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So, you've installed Yandex.Tank to a proper machine, it is close to target, access is permitted and server is tuned. How to make a test?


This guide is for phantom load generator.

Create a file on a server with Yandex.Tank: load.yaml

  address: # [Target's address]:[target's port]
    - /
    load_type: rps # schedule load by defining requests per second
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m) # starting from 1rps growing linearly to 10rps during 10 minutes
  enabled: true # enable console output
  enabled: false # let's disable telegraf monitoring for the first time

And run: $ yandex-tank -c load.yaml

phantom have 3 primitives for describing load scheme:

  1. step (a,b,step,dur) makes stepped load, where a,b are start/end load values, step - increment value, dur - step duration.
  • step(25, 5, 5, 60) - stepped load from 25 to 5 rps, with 5 rps steps, step duration 60s.
  • step(5, 25, 5, 60) - stepped load from 5 to 25 rps, with 5 rps steps, step duration 60s
  1. line (a,b,dur) makes linear load, where a,b are start/end load, dur - the time for linear load increase from a to b.
  • line(10, 1, 10m) - linear load from 10 to 1 rps, duration - 10 minutes
  • line(1, 10, 10m) - linear load from 1 to 10 rps, duration - 10 minutes
  1. const (load,dur) makes constant load. load - rps amount, dur - load duration.
  • const(10,10m) - constant load for 10 rps for 10 minutes.
  • const(0, 10) - 0 rps for 10 seconds, in fact 10s pause in a test.


You can set fractional load like this:
line(1.1, 2.5, 10) - from 1.1rps to 2.5 for 10 seconds.


step and line could be used with increasing and decreasing intensity:

You can specify complex load schemes using those primitives.


schedule: line(1, 10, 10m) const(10,10m)

linear load from 1 to 10rps during 10 minutes, then 10 minutes of 10rps constant load.

Time duration could be defined in seconds, minutes (m) and hours (h). For example: 27h103m645

For a test with constant load at 10rps for 10 minutes, load.yaml should have following lines:

  address: # [Target's address]:[target's port]
    - /uri1
    - /uri2
    load_type: rps # schedule load by defining requests per second
    schedule: const(10, 10m) # starting from 1rps growing linearly to 10rps during 10 minutes
  enabled: true # enable console output
  enabled: false # let's disable telegraf monitoring for the first time

Preparing requests

There are several ways to set up requests:
  • Access mode
  • URI-style
  • request-style.


Request-style is default ammo type.


Regardless of the chosen format, resulted file with requests could be gzipped - tank supports archived ammo files.

To specify external ammo file use ammofile option.


You can specify URL to ammofile, http(s). Small ammofiles (~<100MB) will be downloaded as is, to directory /tmp/<hash>, large files will be read from stream.


If ammo type is uri-style or request-style, tank will try to guess it. Use ammo_type option to explicitly specify ammo format. Don't forget to change ammo_type option if you switch format of your ammo, otherwise you might get errors.


  ammofile: https://yourhost.tld/path/to/ammofile.txt

URI-style, URIs in load.yaml

YAML-file configuration: Don't specify ammo_type explicitly for this type of ammo.

Update configuration file with HTTP headers and URIs:

    load_type: rps
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
  header_http: "1.1"
    - "[Host:]"
    - "[Connection: close]"
    - "/uri1"
    - "/buy"
    - "/sdfg?sdf=rwerf"
    - "/sdfbv/swdfvs/ssfsf"
  enabled: true
  enabled: false

Parameter uris contains uri, which should be used for requests generation.


Pay attention to the sample above, because whitespaces in multiline uris and headers options are important.

URI-style, URIs in file

YAML-file configuration: ammo_type: uri

Create a file with declared requests: ammo.txt

[Connection: close]
[Cookie: None]
/?drg tag1
/buy tag2
[Cookie: test]

File consists of list of URIs and headers to be added to every request defined below. Every URI must begin from a new line, with leading /. Each line that begins from [ is considered as a header. Headers could be (re)defined in the middle of URIs, as in sample above.

Request /buy/?rt=0&station_to=7&station_from=9 will be sent with Cookie: test, not Cookie: None.

Request may be marked by tag, you can specify it with whitespace following URI.


YAML-file configuration: ammo_type: uripost

Create a file with declared requests: ammo.txt

[Connection: close]
[User-Agent: Tank]
5 /route/?rll=50.262025%2C53.276083~50.056015%2C53.495561&origin=1&simplify=1
10 /route/?rll=50.262025%2C53.276083~50.056015%2C53.495561&origin=1&simplify=1
7 /route/?rll=37.565147%2C55.695758~37.412796%2C55.691454&origin=1&simplify=1

File begins with optional lines [...], that contain headers which will be added to every request. After that section there is a list of URIs and POST bodies. Each URI line begins with a number which is the size of the following POST body.


