeping track of users, login states and permissions
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.

README.md

pstore Build Status GoDoc Report Card

Middleware for keeping track of users, login states and permissions.

Uses PostgreSQL for the database. For using Redis as a backend instead, look into permissions2. There is also a BoltDB and MariaDB/MySQL backend. They are interchangeable.

Online API Documentation

godoc.org

Connecting

For connecting to a PostgreSQL host that is running locally, the New function can be used. For connecting to a remote server, the NewWithDSN function can be used.

Features and limitations

  • Uses secure cookies and stores user information in a PostgreSQL database.
  • Suitable for running a local PostgreSQL server, registering/confirming users and managing public/user/admin pages.
  • Also supports connecting to remote PostgreSQL servers.
  • Supports registration and confirmation via generated confirmation codes.
  • Tries to keep things simple.
  • Only supports "public", "user" and "admin" permissions out of the box, but offers functionality for implementing more fine grained permissions, if so desired.
  • Supports Negroni, Martini, Gin, Goji and plain net/http.
  • Should also work with other frameworks, since the standard http.HandlerFunc is used everywhere.
  • The default permissions can be cleared with the Clear() function.

Example for Negroni

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strings"

	"github.com/codegangsta/negroni"
	"github.com/xyproto/pstore"
)

func main() {
	n := negroni.Classic()
	mux := http.NewServeMux()

	// New pstore middleware
	perm, err := pstore.New()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalln(err)
	}

	// Blank slate, no default permissions
	//perm.Clear()

	// Get the userstate, used in the handlers below
	userstate := perm.UserState()

	mux.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Has user bob: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Logged in on server: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Is confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Username stored in cookies (or blank): %v\n", userstate.Username(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *user rights*: %v\n", userstate.UserRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *admin rights*: %v\n", userstate.AdminRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "\nTry: /register, /confirm, /remove, /login, /logout, /makeadmin, /clear, /data and /admin")
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/register", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.AddUser("bob", "hunter1", "bob@zombo.com")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was created: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/confirm", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.MarkConfirmed("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/remove", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.RemoveUser("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was removed: %v\n", !userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/login", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.Login(w, "bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged in: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/logout", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.Logout("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged out: %v\n", !userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/makeadmin", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.SetAdminStatus("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now administrator: %v\n", userstate.IsAdmin("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/clear", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.ClearCookie(w)
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Clearing cookie")
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "user page that only logged in users must see!")
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/admin", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "super secret information that only logged in administrators must see!\n\n")
		if usernames, err := userstate.AllUsernames(); err == nil {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "list of all users: "+strings.Join(usernames, ", "))
		}
	})

	// Custom handler for when permissions are denied
	perm.SetDenyFunction(func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		http.Error(w, "Permission denied!", http.StatusForbidden)
	})

	// Enable the pstore middleware
	n.Use(perm)

	// Use mux for routing, this goes last
	n.UseHandler(mux)

	// Serve
	n.Run(":3000")
}

Example for Martini

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strings"

	"github.com/go-martini/martini"
	"github.com/xyproto/pstore"
)

func main() {
	m := martini.Classic()

	// New pstore middleware
	perm, err := pstore.New()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalln(err)
	}

	// Blank slate, no default permissions
	//perm.Clear()

	// Get the userstate, used in the handlers below
	userstate := perm.UserState()

	m.Get("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Has user bob: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Logged in on server: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Is confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Username stored in cookies (or blank): %v\n", userstate.Username(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *user rights*: %v\n", userstate.UserRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *admin rights*: %v\n", userstate.AdminRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "\nTry: /register, /confirm, /remove, /login, /logout, /makeadmin, /clear, /data and /admin")
	})

	m.Get("/register", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.AddUser("bob", "hunter1", "bob@zombo.com")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was created: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	m.Get("/confirm", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.MarkConfirmed("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
	})

