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<?php
/**
* @link http://www.yiiframework.com/
* @copyright Copyright (c) 2008 Yii Software LLC
* @license http://www.yiiframework.com/license/
*/
namespace yii\db;
use Yii;
use yii\base\Component;
use yii\base\InvalidArgumentException;
use yii\helpers\ArrayHelper;
use yii\base\InvalidConfigException;
/**
* Query represents a SELECT SQL statement in a way that is independent of DBMS.
*
* Query provides a set of methods to facilitate the specification of different clauses
* in a SELECT statement. These methods can be chained together.
*
* By calling [[createCommand()]], we can get a [[Command]] instance which can be further
* used to perform/execute the DB query against a database.
*
* For example,
*
* ```php
* $query = new Query;
* // compose the query
* $query->select('id, name')
* ->from('user')
* ->limit(10);
* // build and execute the query
* $rows = $query->all();
* // alternatively, you can create DB command and execute it
* $command = $query->createCommand();
* // $command->sql returns the actual SQL
* $rows = $command->queryAll();
* ```
*
* Query internally uses the [[QueryBuilder]] class to generate the SQL statement.
*
* A more detailed usage guide on how to work with Query can be found in the [guide article on Query Builder](guide:db-query-builder).
*
* @property string[] $tablesUsedInFrom Table names indexed by aliases. This property is read-only.
*
* @author Qiang Xue <qiang.xue@gmail.com>
* @author Carsten Brandt <mail@cebe.cc>
* @since 2.0
*/
class Query extends Component implements QueryInterface, ExpressionInterface
{
use QueryTrait;
/**
* @var array the columns being selected. For example, `['id', 'name']`.
* This is used to construct the SELECT clause in a SQL statement. If not set, it means selecting all columns.
* @see select()
*/
public $select;
/**
* @var string additional option that should be appended to the 'SELECT' keyword. For example,
* in MySQL, the option 'SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS' can be used.
*/
public $selectOption;
/**
* @var bool whether to select distinct rows of data only. If this is set true,
* the SELECT clause would be changed to SELECT DISTINCT.
*/
public $distinct;
/**
* @var array the table(s) to be selected from. For example, `['user', 'post']`.
* This is used to construct the FROM clause in a SQL statement.
* @see from()
*/
public $from;
/**
* @var array how to group the query results. For example, `['company', 'department']`.
* This is used to construct the GROUP BY clause in a SQL statement.
*/
public $groupBy;
/**
* @var array how to join with other tables. Each array element represents the specification
* of one join which has the following structure:
*
* ```php
* [$joinType, $tableName, $joinCondition]
* ```
*
* For example,
*
* ```php
* [
* ['INNER JOIN', 'user', 'user.id = author_id'],
* ['LEFT JOIN', 'team', 'team.id = team_id'],
* ]
* ```
*/
public $join;
/**
* @var string|array|ExpressionInterface the condition to be applied in the GROUP BY clause.
* It can be either a string or an array. Please refer to [[where()]] on how to specify the condition.
*/
public $having;
/**
* @var array this is used to construct the UNION clause(s) in a SQL statement.
* Each array element is an array of the following structure:
*
* - `query`: either a string or a [[Query]] object representing a query
* - `all`: boolean, whether it should be `UNION ALL` or `UNION`
*/
public $union;
/**
* @var array list of query parameter values indexed by parameter placeholders.
* For example, `[':name' => 'Dan', ':age' => 31]`.
*/
public $params = [];
/**
* @var int|true the default number of seconds that query results can remain valid in cache.
* Use 0 to indicate that the cached data will never expire.
* Use a negative number to indicate that query cache should not be used.
* Use boolean `true` to indicate that [[Connection::queryCacheDuration]] should be used.
* @see cache()
* @since 2.0.14
*/
public $queryCacheDuration;
/**
* @var \yii\caching\Dependency the dependency to be associated with the cached query result for this query
* @see cache()
* @since 2.0.14
*/
public $queryCacheDependency;
/**
* Creates a DB command that can be used to execute this query.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return Command the created DB command instance.
*/
public function createCommand($db = null)
{
if ($db === null) {
$db = Yii::$app->getDb();
}
list($sql, $params) = $db->getQueryBuilder()->build($this);
$command = $db->createCommand($sql, $params);
$this->setCommandCache($command);
return $command;
}
/**
* Prepares for building SQL.
* This method is called by [[QueryBuilder]] when it starts to build SQL from a query object.