YAML-file configuration: ammo_type: phantom

Full requests listed in a separate file. For more complex requests, like POST, you'll have to create a special file. File format is:

[size_of_request] [tag]\n
[size_of_request2] [tag2]\n

where size_of_request – request size in bytes. 'rn' symbols after body are ignored and not sent anywhere, but it is required to include them in a file after each request. Pay attention to the sample above because 'r' symbols are strictly required.


Parameter ammo_type is unnecessary, request-style is default ammo type.

sample GET requests (null body)

73 good
GET / HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

77 bad
GET /abra HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

78 unknown
GET /ab ra HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

sample POST requests (binary data)

POST /upload/2 HTTP/1.0
Content-Length: 801
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

^.^........W.j^1^.^.^.²..^^.i.^B.P..-!(.l/Y..V^.      ...L?...S'NR.^^vm...3Gg@s...d'.\^.5N.$NF^,.Z^.aTE^.
.".uuzs^^F2...Rh.&.U.^^..J.P@.A......x..lǝy^?.u.p{4..g...m.,..R^.^.^......].^^.^J...p.ifTF0<.s.9V.o5<..%!6ļS.ƐǢ..㱋....C^&.....^.^y...v]^YT.1.#K.ibc...^.26...   ..7.
b.$...j6.٨f...W.R7.^1.3....K`%.&^..d..{{      l0..^\..^X.g.^.r.(!.^^...4.1.$\ .%.8$(.n&..^^q.,.Q..^.D^.].^.R9.kE.^.$^.I..<..B^..^.h^^C.^E.|....3o^.@..Z.^.s.$[v.
POST /upload/3 HTTP/1.0
Content-Length: 424
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

^.^........QMO.0^.++^zJw.ر^$^.^Ѣ.^V.J....vM.8r&.T+...{@pk%~C.G../z顲^.7....l...-.^W"cR..... .&^?u.U^^.^.....{^.^..8.^.^.I.EĂ.p...'^.3.Tq..@R8....RAiBU..1.Bd*".7+.

sample POST multipart:

POST /updateShopStatus? HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx/1.2.3
Keep-Alive: 300
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=AGHTUNG
Connection: Close

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="host"
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="user_id"

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="wsw-fields"

<wsw-fields><wsw-field name="moderate-code"><wsw-value>disable</wsw-value></wsw-field></wsw-fields>

sample ammo generators you may find on the :doc:`ammo_generators` page.

Run Test!

  1. Request specs in load.yaml -- run as yandex-tank -c load.yaml
  2. Request specs in ammo.txt -- run as yandex-tank -c load.yaml ammo.txt

Yandex.Tank detects requests format and generates ultimate requests versions.

yandex-tank here is an executable file name of Yandex.Tank.

If Yandex.Tank has been installed properly and configuration file is correct, the load will be given in next few seconds.


During test execution you'll see HTTP and net errors, answer times distribution, progressbar and other interesting data. At the same time file phout.txt is being written, which could be analyzed later.

If you need more human-readable report, you can try Report plugin, You can found it here

If you need to upload results to an external storage, such as Graphite or InfluxDB, you can use one of existing artifacts uploading modules :doc:`core_and_modules`


Requests could be grouped and marked by some tag.


73 good
GET / HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

77 bad
GET /abra HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

75 unknown
GET /ab HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: xxx (shell 1)

good, bad and unknown here are the tags.


RESTRICTION: utf-8 symbols only


To activate SSL add phantom: {ssl: true} to load.yaml. Now, our basic config looks like that:

      load_type: rps
      schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
  ssl: true


Do not forget to specify ssl port to address. Otherwise, you might get 'protocol errors'.


Autostop is an ability to automatically halt test execution if some conditions are reached.

HTTP and Net codes conditions

There is an option to define specific codes (404,503,100) as well as code groups (3xx, 5xx, xx). Also you can define relative threshold (percent from the whole amount of answer per second) or absolute (amount of answers with specified code per second).


autostop: http(4xx,25%,10) – stop test, if amount of 4xx http codes in every second of last 10s period exceeds 25% of answers (relative threshold).

autostop: net(101,25,10) – stop test, if amount of 101 net-codes in every second of last 10s period is more than 25 (absolute threshold).

autostop: net(xx,25,10) – stop test, if amount of non-zero net-codes in every second of last 10s period is more than 25 (absolute threshold).

