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Module to augment Express routes with metadata.

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Express Annotations

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Augment your Express routes with metadata, so they can be serialized and shared between different environments, such as the browser and server.



When creating routes for an application, there's often extra information that might be helpful to be attached to them when rendering them out in a template.

For instance, if you were creating a navigation menu, and wanted it to be updated automatically whenever you created a new route on your application, it might be useful to know what label you would want the route to have on the menu, and what subsection of your application that route would fall under, so you could automatically render it as soon as you set up the route.

Express Annotations solves this problem for you by giving you the ability to set arbitrary metadata on any route in your Express application, which you serialize to use in any environment, be in browser or server.

How It Works

You specify a route path and an annotations object using app.annotate(path, annotations). These annotations are added to an app-level annotations object, which you can use to look up the annotations of any route in your application.


Install using npm:

$ npm install express-annotations


Extending an Express App

To use Express Annotations with an Express app, the app must first be extended. Use the extend() method that Express Annotations exports:

var express     = require('express'),
    annotations = require('express-annotations'),

    app = express();


Once extended, the app object will contain two new methods, and a new property, annotations:


app.annotate(path, annotations)

This function takes in a given URL path string for a route, and an annotations object, which can contain any arbitrary values.

It maps together that path to the provided annotations object inside of app.annotations. If that path has existing annotations in app.annotations, then the new annotations object will extend those existing annotations, overwriting any previous annotations with the same key.

An example of using this method:

app.annotate('/movies', {label: 'Movies', section: 'entertainment'});
app.annotate('/finance', {label: 'Finance', section: 'news'});

app.get('/movies', function (req, res) {
    // ...

app.get('/finance', function (req, res) {
    // ...

A common technique to use is to create a sugar method that combines the actual app.VERB() route with app.annotate(), though we kept this separate for more flexibility in how you use Express Annotations. The above is functionally equivalent to:

function labelPage(path, annotations, callback) {
    app.annotate(path, annotations);
    app.get(path, callback);

labelPage('/movies', {label: 'Movies', section: 'entertainment'}, function (req, res) {
    // ...

labelPage('/finance', {label: 'Finance', section: 'news'}, function (req, res) {
    // ...

This sets up the annotations for you, which you can use directly by referencing them inside of the app.annotations object, or filter them, using the app.findAll function.


This function returns an object representing the list of available routes, sorted by their respective HTTP methods. If no annotations are passed in, then all routes are returned (effectively the same as app.routes).

An example object, using the routes above, looks like this:

    get: [{
        path: '/movies',
        method: 'get',
        callbacks: [Object],
        keys: [],
        regexp: /^\/movies\/?$/i
    }, {
        path: '/finance',
        method: 'get',
        callbacks: [Object],
        keys: [],
        regexp: /^\/finance\/?$/i

Like the app.routes object, there can be multiple keys (for HTTP methods such as get, post, put, delete, etc.), and they can also have references to their parameter keys as well as multiple callbacks.

If you wanted to get only the routes that were in the news section, for instance:

var newsRoutes = app.findAll({ section: 'news' });
Would only return one route => {
    get: [{
        path: '/finance',
        method: 'get',
        callbacks: [Object],
        keys: [],
        regexp: /^\/finance\/?$/i

app.findAll is extremely flexible and can take any of the following parameters:

  • Strings (for the key of the annotation)
  • Objects (for a specific key/value pair of the annotation)
  • Arrays (combining a mix of any number of string or object filters)
  • Functions (with anything returning truthy to be considered a match)



This is the annotations object, which simply is just a map between the route paths and their annotations. Using the above annotations, we have the following object:

    '/movies': {
        label: 'Movies',
        section: 'entertainment'
    '/finance': {
        label: 'Finance',
        section: 'news'

Advanced Use Cases

There are many possible uses for Express Annotations, particularly with sharing data between client-side routes and server-side routes for single page applications.

It's generally recommended to use Express Map as well when using Express Annotations. You can take a look at some of the more advanced examples with Express Map to see what more complicated applications can be created in combination with Express Annotations.


This software is free to use under the Yahoo! Inc. BSD license. See the LICENSE file for license text and copyright information.


See the CONTRIBUTING file for information on contributing back to Express Map.

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