* You may override this method to do some final preparation work when converting a query into a SQL statement.
* @param QueryBuilder $builder
* @return $this a prepared query instance which will be used by [[QueryBuilder]] to build the SQL
*/
public function prepare($builder)
{
return $this;
}
/**
* Starts a batch query.
*
* A batch query supports fetching data in batches, which can keep the memory usage under a limit.
* This method will return a [[BatchQueryResult]] object which implements the [[\Iterator]] interface
* and can be traversed to retrieve the data in batches.
*
* For example,
*
* ```php
* $query = (new Query)->from('user');
* foreach ($query->batch() as $rows) {
* // $rows is an array of 100 or fewer rows from user table
* }
* ```
*
* @param int $batchSize the number of records to be fetched in each batch.
* @param Connection $db the database connection. If not set, the "db" application component will be used.
* @return BatchQueryResult the batch query result. It implements the [[\Iterator]] interface
* and can be traversed to retrieve the data in batches.
*/
public function batch($batchSize = 100, $db = null)
{
return Yii::createObject([
'class' => BatchQueryResult::className(),
'query' => $this,
'batchSize' => $batchSize,
'db' => $db,
'each' => false,
]);
}
/**
* Starts a batch query and retrieves data row by row.
*
* This method is similar to [[batch()]] except that in each iteration of the result,
* only one row of data is returned. For example,
*
* ```php
* $query = (new Query)->from('user');
* foreach ($query->each() as $row) {
* }
* ```
*
* @param int $batchSize the number of records to be fetched in each batch.
* @param Connection $db the database connection. If not set, the "db" application component will be used.
* @return BatchQueryResult the batch query result. It implements the [[\Iterator]] interface
* and can be traversed to retrieve the data in batches.
*/
public function each($batchSize = 100, $db = null)
{
return Yii::createObject([
'class' => BatchQueryResult::className(),
'query' => $this,
'batchSize' => $batchSize,
'db' => $db,
'each' => true,
]);
}
/**
* Executes the query and returns all results as an array.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return array the query results. If the query results in nothing, an empty array will be returned.
*/
public function all($db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return [];
}
$rows = $this->createCommand($db)->queryAll();
return $this->populate($rows);
}
/**
* Converts the raw query results into the format as specified by this query.
* This method is internally used to convert the data fetched from database
* into the format as required by this query.
* @param array $rows the raw query result from database
* @return array the converted query result
*/
public function populate($rows)
{
if ($this->indexBy === null) {
return $rows;
}
$result = [];
foreach ($rows as $row) {
$result[ArrayHelper::getValue($row, $this->indexBy)] = $row;
}
return $result;
}
/**
* Executes the query and returns a single row of result.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return array|bool the first row (in terms of an array) of the query result. False is returned if the query
* results in nothing.
*/
public function one($db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return false;
}
return $this->createCommand($db)->queryOne();
}
/**
* Returns the query result as a scalar value.
* The value returned will be the first column in the first row of the query results.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return string|null|false the value of the first column in the first row of the query result.
* False is returned if the query result is empty.
*/
public function scalar($db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return null;
}
return $this->createCommand($db)->queryScalar();
}
/**
* Executes the query and returns the first column of the result.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return array the first column of the query result. An empty array is returned if the query results in nothing.
*/
public function column($db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return [];
}
if ($this->indexBy === null) {
return $this->createCommand($db)->queryColumn();
}
if (is_string($this->indexBy) && is_array($this->select) && count($this->select) === 1) {
if (strpos($this->indexBy, '.') === false && count($tables = $this->getTablesUsedInFrom()) > 0) {
$this->select[] = key($tables) . '.' . $this->indexBy;
} else {
$this->select[] = $this->indexBy;
}
}
$rows = $this->createCommand($db)->queryAll();
$results = [];
foreach ($rows as $row) {
$value = reset($row);
if ($this->indexBy instanceof \Closure) {
$results[call_user_func($this->indexBy, $row)] = $value;
} else {
$results[$row[$this->indexBy]] = $value;
}
}
return $results;
}
/**
* Returns the number of records.
* @param string $q the COUNT expression. Defaults to '*'.
* Make sure you properly [quote](guide:db-dao#quoting-table-and-column-names) column names in the expression.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given (or null), the `db` application component will be used.
* @return int|string number of records. The result may be a string depending on the
* underlying database engine and to support integer values higher than a 32bit PHP integer can handle.
