In order to be proficient with YaST development it's necessary to have a clear view on how the YaST world is structured. The goal of this document is to provide that view in a concise way, mentioning all the pieces and exposing how they fit together. For a more detailed view about any of the technologies or components, refer to the corresponding documentation linked from the central documentation page for YaST at https://yast.opensuse.org/.
YaST has been invented to have an extensible and fairly standardized means to install and manage Linux on a system. Basically YaST serves three main purposes:
- Installation of Linux on a system
- Configuration of the installed system
- Administration of the installed system
From the point of view of software architecture, YaST is mainly a component system in which the different pieces, that can be implemented in several programming languages, interface with each other using a specific protocol called YCP (YaST Communication Protocol). There are mainly two kind of components: those providing functionality to others and the so-called clients. The former ones publish a YCP interface with useful functions and variables. On the other hand, a client always serves a particular purpose and controls the execution work-flow. Clients rely on other components (including other clients) to get the job done. Therefore, executing YaST means actually calling a YaST client.
At the time of writing, YaST components can be written in C++ (using liby2 and libycp), in Ruby (using yast-ruby-bindings) and in Perl (using yast-perl-bindings), with the exception of clients, that cannot be written in Perl. Ruby is the preferred and recommended way, since the bindings offer some unique features for both implementation and testing. In addition, many development tasks are automated using the Ruby toolchain. Moreover the long term plan is to get rid of all other languages (wherever possible) and use only Ruby.
There are several components that have a very relevant role in YaST and must be known in order to understand the "big picture". As already outlined in the previous section, there are mainly two kind of components:
- Components providing functionality to others
System Configuration repository (SCR)
Most communication with the underlying system being installed or configured is handled by a component called SCR (for System Configuration Repository). Apart from some well-known exceptions, components are discouraged from direct access to system files (or any other system resources, for that matter) and encouraged to use SCR instead.
SCR is composed of several subcomponents called agents. Each agent takes care of a very concrete type of system resource and implements a common interface with just four operations: read, write, dir and execute.
Work-flow manager (WFM)
The YaST work-flow manager (implemented in the WFM namespace) is a special component which takes care of executing clients and providing them with an interface to other components. It's also responsible for handling one SCR instance per every system managed by YaST.
To some extent, WFM can be considered to be the "bootloader" of YaST, since every YaST execution starts with WFM handing control over to a client after having connected it to the user interface and a SCR instance.
Given the wide variety of machines and use cases that can possibly be handled with YaST, the UI component (actually just a module) provides a very convenient abstraction layer for the user interface.
The UI component is usually referred as "UI bindings" since it basically offers a YCP interface on top of libyui, the programming library actually implementing the different "widgets": user interface elements such as input fields, selection lists or buttons. It is transparent to the calling application if those widgets are part of a graphical toolkit such as Qt or Gtk+, a text based interface using the Ncurses library or even something else not implemented yet, as shown in the following diagram.
Apart from the already mentioned few components with very special roles and the clients, YaST also consists of many other components called modules and used to encapsulate functionality related to different areas. Examples of available modules are Network, Service, FileSystem or PulseAudio.
As already mentioned, YaST execution starts with WFM setting up SCR and running a client. But that's only the start, the following diagram shows how the different pieces interact which each other in order to get the job done.
Some notes about the YaST Communication Protocol (YCP)
All communication between the different parts of YaST core is done via a predefined set of YCP data types. This set includes simple data types like string, integer or boolean, but also compound data types like maps (key / value pairs, also known as "hashes" in other programming languages) or lists (like arrays or vectors in other programming languages). For complex data structures, maps, lists and simple data types can be nested to any degree.
But in addition to those common data types, YCP also defines two types that are not so common in other programming languages: terms and paths.
A term is something you won't find in C, Perl, Pascal or Lisp but you will find it in functional programming languages like Prolog for example. It can be described as a symbol followed by a list (that plays a role similar to the list of arguments of a function call). It's mainly used in the UI code to define tree-like structures of function calls without actually calling them.
For example, the following ruby code defines a tree of terms that will be translated to the corresponding calls to libyui functions when needed. Every term is defined by a symbol followed by a list of zero or more elements (strings, symbols and other terms, in this case).
Yast::Term.new(:VBox, Yast::Term.new(:Label, "Say hello..."), Yast::Term.new(:PushButton, Yast::Term.new(:Id, :hello), "now!"))
A path is something special to YCP and similar to paths in TCL. It's expressed
as a sequence of path elements separated by dots. Paths are designed to denote
data from complex tree-like structures and are mainly used by SCR. For example,
since the SCR agent parsing the file
/etc/sysconfig/clock is attached to
the path ".sysconfig.clock", the following Ruby code can be used to reference
the value of the
TIMEZONE parameter in that file.
The goal of this document is just to provide a high level view of the YaST development ecosystem. More detailed documentation about the involved technologies, tools and procedures can always be found in the central documentation page for YaST, available at https://yast.opensuse.org/.