	m.Get("/remove", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.RemoveUser("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was removed: %v\n", !userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	m.Get("/login", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.Login(w, "bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged in: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	m.Get("/logout", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.Logout("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged out: %v\n", !userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	m.Get("/makeadmin", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.SetAdminStatus("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now administrator: %v\n", userstate.IsAdmin("bob"))
	})

	m.Get("/clear", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		userstate.ClearCookie(w)
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Clearing cookie")
	})

	m.Get("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "user page that only logged in users must see!")
	})

	m.Get("/admin", func(w http.ResponseWriter) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "super secret information that only logged in administrators must see!\n\n")
		if usernames, err := userstate.AllUsernames(); err == nil {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "list of all users: "+strings.Join(usernames, ", "))
		}
	})

	// Set up a middleware handler for Martini, with a custom "permission denied" message.
	permissionHandler := func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request, c martini.Context) {
		// Check if the user has the right admin/user rights
		if perm.Rejected(w, req) {
			// Deny the request
			http.Error(w, "Permission denied!", http.StatusForbidden)
			// Reject the request by not calling the next handler below
			return
		}
		// Call the next middleware handler
		c.Next()
	}

	// Enable the pstore middleware
	m.Use(permissionHandler)

	// Serve
	m.Run()
}

Example for Gin

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strings"

	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
	"github.com/xyproto/pstore"
)

func main() {
	g := gin.New()

	// New pstore middleware
	perm, err := pstore.New()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalln(err)
	}

	// Blank slate, no default permissions
	//perm.Clear()

	// Set up a middleware handler for Gin, with a custom "permission denied" message.
	permissionHandler := func(c *gin.Context) {
		// Check if the user has the right admin/user rights
		if perm.Rejected(c.Writer, c.Request) {
			// Deny the request, don't call other middleware handlers
			c.AbortWithStatus(http.StatusForbidden)
			fmt.Fprint(c.Writer, "Permission denied!")
			return
		}
		// Call the next middleware handler
		c.Next()
	}

	// Logging middleware
	g.Use(gin.Logger())

	// Enable the pstore middleware, must come before recovery
	g.Use(permissionHandler)

	// Recovery middleware
	g.Use(gin.Recovery())

	// Get the userstate, used in the handlers below
	userstate := perm.UserState()

	g.GET("/", func(c *gin.Context) {
		msg := ""
		msg += fmt.Sprintf("Has user bob: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
		msg += fmt.Sprintf("Logged in on server: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
		msg += fmt.Sprintf("Is confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
		msg += fmt.Sprintf("Username stored in cookies (or blank): %v\n", userstate.Username(c.Request))
		msg += fmt.Sprintf("Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *user rights*: %v\n", userstate.UserRights(c.Request))
		msg += fmt.Sprintf("Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *admin rights*: %v\n", userstate.AdminRights(c.Request))
		msg += fmt.Sprintln("\nTry: /register, /confirm, /remove, /login, /logout, /makeadmin, /clear, /data and /admin")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, msg)
	})

	g.GET("/register", func(c *gin.Context) {
		userstate.AddUser("bob", "hunter1", "bob@zombo.com")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("User bob was created: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob")))
	})

	g.GET("/confirm", func(c *gin.Context) {
		userstate.MarkConfirmed("bob")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("User bob was confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob")))
	})

	g.GET("/remove", func(c *gin.Context) {
		userstate.RemoveUser("bob")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("User bob was removed: %v\n", !userstate.HasUser("bob")))
	})

	g.GET("/login", func(c *gin.Context) {
		// Headers will be written, for storing a cookie
		userstate.Login(c.Writer, "bob")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("bob is now logged in: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob")))
	})

	g.GET("/logout", func(c *gin.Context) {
		userstate.Logout("bob")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("bob is now logged out: %v\n", !userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob")))
	})

	g.GET("/makeadmin", func(c *gin.Context) {
		userstate.SetAdminStatus("bob")
		c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("bob is now administrator: %v\n", userstate.IsAdmin("bob")))
	})