*/
public function count($q = '*', $db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return 0;
}
return $this->queryScalar("COUNT($q)", $db);
}
/**
* Returns the sum of the specified column values.
* @param string $q the column name or expression.
* Make sure you properly [quote](guide:db-dao#quoting-table-and-column-names) column names in the expression.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return mixed the sum of the specified column values.
*/
public function sum($q, $db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return 0;
}
return $this->queryScalar("SUM($q)", $db);
}
/**
* Returns the average of the specified column values.
* @param string $q the column name or expression.
* Make sure you properly [quote](guide:db-dao#quoting-table-and-column-names) column names in the expression.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return mixed the average of the specified column values.
*/
public function average($q, $db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return 0;
}
return $this->queryScalar("AVG($q)", $db);
}
/**
* Returns the minimum of the specified column values.
* @param string $q the column name or expression.
* Make sure you properly [quote](guide:db-dao#quoting-table-and-column-names) column names in the expression.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return mixed the minimum of the specified column values.
*/
public function min($q, $db = null)
{
return $this->queryScalar("MIN($q)", $db);
}
/**
* Returns the maximum of the specified column values.
* @param string $q the column name or expression.
* Make sure you properly [quote](guide:db-dao#quoting-table-and-column-names) column names in the expression.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return mixed the maximum of the specified column values.
*/
public function max($q, $db = null)
{
return $this->queryScalar("MAX($q)", $db);
}
/**
* Returns a value indicating whether the query result contains any row of data.
* @param Connection $db the database connection used to generate the SQL statement.
* If this parameter is not given, the `db` application component will be used.
* @return bool whether the query result contains any row of data.
*/
public function exists($db = null)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return false;
}
$command = $this->createCommand($db);
$params = $command->params;
$command->setSql($command->db->getQueryBuilder()->selectExists($command->getSql()));
$command->bindValues($params);
return (bool) $command->queryScalar();
}
/**
* Queries a scalar value by setting [[select]] first.
* Restores the value of select to make this query reusable.
* @param string|ExpressionInterface $selectExpression
* @param Connection|null $db
* @return bool|string
*/
protected function queryScalar($selectExpression, $db)
{
if ($this->emulateExecution) {
return null;
}
if (
!$this->distinct
&& empty($this->groupBy)
&& empty($this->having)
&& empty($this->union)
) {
$select = $this->select;
$order = $this->orderBy;
$limit = $this->limit;
$offset = $this->offset;
$this->select = [$selectExpression];
$this->orderBy = null;
$this->limit = null;
$this->offset = null;
$command = $this->createCommand($db);
$this->select = $select;
$this->orderBy = $order;
$this->limit = $limit;
$this->offset = $offset;
return $command->queryScalar();
}
$command = (new self())
->select([$selectExpression])
->from(['c' => $this])
->createCommand($db);
$this->setCommandCache($command);
return $command->queryScalar();
}
/**
* Returns table names used in [[from]] indexed by aliases.
* Both aliases and names are enclosed into {{ and }}.
* @return string[] table names indexed by aliases
* @throws \yii\base\InvalidConfigException
* @since 2.0.12
*/
public function getTablesUsedInFrom()
{
if (empty($this->from)) {
return [];
}
if (is_array($this->from)) {
$tableNames = $this->from;
} elseif (is_string($this->from)) {
$tableNames = preg_split('/\s*,\s*/', trim($this->from), -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
} elseif ($this->from instanceof Expression) {
$tableNames = [$this->from];
} else {
throw new InvalidConfigException(gettype($this->from) . ' in $from is not supported.');
}
return $this->cleanUpTableNames($tableNames);
}
/**
* Clean up table names and aliases
* Both aliases and names are enclosed into {{ and }}.
* @param array $tableNames non-empty array
* @return string[] table names indexed by aliases
* @since 2.0.14
*/
protected function cleanUpTableNames($tableNames)
{
$cleanedUpTableNames = [];
foreach ($tableNames as $alias => $tableName) {
if (is_string($tableName) && !is_string($alias)) {
$pattern = <<<PATTERN
~
^
\s*
(
(?:['"`\[]|{{)
.*?
(?:['"`\]]|}})
|
\(.*?\)
|
.*?
)
(?:
(?:
\s+
(?:as)?
\s*
)
(
(?:['"`\[]|{{)
.*?
(?:['"`\]]|}})
|
.*?
)
)?
