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README.md

WordPress JS Plugin Starter

There's a lot of Tools, Starters, Boilerplate repositories to help you create WordPress Plugins... Most of them are great and I encourage you to use one of them if it fits your needs. However, using a boilerplate or scaffolding tool doesn't really teach you what's happening behind the scenes. This is where this repository comes in. It is another starter repository for a WordPress plugin focused on JavaScript extensibility (think Gutenberg blocks, plugin API, JavaScript heavy plugins), but, it has a second goal, a more important one, it tries to educate on the different configurations, setups, and low level tools used. It answers questions like:

  • How do I quickly setup a WordPress environment and how do I bake it into my plugin?
  • How do I define a WordPress Plugin?
  • How do I load a simple JavaScript script in WordPress?
  • How do I bundle my JavaScript files?
  • How do I use advanced JavaScript features like JSX?
  • How do I build a production-ready version of my plugin?

and more importantly

  • How does all this fit together?

How to follow the tutorial?

If you take a look at the commits of the repository, you'll notice that each commit is a step further in the making of the starter. Each commit corresponds to a chapter of this tutorial.

Steps

Step 1: WordPress environment

To build a plugin for WordPress, we obviously need a WordPress installation locally in order test it. There are multitude ways to start a WordPress environment out there, and again all of them are great alternatives. But for the purpose of this tutorial I chose to use Docker for the following reasons:

  • We can embed a docker-compose.yml file in the repository allowing anyone contributing to the plugin, to use the exact same environment.
  • Its config file (the docker-compose.yml) is "readable". You can open it and you'll get an idea how everything fits together.

For any WordPress installation we need a webserver and database server, by opening the docker-compose.yml file. You'll notice that we define these two services and we expose the webserver on http://localhost:8888.

It's not really important to master how docker works at the moment, just know that to start a local environment, first install Docker (there are binaries available for most platforms), launch it and then navigate to the folder of the plugin (the folder containing the docker-compose.yml file) in your terminal and run:

docker-compose up -d

Wait a few seconds and then you can now navigate into [http://localhost:8888](http://localhost:8888) in your favorite browser. You'll be prompted to install WordPress on your first access.

Note: It's not mandatory to use this specific WordPress environment for the next step of the tutorials but it's handy because the plugin will be automatically put in the wp-content/plugins folder of the WordPress install.

Go further

Step 2: Create a WordPress plugin

In this step we're going to bootstrap the WordPress plugin. To define a WordPress plugin, we only need a php file at the root level (we're calling it wp-js-plugin-starter.php ).

This file should contain some metadata about the plugin written as a a PHP comment: name, version, description and a few other fields.

And that's it, you can navigate now to the plugins page of your WordPress install. The plugin should be listed in the installed plugins. Activate it.

It does nothing for now, but it's still a WordPress plugin 😀.

Go further

Step 3: Loading JavaScript in WordPress

Since we're focused on JavaScript heavy plugins, let's continue by creating a simple JavaScript file src/index.js that just logs a message to the browser's console.

In WordPress, to load JavaScript files, we have to enqueue them using wp_enqueue_script. We can enqueue a specific file by providing its path directly but I encourage you to: first "register" your script by giving it a name, and then you need to enqueue it, you just use the script name to refer to it.

So, as an example, we updated the PHP file of the plugin to do two things:

  • Register the script on the WordPress init action.
  • Enqueue the script on the admin_enqueue_scripts action (this action ensures the script is enqueued in all WP-Admin pages).

Now, navigate to any WP Admin page, open your browser's console and you'll see the Start the engine! message displayed there which validates that our JavaScript file has been loaded properly.

Go further

Step 4: Bundling the JavaScript Files

To ship JavaScript into production properly, we need to take care of:

  • Making sure we load the minimum files possible per page to avoid a lot of initial requests. We can do this by bundling all the JavaScript files into a single built file.
  • Making sure we ship the smallest possible file to load the minimum Kbits possible in the browser. To achieve this, we need to minify the JavaScript files that will be shipped in production. But at the same time, we need to keep using the unminified files in development environments to ease debugging.

The JavaScript community has built tools called bundlers and minifiers to help with this process.

  • A bundler is a tool that takes a JavaScript entry point file relying on other JavaScript files using import or require, and bundles all these files together into a single JavaScript file. Bundlers can be more powerful than that, they can include non-JavaScript files (stylesheets, JSON, ...) into these bundles.
  • A minifier is a tool that takes a JavaScript file as an entry and tries to produce the smallest possible JavaScript file as an output by using different techniques: Removing space, mangling variable names, removing dead code...

The most popular tool at the moment in the JavaScript community that is used to perform such tasks is the Webpack bundler in combination with UglifyJS as a minifier. Webpack is a very powerful and flexible tool which sometimes plays against its learning curve. Configuring Webpack for the first time can be intimidating even for experienced developpers.