	g.GET("/clear", func(c *gin.Context) {
		userstate.ClearCookie(c.Writer)
		c.String(http.StatusOK, "Clearing cookie")
	})

	g.GET("/data", func(c *gin.Context) {
		c.String(http.StatusOK, "user page that only logged in users must see!")
	})

	g.GET("/admin", func(c *gin.Context) {
		c.String(http.StatusOK, "super secret information that only logged in administrators must see!\n\n")
		if usernames, err := userstate.AllUsernames(); err == nil {
			c.String(http.StatusOK, "list of all users: "+strings.Join(usernames, ", "))
		}
	})

	// Serve
	g.Run(":3000")
}

Example for Goji

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strings"

	"github.com/xyproto/pstore"
	"github.com/zenazn/goji"
)

func main() {
	// New permissions middleware
	perm, err := pstore.New()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalln(err)
	}

	// Blank slate, no default permissions
	//perm.Clear()

	// Get the userstate, used in the handlers below
	userstate := perm.UserState()

	goji.Get("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Has user bob: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Logged in on server: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Is confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Username stored in cookies (or blank): %v\n", userstate.Username(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *user rights*: %v\n", userstate.UserRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *admin rights*: %v\n", userstate.AdminRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "\nTry: /register, /confirm, /remove, /login, /logout, /makeadmin, /clear, /data and /admin")
	})

	goji.Get("/register", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.AddUser("bob", "hunter1", "bob@zombo.com")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was created: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	goji.Get("/confirm", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.MarkConfirmed("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
	})

	goji.Get("/remove", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.RemoveUser("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was removed: %v\n", !userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	goji.Get("/login", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.Login(w, "bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged in: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	goji.Get("/logout", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.Logout("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged out: %v\n", !userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	goji.Get("/makeadmin", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.SetAdminStatus("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now administrator: %v\n", userstate.IsAdmin("bob"))
	})

	goji.Get("/clear", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.ClearCookie(w)
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Clearing cookie")
	})

	goji.Get("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "user page that only logged in users must see!")
	})

	goji.Get("/admin", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "super secret information that only logged in administrators must see!\n\n")
		if usernames, err := userstate.AllUsernames(); err == nil {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "list of all users: "+strings.Join(usernames, ", "))
		}
	})

	// Custom "permissions denied" message
	perm.SetDenyFunction(func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		http.Error(w, "Permission denied!", http.StatusForbidden)
	})

	// Permissions middleware for Goji
	permissionHandler := func(next http.Handler) http.Handler {
		return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
			// Check if the user has the right admin/user rights
			if perm.Rejected(w, req) {
				// Deny the request
				perm.DenyFunction()(w, req)
				return
			}
			// Serve the requested page
			next.ServeHTTP(w, req)
		})
	}

	// Enable the permissions middleware
	goji.Use(permissionHandler)

	// Goji will listen to port 8000 by default
	goji.Serve()
}

Example for just net/http

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strings"
	"time"

	"github.com/xyproto/pstore"
	"github.com/xyproto/pinterface"
)

type permissionHandler struct {
	// perm is a Permissions structure that can be used to deny requests
	// and acquire the UserState. By using `pinterface.IPermissions` instead
	// of `*pstore.Permissions`, the code is compatible with not only
	// `pstore`, but also other modules that uses other database
	// backends, like `permissions2` which uses Redis.
	perm pinterface.IPermissions

	// The HTTP multiplexer
	mux *http.ServeMux
}

// Implement the ServeHTTP method to make a permissionHandler a http.Handler
func (ph *permissionHandler) ServeHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
	// Check if the user has the right admin/user rights
	if ph.perm.Rejected(w, req) {
		// Let the user know, by calling the custom "permission denied" function
		ph.perm.DenyFunction()(w, req)
		// Reject the request by not calling the next handler below
		return
	}
	// Serve the requested page if permissions were granted
	ph.mux.ServeHTTP(w, req)
}

func main() {
	mux := http.NewServeMux()