\s*
$
~iux
PATTERN;
if (preg_match($pattern, $tableName, $matches)) {
if (isset($matches[2])) {
list(, $tableName, $alias) = $matches;
} else {
$tableName = $alias = $matches[1];
}
}
}
if ($tableName instanceof Expression) {
if (!is_string($alias)) {
throw new InvalidArgumentException('To use Expression in from() method, pass it in array format with alias.');
}
$cleanedUpTableNames[$this->ensureNameQuoted($alias)] = $tableName;
} elseif ($tableName instanceof self) {
$cleanedUpTableNames[$this->ensureNameQuoted($alias)] = $tableName;
} else {
$cleanedUpTableNames[$this->ensureNameQuoted($alias)] = $this->ensureNameQuoted($tableName);
}
}
return $cleanedUpTableNames;
}
/**
* Ensures name is wrapped with {{ and }}
* @param string $name
* @return string
*/
private function ensureNameQuoted($name)
{
$name = str_replace(["'", '"', '`', '[', ']'], '', $name);
if ($name && !preg_match('/^{{.*}}$/', $name)) {
return '{{' . $name . '}}';
}
return $name;
}
/**
* Sets the SELECT part of the query.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $columns the columns to be selected.
* Columns can be specified in either a string (e.g. "id, name") or an array (e.g. ['id', 'name']).
* Columns can be prefixed with table names (e.g. "user.id") and/or contain column aliases (e.g. "user.id AS user_id").
* The method will automatically quote the column names unless a column contains some parenthesis
* (which means the column contains a DB expression). A DB expression may also be passed in form of
* an [[ExpressionInterface]] object.
*
* Note that if you are selecting an expression like `CONCAT(first_name, ' ', last_name)`, you should
* use an array to specify the columns. Otherwise, the expression may be incorrectly split into several parts.
*
* When the columns are specified as an array, you may also use array keys as the column aliases (if a column
* does not need alias, do not use a string key).
*
* Starting from version 2.0.1, you may also select sub-queries as columns by specifying each such column
* as a `Query` instance representing the sub-query.
*
* @param string $option additional option that should be appended to the 'SELECT' keyword. For example,
* in MySQL, the option 'SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS' can be used.
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function select($columns, $option = null)
{
if ($columns instanceof ExpressionInterface) {
$columns = [$columns];
} elseif (!is_array($columns)) {
$columns = preg_split('/\s*,\s*/', trim($columns), -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
}
// this sequantial assignment is needed in order to make sure select is being reset
// before using getUniqueColumns() that checks it
$this->select = [];
$this->select = $this->getUniqueColumns($columns);
$this->selectOption = $option;
return $this;
}
/**
* Add more columns to the SELECT part of the query.
*
* Note, that if [[select]] has not been specified before, you should include `*` explicitly
* if you want to select all remaining columns too:
*
* ```php
* $query->addSelect(["*", "CONCAT(first_name, ' ', last_name) AS full_name"])->one();
* ```
*
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $columns the columns to add to the select. See [[select()]] for more
* details about the format of this parameter.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see select()
*/
public function addSelect($columns)
{
if ($columns instanceof ExpressionInterface) {
$columns = [$columns];
} elseif (!is_array($columns)) {
$columns = preg_split('/\s*,\s*/', trim($columns), -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
}
$columns = $this->getUniqueColumns($columns);
if ($this->select === null) {
$this->select = $columns;
} else {
$this->select = array_merge($this->select, $columns);
}
return $this;
}
/**
* Returns unique column names excluding duplicates.
* Columns to be removed:
* - if column definition already present in SELECT part with same alias
* - if column definition without alias already present in SELECT part without alias too
* @param array $columns the columns to be merged to the select.
* @since 2.0.14
*/
protected function getUniqueColumns($columns)
{
$unaliasedColumns = $this->getUnaliasedColumnsFromSelect();
$result = [];
foreach ($columns as $columnAlias => $columnDefinition) {
if (!$columnDefinition instanceof Query) {
if (is_string($columnAlias)) {
$existsInSelect = isset($this->select[$columnAlias]) && $this->select[$columnAlias] === $columnDefinition;
if ($existsInSelect) {
continue;
}
} elseif (is_int($columnAlias)) {
$existsInSelect = in_array($columnDefinition, $unaliasedColumns, true);
$existsInResultSet = in_array($columnDefinition, $result, true);
if ($existsInSelect || $existsInResultSet) {
continue;
}
}
}
$result[$columnAlias] = $columnDefinition;
}
return $result;
}
/**
* @return array List of columns without aliases from SELECT statement.