For this starter, we'll prefer to use Parcel Bundler, a young opinionated alternative to Webpack which is easier to understand if you're not familiar with all these concepts. It works without config by default and provides two important command lines:

  • parcel watch [entryPoint]: A command taking a JavaScript file as entry point and bundling all the dependencies into a dist folder producing an unminified bundle for developement purpose. It also updates the bundle each time change one of the files used in the bundle.
  • parcel build [entryPoint]: A command bundling the entryPoint and its dependencies into production-ready files.

But first, we need to install these tools we're going to use. In the JavaScript community, we do so by using npm, a package dependency manager for JavaScript (if you're more familiar with PHP, it's the composer of JavaScript). (Npm is automatically installed with NodeJS, so just grab the latest Node.JS binary and install it).

Similarily to most package dependency managers, we need to provide some basic informations in a config file called package.json: name, current version, license, keywords... This file can be generated automatically by running npm run init and replying to some simple questions about your package.

Once initialized, we can start defining and installing our dependencies (the packages we depend on). So we start by installing the Parcel bundler as a devDependency (a dependency useful when developping our current project but a dependency we don't ship in our production code). So we can just run npm install parcel-bundler --save-dev. Running this command updates the package.json file and adds the newly installed dependency to the devDependencies section of the file.

Installing the dependencies also creates or updates a package-lock.json file. This file ensures that other developpers working on the repository can install the correct versions of the dependencies by just running npm install on their own local repositories.

We're set, we installed the parcel bundler. We can use it to define some scripts to bundle our JavaScript file for developement and production. The package.json file allows us to define a scripts section where we can add shortcuts to the most used command lines while developping a project. So for instance, instead of having to run parcel build src/index.js each time we want to build a production version of our JavaScript files, we can define a build script in the package.json and just run npm run build.

At this point, we define our two scripts: the start script we're going to use when developping the plugin to automatically build a development version of the plugin and the build script. Try running npm start or npm run build and you'll notice that a bundle file index.js is created in the dist folder.

Last but not least, we need to update the registration of the WordPress script (achieved in the previous step) in the wp-js-plugin-started.php file and point the registered script to the built file dist/index.js instead of the source file we were using previously.

Nothing has really changed in the plugin's behavior, you can refresh WP-Admin, and check that the JavaScript file is still being executed properly. If you take a look the network tab of your browser's console, you'll notice that the JavaScript file is being loaded from the dist folder now.

From now on, for more complex plugin, you can start splitting your JavaScript source file into multiple files and use import to include those in your entry point.

Go further

Step 5: Babel, JSX and ESnext

One benefit of using parcel is that you can directly start using new JavaScript features (What is commonly called ESNext or ES2015+ features). Parcel will make sure they work in every browser that has 0.25% or more of the total amount of active web users. So for instance, you can start using Arrow Functions, const/let or destructuring.

Behind the scenes, parcel uses Babel to compile your ESnext JavaScript files into files compatible with all those browsers. Though, WordPress plugins need a modified version of the Babel config. The big differences with the default config used by parcel is that WordPress targets more browsers and allows the use of JSX to build UI using the @wordpress/element package.

What is JSX?

JSX is a special JavaScript syntax that ressembles HTML because its main purpose is to define "elements". Elements are special JavaScript objects that can get rendered into the DOM. This syntax was popularized by React and adapted by other JavaScript frameworks. WordPress uses an abstraction over React called wp.element.

So for instance when writing:

const myElement = <div className="test">content</div>

This is compiled by Babel (using the WordPress babel config) into:

var myElement = wp.element.createElement( 'div', { className: 'test' }, 'content' )

And to render this element into the body of your web page, you write:

wp.element.render( myElement, document.body )

Now let's configure Babel to use the config used by WordPress. This config is made available as an npm package you can install by running @wordpress/babel-preset-default --save-dev.

Now, we create a .babelrc file, which is the configuration file for Babel and we tell it to use @wordpress/default as a preset and that's it, we can now start using JSX.

As an example, in the commit we update our console.log to log an element instead of just a string. you can refresh your admin page and try for yourself.

Going further

Step 6: Gutenberg Block

At this stage everything is ready to start building complex JavaScript applications. As an example I updated the plugin to be a simple Gutenberg Block.

  • Registring the block server side with it's editor script
  • Updating the JavaScript file to register the block and use JSX to define its edit and save function.

You can try for yourself by navigating into Gutenberg and inserting the "Hello World" block.

Step 7: Package the plugin

In this last step, we're just adding a shell script we can run to create a zip file containing the prod version of the plugin. We include the PHP files and the built JS files (the dist folder). Source files can be left out of this zip. The zip file can be used to install the plugin in any WordPress installation or to submit the plugin to the WordPress repository.

I also added a small shortcut "script" to the package.json so we can just run: npm run package to package the zip file.