	// New pstore middleware
	perm, err := pstore.New()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal("Could not open Bolt database")
	}

	// Blank slate, no default permissions
	//perm.Clear()

	// Get the userstate, used in the handlers below
	userstate := perm.UserState()

	mux.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Has user bob: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Logged in on server: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Is confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Username stored in cookies (or blank): %v\n", userstate.Username(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *user rights*: %v\n", userstate.UserRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Current user is logged in, has a valid cookie and *admin rights*: %v\n", userstate.AdminRights(req))
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "\nTry: /register, /confirm, /remove, /login, /logout, /makeadmin, /clear, /data and /admin")
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/register", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.AddUser("bob", "hunter1", "bob@zombo.com")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was created: %v\n", userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/confirm", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.MarkConfirmed("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was confirmed: %v\n", userstate.IsConfirmed("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/remove", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.RemoveUser("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "User bob was removed: %v\n", !userstate.HasUser("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/login", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.Login(w, "bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged in: %v\n", userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/logout", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.Logout("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now logged out: %v\n", !userstate.IsLoggedIn("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/makeadmin", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.SetAdminStatus("bob")
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "bob is now administrator: %v\n", userstate.IsAdmin("bob"))
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/clear", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		userstate.ClearCookie(w)
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Clearing cookie")
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "user page that only logged in users must see!")
	})

	mux.HandleFunc("/admin", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "super secret information that only logged in administrators must see!\n\n")
		if usernames, err := userstate.AllUsernames(); err == nil {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "list of all users: "+strings.Join(usernames, ", "))
		}
	})

	// Custom handler for when permissions are denied
	perm.SetDenyFunction(func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		http.Error(w, "Permission denied!", http.StatusForbidden)
	})

	// Configure the HTTP server and permissionHandler struct
	s := &http.Server{
		Addr:           ":3000",
		Handler:        &permissionHandler{perm, mux},
		ReadTimeout:    10 * time.Second,
		WriteTimeout:   10 * time.Second,
		MaxHeaderBytes: 1 << 20,
	}

	log.Println("Listening for requests on port 3000")

	// Start listening
	s.ListenAndServe()
}

Default permissions

  • The /admin path prefix has admin rights by default.
  • These path prefixes has user rights by default: /repo and /data
  • These path prefixes are public by default: /, /login, /register, /style, /img, /js, /favicon.ico, /robots.txt and /sitemap_index.xml

The default permissions can be cleared with the Clear() function.

Coding style

  • The code shall always be formatted with go fmt.

Password hashing

  • bcrypt is used by default for hashing passwords. sha256 is also supported.
  • By default, all new password will be hashed with bcrypt.
  • For backwards compatibility, old password hashes with the length of a sha256 hash will be checked with sha256. To disable this behavior, and only ever use bcrypt, add this line: userstate.SetPasswordAlgo("bcrypt")

Passing userstate between functions, files and to other Go packages

Using the *pinterface.IUserState type (from the pinterface package) makes it possible to pass UserState structs between functions, also in other packages. By using this interface, it is possible to seamlessly change the database backend from, for instance, Redis (permissions2) to BoltDB (permissionbolt).

pstore, permissionsql, permissionbolt and permissions2 are interchangeable.

Retrieving the underlying PostgreSQL database

Here is a short example application for retrieving the underlying PostgreSQL database:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"github.com/xyproto/pstore"
	"github.com/xyproto/simplehstore"
)

func main() {
	perm, err := pstore.New()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println("Could not open database")
		return
	}
	ustate := perm.UserState()

	// A bit of checking is needed, since the database backend is interchangeable
	if pustate, ok := ustate.(*pstore.UserState); ok {
		if host, ok := pustate.Host().(*simplehstore.Host); ok {
			db := host.Database()
			fmt.Printf("PostgreSQL database: %v (%T)\n", db, db)
		}
	} else {
		fmt.Println("Not using the PostgreSQL database backend")
	}
}

General information