* @since 2.0.14
*/
protected function getUnaliasedColumnsFromSelect()
{
$result = [];
if (is_array($this->select)) {
foreach ($this->select as $name => $value) {
if (is_int($name)) {
$result[] = $value;
}
}
}
return array_unique($result);
}
/**
* Sets the value indicating whether to SELECT DISTINCT or not.
* @param bool $value whether to SELECT DISTINCT or not.
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function distinct($value = true)
{
$this->distinct = $value;
return $this;
}
/**
* Sets the FROM part of the query.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $tables the table(s) to be selected from. This can be either a string (e.g. `'user'`)
* or an array (e.g. `['user', 'profile']`) specifying one or several table names.
* Table names can contain schema prefixes (e.g. `'public.user'`) and/or table aliases (e.g. `'user u'`).
* The method will automatically quote the table names unless it contains some parenthesis
* (which means the table is given as a sub-query or DB expression).
*
* When the tables are specified as an array, you may also use the array keys as the table aliases
* (if a table does not need alias, do not use a string key).
*
* Use a Query object to represent a sub-query. In this case, the corresponding array key will be used
* as the alias for the sub-query.
*
* To specify the `FROM` part in plain SQL, you may pass an instance of [[ExpressionInterface]].
*
* Here are some examples:
*
* ```php
* // SELECT * FROM `user` `u`, `profile`;
* $query = (new \yii\db\Query)->from(['u' => 'user', 'profile']);
*
* // SELECT * FROM (SELECT * FROM `user` WHERE `active` = 1) `activeusers`;
* $subquery = (new \yii\db\Query)->from('user')->where(['active' => true])
* $query = (new \yii\db\Query)->from(['activeusers' => $subquery]);
*
* // subquery can also be a string with plain SQL wrapped in parenthesis
* // SELECT * FROM (SELECT * FROM `user` WHERE `active` = 1) `activeusers`;
* $subquery = "(SELECT * FROM `user` WHERE `active` = 1)";
* $query = (new \yii\db\Query)->from(['activeusers' => $subquery]);
* ```
*
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function from($tables)
{
if ($tables instanceof ExpressionInterface) {
$tables = [$tables];
}
if (is_string($tables)) {
$tables = preg_split('/\s*,\s*/', trim($tables), -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
}
$this->from = $tables;
return $this;
}
/**
* Sets the WHERE part of the query.
*
* The method requires a `$condition` parameter, and optionally a `$params` parameter
* specifying the values to be bound to the query.
*
* The `$condition` parameter should be either a string (e.g. `'id=1'`) or an array.
*
* {@inheritdoc}
*
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $condition the conditions that should be put in the WHERE part.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see andWhere()
* @see orWhere()
* @see QueryInterface::where()
*/
public function where($condition, $params = [])
{
$this->where = $condition;
$this->addParams($params);
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds an additional WHERE condition to the existing one.
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `AND` operator.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $condition the new WHERE condition. Please refer to [[where()]]
* on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see where()
* @see orWhere()
*/
public function andWhere($condition, $params = [])
{
if ($this->where === null) {
$this->where = $condition;
} elseif (is_array($this->where) && isset($this->where[0]) && strcasecmp($this->where[0], 'and') === 0) {
$this->where[] = $condition;
} else {
$this->where = ['and', $this->where, $condition];
}
$this->addParams($params);
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds an additional WHERE condition to the existing one.
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `OR` operator.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $condition the new WHERE condition. Please refer to [[where()]]
* on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see where()
* @see andWhere()
*/
public function orWhere($condition, $params = [])
{
if ($this->where === null) {
$this->where = $condition;
} else {
$this->where = ['or', $this->where, $condition];
}
$this->addParams($params);
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds a filtering condition for a specific column and allow the user to choose a filter operator.
*
* It adds an additional WHERE condition for the given field and determines the comparison operator
* based on the first few characters of the given value.
* The condition is added in the same way as in [[andFilterWhere]] so [[isEmpty()|empty values]] are ignored.
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `AND` operator.
*
* The comparison operator is intelligently determined based on the first few characters in the given value.
* In particular, it recognizes the following operators if they appear as the leading characters in the given value:
*
* - `<`: the column must be less than the given value.
* - `>`: the column must be greater than the given value.