Average time conditions

autostop: time(1500,15) – stops test, if average answer time exceeds 1500ms.

So, if we want to stop test when all answers in 1 second period are 5xx plus some network and timing factors - add autostop line to load.yaml:

    load_type: rps
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
    - time(1s,10s)
    - http(5xx,100%,1s)
    - net(xx,1,30)


Looking into target's answers is quite useful in debugging. For doing that use parameter writelog, e.g. add phantom: {writelog: all} to load.yaml to log all messages.


Writing answers on high load leads to intensive disk i/o usage and can affect test accuracy.**

Log format:


Where metrics are:

size_in size_out response_time(interval_real) interval_event net_code (request size, answer size, response time, time to wait for response from the server, answer network code)


user@tank:~$ head answ_*.txt
553 572 8056 8043 0
GET /create-issue HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: tank
Accept: */*
Connection: close

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/javascript;charset=UTF-8

For load.yaml like this:

    load_type: rps
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
  writelog: all
    - time(1,10)
    - http(5xx,100%,1s)
    - net(xx,1,30)

Results in phout

phout.txt - is a per-request log. It could be used for service behaviour analysis (Excel/gnuplot/etc) It has following fields: time, tag, interval_real, connect_time, send_time, latency, receive_time, interval_event, size_out, size_in, net_code proto_code

Phout example:

1326453006.582          1510    934     52      384     140     1249    37      478     0       404
1326453006.582   others       1301    674     58      499     70      1116    37      478     0       404
1326453006.587   heavy       377     76      33      178     90      180     37      478     0       404
1326453006.587          294     47      27      146     74      147     37      478     0       404
1326453006.588          345     75      29      166     75      169     37      478     0       404
1326453006.590          276     72      28      119     57      121     53      476     0       404
1326453006.593          255     62      27      131     35      134     37      478     0       404
1326453006.594          304     50      30      147     77      149     37      478     0       404
1326453006.596          317     53      33      158     73      161     37      478     0       404
1326453006.598          257     58      32      106     61      110     37      478     0       404
1326453006.602          315     59      27      160     69      161     37      478     0       404
1326453006.603          256     59      33      107     57      110     53      476     0       404
1326453006.605          241     53      26      130     32      131     37      478     0       404


contents of phout depends on phantom version installed on your Yandex.Tank system.

net codes are system codes from errno.h, on most Debian-based systems those are:

1 EPERM       Operation not permitted
2     ENOENT  No such file or directory
3     ESRCH   No such process
4     EINTR   Interrupted system call
5     EIO     Input/output error
6     ENXIO   No such device or address
7     E2BIG   Argument list too long
8     ENOEXEC Exec format error
9     EBADF   Bad file descriptor
10    ECHILD  No child processes
11    EAGAIN  Resource temporarily unavailable
12    ENOMEM  Cannot allocate memory
13    EACCES  Permission denied
14    EFAULT  Bad address
15    ENOTBLK Block device required
16    EBUSY   Device or resource busy
17    EEXIST  File exists
18    EXDEV   Invalid cross-device link
19    ENODEV  No such device
20    ENOTDIR Not a directory
21    EISDIR  Is a directory
22    EINVAL  Invalid argument
23    ENFILE  Too many open files in system
24    EMFILE  Too many open files
25    ENOTTY  Inappropriate ioctl for device
26    ETXTBSY Text file busy
27    EFBIG   File too large
28    ENOSPC  No space left on device
29    ESPIPE  Illegal seek
30    EROFS   Read-only file system
31    EMLINK  Too many links
32    EPIPE   Broken pipe
33    EDOM    Numerical argument out of domain
34    ERANGE  Numerical result out of range
35    EDEADLOCK       Resource deadlock avoided
36    ENAMETOOLONG    File name too long
37    ENOLCK  No locks available
38    ENOSYS  Function not implemented
39    ENOTEMPTY       Directory not empty
40    ELOOP   Too many levels of symbolic links
42    ENOMSG  No message of desired type
43    EIDRM   Identifier removed
44    ECHRNG  Channel number out of range
45    EL2NSYNC        Level 2 not synchronized
46    EL3HLT  Level 3 halted
47    EL3RST  Level 3 reset
48    ELNRNG  Link number out of range
49    EUNATCH Protocol driver not attached
50    ENOCSI  No CSI structure available
51    EL2HLT  Level 2 halted
52    EBADE   Invalid exchange
53    EBADR   Invalid request descriptor
54    EXFULL  Exchange full
55    ENOANO  No anode
56    EBADRQC Invalid request code
57    EBADSLT Invalid slot
59    EBFONT  Bad font file format
60    ENOSTR  Device not a stream
61    ENODATA No data available
62    ETIME   Timer expired
63    ENOSR   Out of streams resources
64    ENONET  Machine is not on the network
65    ENOPKG  Package not installed
66    EREMOTE Object is remote
67    ENOLINK Link has been severed
68    EADV    Advertise error
69    ESRMNT  Srmount error
70    ECOMM   Communication error on send
71    EPROTO  Protocol error
72    EMULTIHOP       Multihop attempted
73    EDOTDOT RFS specific error
74    EBADMSG Bad message
75    EOVERFLOW       Value too large for defined data type
76    ENOTUNIQ        Name not unique on network
77    EBADFD  File descriptor in bad state
78    EREMCHG Remote address changed
79    ELIBACC Can not access a needed shared library
80    ELIBBAD Accessing a corrupted shared library
81    ELIBSCN .lib section in a.out corrupted
82    ELIBMAX Attempting to link in too many shared libraries
83    ELIBEXEC        Cannot exec a shared library directly
84    EILSEQ  Invalid or incomplete multibyte or wide character
85    ERESTART        Interrupted system call should be restarted
86    ESTRPIPE        Streams pipe error
87    EUSERS  Too many users
88    ENOTSOCK        Socket operation on non-socket
89    EDESTADDRREQ    Destination address required
90    EMSGSIZE        Message too long
91    EPROTOTYPE      Protocol wrong type for socket
92    ENOPROTOOPT     Protocol not available
93    EPROTONOSUPPORT Protocol not supported
94    ESOCKTNOSUPPORT Socket type not supported
95    ENOTSUP Operation not supported
96    EPFNOSUPPORT    Protocol family not supported
97    EAFNOSUPPORT    Address family not supported by protocol
98    EADDRINUSE      Address already in use
99    EADDRNOTAVAIL   Cannot assign requested address
100   ENETDOWN        Network is down
101   ENETUNREACH     Network is unreachable
102   ENETRESET       Network dropped connection on reset
103   ECONNABORTED    Software caused connection abort
104   ECONNRESET      Connection reset by peer
105   ENOBUFS No buffer space available
106   EISCONN Transport endpoint is already connected
107   ENOTCONN        Transport endpoint is not connected
108   ESHUTDOWN       Cannot send after transport endpoint shutdown
109   ETOOMANYREFS    Too many references: cannot splice
110   ETIMEDOUT       Connection timed out
111   ECONNREFUSED    Connection refused
112   EHOSTDOWN       Host is down
113   EHOSTUNREACH    No route to host
114   EALREADY        Operation already in progress
115   EINPROGRESS     Operation now in progress
116   ESTALE  Stale file handle
117   EUCLEAN Structure needs cleaning
118   ENOTNAM Not a XENIX named type file
119   ENAVAIL No XENIX semaphores available
120   EISNAM  Is a named type file
121   EREMOTEIO       Remote I/O error
122   EDQUOT  Disk quota exceeded

Graph and statistics

Use Report plugin OR use your favorite stats packet, R, for example.

Thread limit

instances: N in load.yaml limits number of simultanious connections (threads).

Example with 10 threads limit:

    load_type: rps
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
  instances: 10

Dynamic thread limit

You can specify load_type: instances instead of 'rps' to schedule a number of active instances which generate as much rps as they manage to. Bear in mind that active instances number cannot be decreased and final number of them must be equal to instances parameter value.


    load_type: instances
    schedule: line(1,10,10m)
  instances: 10
  loop: 10000 # don't stop when the end of ammo is reached but loop it 10000 times


When using load_type: instances you should specify how many loops of ammo you want to generate because tank can't find out from the schedule how many ammo do you need

Custom stateless protocol

In necessity of testing stateless HTTP-like protocol, Yandex.Tank's HTTP parser could be switched off, providing ability to generate load with any data, receiving any answer in return. To do that use tank_type parameter:

    load_type: rps
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
  instances: 10
  tank_type: none


Indispensable condition: Connection close must be initiated by remote side


If server with Yandex.Tank have several IPs, they may be used to avoid outcome port shortage. Use gatling_ip parameter for that. load.yaml:

    load_type: rps
    schedule: line(1, 10, 10m)
  instances: 10
  gatling_ip: IP1 IP2