* - `<=`: the column must be less than or equal to the given value.
* - `>=`: the column must be greater than or equal to the given value.
* - `<>`: the column must not be the same as the given value.
* - `=`: the column must be equal to the given value.
* - If none of the above operators is detected, the `$defaultOperator` will be used.
*
* @param string $name the column name.
* @param string $value the column value optionally prepended with the comparison operator.
* @param string $defaultOperator The operator to use, when no operator is given in `$value`.
* Defaults to `=`, performing an exact match.
* @return $this The query object itself
* @since 2.0.8
*/
public function andFilterCompare($name, $value, $defaultOperator = '=')
{
if (preg_match('/^(<>|>=|>|<=|<|=)/', $value, $matches)) {
$operator = $matches[1];
$value = substr($value, strlen($operator));
} else {
$operator = $defaultOperator;
}
return $this->andFilterWhere([$operator, $name, $value]);
}
/**
* Appends a JOIN part to the query.
* The first parameter specifies what type of join it is.
* @param string $type the type of join, such as INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN.
* @param string|array $table the table to be joined.
*
* Use a string to represent the name of the table to be joined.
* The table name can contain a schema prefix (e.g. 'public.user') and/or table alias (e.g. 'user u').
* The method will automatically quote the table name unless it contains some parenthesis
* (which means the table is given as a sub-query or DB expression).
*
* Use an array to represent joining with a sub-query. The array must contain only one element.
* The value must be a [[Query]] object representing the sub-query while the corresponding key
* represents the alias for the sub-query.
*
* @param string|array $on the join condition that should appear in the ON part.
* Please refer to [[where()]] on how to specify this parameter.
*
* Note that the array format of [[where()]] is designed to match columns to values instead of columns to columns, so
* the following would **not** work as expected: `['post.author_id' => 'user.id']`, it would
* match the `post.author_id` column value against the string `'user.id'`.
* It is recommended to use the string syntax here which is more suited for a join:
*
* ```php
* 'post.author_id = user.id'
* ```
*
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function join($type, $table, $on = '', $params = [])
{
$this->join[] = [$type, $table, $on];
return $this->addParams($params);
}
/**
* Appends an INNER JOIN part to the query.
* @param string|array $table the table to be joined.
*
* Use a string to represent the name of the table to be joined.
* The table name can contain a schema prefix (e.g. 'public.user') and/or table alias (e.g. 'user u').
* The method will automatically quote the table name unless it contains some parenthesis
* (which means the table is given as a sub-query or DB expression).
*
* Use an array to represent joining with a sub-query. The array must contain only one element.
* The value must be a [[Query]] object representing the sub-query while the corresponding key
* represents the alias for the sub-query.
*
* @param string|array $on the join condition that should appear in the ON part.
* Please refer to [[join()]] on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function innerJoin($table, $on = '', $params = [])
{
$this->join[] = ['INNER JOIN', $table, $on];
return $this->addParams($params);
}
/**
* Appends a LEFT OUTER JOIN part to the query.
* @param string|array $table the table to be joined.
*
* Use a string to represent the name of the table to be joined.
* The table name can contain a schema prefix (e.g. 'public.user') and/or table alias (e.g. 'user u').
* The method will automatically quote the table name unless it contains some parenthesis
* (which means the table is given as a sub-query or DB expression).
*
* Use an array to represent joining with a sub-query. The array must contain only one element.
* The value must be a [[Query]] object representing the sub-query while the corresponding key
* represents the alias for the sub-query.
*
* @param string|array $on the join condition that should appear in the ON part.
* Please refer to [[join()]] on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function leftJoin($table, $on = '', $params = [])
{
$this->join[] = ['LEFT JOIN', $table, $on];
return $this->addParams($params);
}
/**
* Appends a RIGHT OUTER JOIN part to the query.
* @param string|array $table the table to be joined.
*
* Use a string to represent the name of the table to be joined.
* The table name can contain a schema prefix (e.g. 'public.user') and/or table alias (e.g. 'user u').
* The method will automatically quote the table name unless it contains some parenthesis
* (which means the table is given as a sub-query or DB expression).
*
* Use an array to represent joining with a sub-query. The array must contain only one element.
* The value must be a [[Query]] object representing the sub-query while the corresponding key
* represents the alias for the sub-query.
*
* @param string|array $on the join condition that should appear in the ON part.
* Please refer to [[join()]] on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function rightJoin($table, $on = '', $params = [])
{
$this->join[] = ['RIGHT JOIN', $table, $on];
return $this->addParams($params);
}
/**
* Sets the GROUP BY part of the query.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $columns the columns to be grouped by.
* Columns can be specified in either a string (e.g. "id, name") or an array (e.g. ['id', 'name']).
* The method will automatically quote the column names unless a column contains some parenthesis
* (which means the column contains a DB expression).
*
* Note that if your group-by is an expression containing commas, you should always use an array
* to represent the group-by information. Otherwise, the method will not be able to correctly determine
* the group-by columns.
*
* Since version 2.0.7, an [[ExpressionInterface]] object can be passed to specify the GROUP BY part explicitly in plain SQL.
* Since version 2.0.14, an [[ExpressionInterface]] object can be passed as well.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see addGroupBy()
*/
public function groupBy($columns)
{
if ($columns instanceof ExpressionInterface) {
$columns = [$columns];
} elseif (!is_array($columns)) {
$columns = preg_split('/\s*,\s*/', trim($columns), -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
}
$this->groupBy = $columns;
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds additional group-by columns to the existing ones.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $columns additional columns to be grouped by.
* Columns can be specified in either a string (e.g. "id, name") or an array (e.g. ['id', 'name']).
* The method will automatically quote the column names unless a column contains some parenthesis
* (which means the column contains a DB expression).
*
* Note that if your group-by is an expression containing commas, you should always use an array
* to represent the group-by information. Otherwise, the method will not be able to correctly determine
* the group-by columns.
*
* Since version 2.0.7, an [[Expression]] object can be passed to specify the GROUP BY part explicitly in plain SQL.
* Since version 2.0.14, an [[ExpressionInterface]] object can be passed as well.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see groupBy()
*/
public function addGroupBy($columns)
{
if ($columns instanceof ExpressionInterface) {
$columns = [$columns];
} elseif (!is_array($columns)) {
$columns = preg_split('/\s*,\s*/', trim($columns), -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
}
if ($this->groupBy === null) {
$this->groupBy = $columns;
} else {
$this->groupBy = array_merge($this->groupBy, $columns);
}
return $this;
}
/**
* Sets the HAVING part of the query.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $condition the conditions to be put after HAVING.
* Please refer to [[where()]] on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see andHaving()
* @see orHaving()
*/
public function having($condition, $params = [])
{
$this->having = $condition;
$this->addParams($params);
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds an additional HAVING condition to the existing one.
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `AND` operator.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $condition the new HAVING condition. Please refer to [[where()]]
* on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see having()
* @see orHaving()
*/
public function andHaving($condition, $params = [])
{
if ($this->having === null) {
$this->having = $condition;
} else {
$this->having = ['and', $this->having, $condition];
}
$this->addParams($params);
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds an additional HAVING condition to the existing one.
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `OR` operator.
* @param string|array|ExpressionInterface $condition the new HAVING condition. Please refer to [[where()]]
* on how to specify this parameter.
* @param array $params the parameters (name => value) to be bound to the query.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see having()
* @see andHaving()
*/
public function orHaving($condition, $params = [])
{
if ($this->having === null) {
$this->having = $condition;
} else {
$this->having = ['or', $this->having, $condition];
}
$this->addParams($params);
return $this;
}
/**
* Sets the HAVING part of the query but ignores [[isEmpty()|empty operands]].
*
* This method is similar to [[having()]]. The main difference is that this method will
* remove [[isEmpty()|empty query operands]]. As a result, this method is best suited
* for building query conditions based on filter values entered by users.
*
* The following code shows the difference between this method and [[having()]]:
*
* ```php
* // HAVING `age`=:age
* $query->filterHaving(['name' => null, 'age' => 20]);
* // HAVING `age`=:age
* $query->having(['age' => 20]);
* // HAVING `name` IS NULL AND `age`=:age
* $query->having(['name' => null, 'age' => 20]);
* ```
*
* Note that unlike [[having()]], you cannot pass binding parameters to this method.
*
* @param array $condition the conditions that should be put in the HAVING part.
* See [[having()]] on how to specify this parameter.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see having()
* @see andFilterHaving()
* @see orFilterHaving()
* @since 2.0.11
*/
public function filterHaving(array $condition)
{
$condition = $this->filterCondition($condition);
if ($condition !== []) {
$this->having($condition);
}
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds an additional HAVING condition to the existing one but ignores [[isEmpty()|empty operands]].
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `AND` operator.
*
* This method is similar to [[andHaving()]]. The main difference is that this method will
* remove [[isEmpty()|empty query operands]]. As a result, this method is best suited
* for building query conditions based on filter values entered by users.
*
* @param array $condition the new HAVING condition. Please refer to [[having()]]
* on how to specify this parameter.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see filterHaving()
* @see orFilterHaving()
* @since 2.0.11
*/
public function andFilterHaving(array $condition)
{
$condition = $this->filterCondition($condition);
if ($condition !== []) {
$this->andHaving($condition);
}
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds an additional HAVING condition to the existing one but ignores [[isEmpty()|empty operands]].
* The new condition and the existing one will be joined using the `OR` operator.
*
* This method is similar to [[orHaving()]]. The main difference is that this method will
* remove [[isEmpty()|empty query operands]]. As a result, this method is best suited
* for building query conditions based on filter values entered by users.
*
* @param array $condition the new HAVING condition. Please refer to [[having()]]
* on how to specify this parameter.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see filterHaving()
* @see andFilterHaving()
* @since 2.0.11
*/
public function orFilterHaving(array $condition)
{
$condition = $this->filterCondition($condition);
if ($condition !== []) {
$this->orHaving($condition);
}
return $this;
}
/**
* Appends a SQL statement using UNION operator.
* @param string|Query $sql the SQL statement to be appended using UNION
* @param bool $all TRUE if using UNION ALL and FALSE if using UNION
* @return $this the query object itself
*/
public function union($sql, $all = false)
{
$this->union[] = ['query' => $sql, 'all' => $all];
return $this;
}
/**
* Sets the parameters to be bound to the query.
* @param array $params list of query parameter values indexed by parameter placeholders.
* For example, `[':name' => 'Dan', ':age' => 31]`.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see addParams()
*/
public function params($params)
{
$this->params = $params;
return $this;
}
/**
* Adds additional parameters to be bound to the query.
* @param array $params list of query parameter values indexed by parameter placeholders.
* For example, `[':name' => 'Dan', ':age' => 31]`.
* @return $this the query object itself
* @see params()
*/
public function addParams($params)
{
if (!empty($params)) {
if (empty($this->params)) {
$this->params = $params;
} else {
foreach ($params as $name => $value) {
if (is_int($name)) {
$this->params[] = $value;
} else {
$this->params[$name] = $value;
}
}
}
}
return $this;
}
/**
* Enables query cache for this Query.
* @param int|true $duration the number of seconds that query results can remain valid in cache.
* Use 0 to indicate that the cached data will never expire.
* Use a negative number to indicate that query cache should not be used.
* Use boolean `true` to indicate that [[Connection::queryCacheDuration]] should be used.
* Defaults to `true`.
* @param \yii\caching\Dependency $dependency the cache dependency associated with the cached result.
* @return $this the Query object itself
* @since 2.0.14
*/
public function cache($duration = true, $dependency = null)
{
$this->queryCacheDuration = $duration;
$this->queryCacheDependency = $dependency;
return $this;
}
/**
* Disables query cache for this Query.
* @return $this the Query object itself
* @since 2.0.14
*/
public function noCache()
{
$this->queryCacheDuration = -1;
return $this;
}
/**
* Sets $command cache, if this query has enabled caching.
*
* @param Command $command
* @return Command
* @since 2.0.14
*/
protected function setCommandCache($command)
{
if ($this->queryCacheDuration !== null || $this->queryCacheDependency !== null) {
$duration = $this->queryCacheDuration === true ? null : $this->queryCacheDuration;
$command->cache($duration, $this->queryCacheDependency);
}
return $command;
}
/**
* Creates a new Query object and copies its property values from an existing one.
* The properties being copies are the ones to be used by query builders.
* @param Query $from the source query object
* @return Query the new Query object
*/
public static function create($from)
{
return new self([
'where' => $from->where,
'limit' => $from->limit,
'offset' => $from->offset,
'orderBy' => $from->orderBy,
'indexBy' => $from->indexBy,
'select' => $from->select,
'selectOption' => $from->selectOption,
'distinct' => $from->distinct,
'from' => $from->from,
'groupBy' => $from->groupBy,
'join' => $from->join,
'having' => $from->having,
'union' => $from->union,
'params' => $from->params,
]);
}
/**
* Returns the SQL representation of Query
* @return string
*/
public function __toString()
{
return serialize($this);
}
}